neural stem cells and adult neurogenesis

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Neural Stem Cells and Adult Neurogenesis
Author : Arie S. Mobley
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-03-15
ISBN 10 : 0128110147
Pages : 375 pages
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Neural Stem Cells and Adult Neurogenesis provides graduate students and neuroscientists with a basic understanding of what neural stem cells are and the cell types they produce. This early graduate level reference describes their physiology and potential for medicine and provides students with fundamental stem cell information. An overview of stem cell sources in the human body and a brief mention of relevant diseases provide context for the value of this knowledge. The book also includes chapters on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the methods used to obtain them, and a review of the ethical challenges associated with stem cell research. For each region, the book provides a description of its neurogenic niche, cellular and molecular biology, and information on the neurons' contribution to normal and diseased brain function. The level of information is appropriate for early graduate students, introducing technology and molecular biology in an accessible format. Provides a basic understanding of what a stem cell is, the different types, and their potential in health and research Details adult neurogenesis and its role in behavior, stroke and disease Includes walkthrough and technology boxes that illustrate experimental concepts, new approaches and techniques

Adult Neurogenesis
Author : Gerd Kempermann
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date : 2006
ISBN 10 : 9780195179712
Pages : 426 pages
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The discovery of adult neurogenesis and of stem cells in the brain has changed our view of the mature brain. Though we now know that the adult brain can make new neurons, it normally does so only in two privileged regions, the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Yet stem cells, which have the potential to produce new neurons, can be found throughout the adult brain. So why does the brain not make wider use of its potential for neurogenesis? And what is the function of new neurons and of neural stem cells in areas where they occur? After all, the brain regenerates poorly and many neurological and psychiatric disorders are chronic because cell replacement has not taken place. This is the first comprehensive, integrated account of one of the most exciting areas of neuroscience. It begins with the historical background and discusses theories of adult neurogenesis and neural stem cell biology in the context of learning and memory processes as well as structural plasticity. It describes in detail neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus and olfactory system and then surveys the regulatory, functional, and comparative aspects, concluding with a chapter on the provocative hypotheses that link failing adult neurogenesis with such diseases as temporal lobe epilepsy, major depression, brain tumors, and dementias. For graduate students, investigators, and clinicians in the neurosciences, developmental biology, and stem cell research, this book is a unique resource that sifts through the evidence for exciting scientific ideas and fosters a realistic view of the therapeutic possibilities for the use of stem cells in the adult brain.

Adult Neurogenesis and Neural Stem Cells in Mammals
Author : Philippe Taupin
Publisher : Nova Publishers
Release Date : 2006
ISBN 10 : 9781594548567
Pages : 208 pages
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This title contains a book and CD. The brain has a number of nerve cells estimated at a magnitude of 10 to 100 billion, and 1014 to 1015 synapses, and therefore is the most complex organ of the human body. During fetal development the foundations of the brain are laid as billions of neurons form appropriate connections and patterns. In the adult mammalian brain, most neurons are post-mitotic, and therefore at risk for irreversible damage. As we age, atrophy of the brain occurs. As brain weight declines the volume of the brain in the 8th decade is reduced by 6 per cent -10 per cent versus the third decade, and neuronal loss occurs, up to 10,000 to 100,000 neurons are lost per day, though this estimation is being revised downward with the advance of more sophisticated measurements.

Exam Prep for: Neural Stem Cells and Adult Neurogenesis
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date :
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Adult neurogenesis twenty years later: physiological function versus brain repair
Author : Paolo Peretto,Luca Bonfanti
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2015-05-01
ISBN 10 : 2889194949
Pages : 329 pages
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The discovery that mammalian brains contain neural stem cells which perform adult neurogenesis - the production and integration of new neurons into mature neural circuits - has provided a fully new vision of neural plasticity. On a theoretical basis, this achievement opened new perspectives for therapeutic approaches in restorative and regenerative neurology. Nevertheless, in spite of striking advancement concerning the molecular and cellular mechanisms which allow and regulate the neurogenic process, its exploitation in mammals for brain repair strategies remains unsolved. In non-mammalian vertebrates, adult neurogenesis also contributes to brain repair/regeneration. In mammals, neural stem cells do respond to pathological conditions in the so called "reactive neurogenesis", yet without substantial regenerative outcome. Why, even in the presence of stem cells in the brain, we lack an effective reparative outcome in terms of regenerative neurology, and which factors hamper the attainment of this goal? Essentially, what remains unanswered is the question whether (and how) physiological functions of adult neurogenesis in mammals can be exploited for brain repair purposes.

Adult Neurogenesis 2
Author : Gerd Kempermann, MD
Publisher : OUP USA
Release Date : 2011-02-17
ISBN 10 : 9780199729692
Pages : 668 pages
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The second edition Adult Neurogenesis 2 gives a comprehensive overview on this exciting and rapidly evolving topic. It includes research on adult neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons in the adult brain, changes how we look at neuropsychiatric disorders such as dementias and major depression as well as normal cognitive aging.

The Neurobiology of Olfaction
Author : Anna Menini
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2009-11-24
ISBN 10 : 9781420071993
Pages : 448 pages
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Comprehensive Overview of Advances in Olfaction The common belief is that human smell perception is much reduced compared with other mammals, so that whatever abilities are uncovered and investigated in animal research would have little significance for humans. However, new evidence from a variety of sources indicates this traditional view is likely overly simplistic. The Neurobiology of Olfaction provides a thorough analysis of the state-of-the-science in olfactory knowledge and research, reflecting the growing interest in the field. Authors from some of the most respected laboratories in the world explore various aspects of olfaction, including genetics, behavior, olfactory systems, odorant receptors, odor coding, and cortical activity. Until recently, almost all animal research in olfaction was carried out on orthonasal olfaction (inhalation). It is only in recent years, especially in human flavor research, that evidence has begun to be obtained regarding the importance of retronasal olfaction (exhalation). These studies are beginning to demonstrate that retronasal smell plays a large role to play in human behavior. Highlighting common principles among various species – including humans, insects, Xenopus laevis (African frog), and Caenorhabditis elegans (nematodes) – this highly interdisciplinary book contains chapters about the most recent discoveries in odor coding from the olfactory epithelium to cortical centers. It also covers neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. Each subject-specific chapter is written by a top researcher in the field and provides an extensive list of reviews and original articles for students and scientists interested in further readings.

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
Author : Philippe Taupin
Publisher : Nova Publishers
Release Date : 2008
ISBN 10 : 9781604564723
Pages : 164 pages
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The subject of this book is stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to differentiate into different lineages of the body. Stem cells carry tremendous potential for the treatment of a broad range of disease and injuries. Stem cells exist in embryonic, fetal, and adult tissues, including the adult central nervous system. This book aims at, in depth, the recent developments in stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Though this book encompasses all the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine, it emphasises adult neurogenesis and neural stem cell research and therapy.

Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus
Author : Juan J. Canales
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2016-05-23
ISBN 10 : 0128019921
Pages : 298 pages
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Neurogenesis in the adult brain has emerged as one of the most dynamic and rapidly moving fields in modern neuroscience research. The implications of adult neurogenesis for health and well-being are wide-ranging, with findings in this area having distinct relevance for treatment and rehabilitation in neurology and psychopathology. Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus addresses these implications by providing an up-to-date account on how neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus contributes to critical psychological and physiological processes, such as learning and memory, and how it is modified by life experiences, such as aging, environmental enrichment, exercise, and dieting. The book also provides the most current reviews of how adult hippocampal neurogenesis influences the pathogenesis of mood disorders, addiction, and key neurological disorders. This book is the ideal resource for researchers and advanced graduates seeking focused knowledge on the role of adult neurogenesis in brain health and disease. Provides a unique overview of how adult hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to adaptive processes, brain psychopathology, and disease Includes state-of-the-art reviews by leading world experts in adult neurogenesis

Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain I
Author : Tatsunori Seki,Kazunobu Sawamoto,Jack M. Parent,Arturo Alvarez-Buylla
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-06-15
ISBN 10 : 9784431539339
Pages : 413 pages
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The discovery of adult neurogenesis caused a paradigm shift in the neurosciences. For more than 100 years, it was believed that adult neurons do not regenerate. Joseph Altman and Fernando Nottebohm found proof to the contrary and changed the course of history. Their research, included here, provides the foundations of the field. Today, adult neurogenesis is a rapidly expanding discipline applicable to the study of brain development and diseases, learning and memory, aging, and neuropsychiatric disorders. With multiple authors, the 27 chapters of this book contain the latest work in two volumes. The first presents the basic biology of adult neurogenesis in non-mammalian vertebrates and in the mammalian hippocampus and olfactory bulb, and the second discusses clinical implications and delves into adult neurogenesis and brain injury as well as neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric pathologies. With details of the anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology of the two neurogenic brain regions, this book provides indispensable knowledge for many areas of neuroscience and for experimental and clinical applications of adult neurogenesis to brain therapy.

Neurobiology of Depression
Author : Francisco Lopez-Munoz,Cecilio Alamo
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2011-09-09
ISBN 10 : 143983850X
Pages : 526 pages
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Major depressive disorders have recently been associated with impairments in signaling pathways that regulate neuroplasticity and cell survival. Agents designed to directly target molecules in these pathways hold promise as new therapeutics for depression. With the collaboration of the most prestigious international specialists in biochemistry, molecular biology, genomics, psychiatry, psychology, and pharmacology, Neurobiology of Depression discusses the nature of the central nervous system circuits responsible for the modifications of neuronal functioning that lead to depression. The book begins by discussing animal, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological models of depression as well as neural foundations. It explores genetic factors that contribute to depression and describes the effect of monoaminergic systems in the central nervous system. Next, the book profiles the rise of psychopharmacology in the treatment of depression and the research into serotonin and monoamine reuptake inhibitors. It examines the role of the glutamatergic, endocannabinoid, and opioid systems in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, as well as the effect of biological rhythms on the human body. Later chapters review the role of CRF-related ligands, CRF receptors, HPA axis activity, and glucocorticoid receptors in the regulation of the stress response and depression. They also describe cytokine modulation of molecular mechanisms. They examine the role of neuropeptide Y, nitric oxide, beta-arrestins, BDNF, and phosphodiesterases, and discuss the use of tachykinin antagonists in treatment. Finally, they analyze the neurobiological basis for the development of new antidepressant agents. Exploring myriad aspects of a disease that plagues a large percentage of the population worldwide, this volume captures the state of the science of this debilitating disorder, facilitating further research and discovery.

Neural Stem Cells in Health and Disease
Author : Ashok K Shetty
Publisher : World Scientific Publishing Company
Release Date : 2015-08-28
ISBN 10 : 9814623199
Pages : 572 pages
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This book is a comprehensive guide on neural stem cell behavior in health and disease. The book confers the altered behavior of endogenous neural stem cells in neurodegenerative disease conditions and the prospects of neural stem cell therapy for alleviating brain dysfunction in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Neural stem cell activity and neurogenesis in the adult brain is now confirmed in virtually all mammalian species including humans. Hence, a series of chapters in the first half of the book discusses the current knowledge on mechanisms of neural stem cell activity, the extent and functional significance of neurogenesis in the adult brain under normal, aged and disease environments, the susceptibility of neural stem cells and the plasticity of neurogenesis to alcohol, drugs of abuse and anesthetic agents, and advanced techniques that trigger neurogenesis in non-neurogenic regions. A second series of chapters in this book are focused on discussing the promise and efficacy of grafting of neural stem cells and/or other stem cells for treating neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, temporal lobe epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease and spinal cord injury. The final chapter confers on advances that are made in manufacturing a variety of neural cell types from human pluripotent stem cells that can be used as donor cells for cell transplantation.

Stem Cells in Birth Defects Research and Developmental Toxicology
Author : Theodore P. Rasmussen
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2018-03-27
ISBN 10 : 1119283221
Pages : 368 pages
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This book contains material contributed by forward-looking scientists who work at the interface of stem cell research and applied science with the aim to improve human fetal safety and the understanding of human developmental and degenerative disorders. Provides important platforms and contemporary accounts of the state of stem cell research in the fields of toxicology and teratology Considers both in vitro uses of stem cells as platforms for teratology and also stem cellopathies, which are in vivo developmental and degenerative disorders Helps the pharmaceutical industry and safety and environmental authorities validate the status quo of in vitro toxicity test systems based on human pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives

Brain Aging
Author : David R. Riddle
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2007-04-19
ISBN 10 : 9781420005523
Pages : 408 pages
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Recognition that aging is not the accumulation of disease, but rather comprises fundamental biological processes that are amenable to experimental study, is the basis for the recent growth of experimental biogerontology. As increasingly sophisticated studies provide greater understanding of what occurs in the aging brain and how these changes occur

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
Author : Philippe Taupin
Publisher : Nova Publishers
Release Date : 2008
ISBN 10 : 9781604564723
Pages : 164 pages
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The subject of this book is stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to differentiate into different lineages of the body. Stem cells carry tremendous potential for the treatment of a broad range of disease and injuries. Stem cells exist in embryonic, fetal, and adult tissues, including the adult central nervous system. This book aims at, in depth, the recent developments in stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Though this book encompasses all the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine, it emphasises adult neurogenesis and neural stem cell research and therapy.

Neurogenesis and Neural Plasticity
Author : Catherine Belzung,Peter Wigmore
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2014-07-08
ISBN 10 : 364236232X
Pages : 401 pages
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This volume brings together authors working on a wide range of topics to provide an up to date account of the underlying mechanisms and functions of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in the adult brain. With an increasing understanding of the role of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis it is possible to envisage improvements or novel treatments for a number of diseases and the possibility of harnessing these phenomena to reduce the impact of ageing and to provide mechanisms to repair the brain.

50th Anniversary of Adult Neurogenesis: Olfaction, Hippocampus and beyond
Author : Alino Martinez-Marcos,José L.Trejo,Laura López-Mascaraque
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2016-09-21
ISBN 10 : 2889199630
Pages : 329 pages
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In the mid-sixties, the discovery by Altman and co-workers of neurogenesis in the adult brain changed the previous conception of the immutability of this organ during adulthood sustained among others by Cajal. This discovery was ignored up to eighty’s when Nottebohm demonstrated neurogenesis in birds. Subsequently, two main neurogenic zones were characterized: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus. Half century later, the exact role of new neurons in the adult brain is not completely understand. This book is composed by a number of articles by leaders in the filed covering from an historic perspective to potential therapeutic opportunities.

Adult Stem Cell Niches
Author : Sabine Wislet
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2014-08-01
ISBN 10 : 9535117181
Pages : 330 pages
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Tissue-specific stem cells have the capacity to self-renew and differentiate into several types of functional cells that replenish lost cells throughout an organism?s lifetime. Studies on stem cells from diverse systems have shown that stem cell function is controlled by extracellular cues from the niche and by intrinsic genetic programs within the stem cell. The objectives of this book would be to review the molecular mechanisms that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of the organisms. Likewise, niches have also been linked to pathologies, by imposing aberrant function on stem cells or other targets. Therefore, the second objective of this book would be to highligh the molecular dysregulation of niche biology leading to the disease. The third objective would be to review the therapeutical targets described within stem cell niches.

Comprehensive Human Physiology
Author : Rainer Greger,Uwe Windhorst
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-11-11
ISBN 10 : 3642609465
Pages : 2529 pages
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Comprehensive Human Physiology is a significantly important publication on physiology, presenting state-of-the-art knowledge about both the molecular mechanisms and the integrative regulation of body functions. This is the first time that such a broad range of perspectives on physiology have been combined to provide a unified overview of the field. This groundbreaking two-volume set reveals human physiology to be a highly dynamic science rooted in the ever-continuing process of learning more about life. Each chapter contains a wealth of original data, clear illustrations, and extensive references, making this a valuable and easy-to-use reference. This is the quintessential reference work in the fields of physiology and pathophysiology, essential reading for researchers, lecturers and advanced students.

The Hippocampus
Author : Ales Stuchlik
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-07-11
ISBN 10 : 1789233569
Pages : 178 pages
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The hippocampus is an important brain region, a true central hub for memory of various kinds and other processes. Neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, drug addiction, and schizophrenia are characterized by hippocampal alterations. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is a site exhibiting adult neurogenesis. This book covers the topic of the hippocampus from various perspectives. It discusses adult neurogenesis, effect of enriched environments on hippocampal plasticity, and long-term potentiation-associated gene expression. The book also addresses multiscale representations of complex environments and strategies in the hippocampus-dependent spatial tasks. Finally, insight into the hippocampus as a link between negative affect and relapse to psychostimulants is provided. The book collects evidence of various hippocampal functions in healthy and disordered brain.