Natural Hosts of SIV: Implications in AIDS thoroughly reviews the possible mechanisms by which African nonhuman primate natural hosts of lentiviruses remain essentially disease-free while other hosts exhibit disease and death. The book ultimately indicates directions for further research and potential translations of this compelling phenomenon into novel approaches to treat and prevent HIV. When Asian non-human primate non-natural hosts are experimentally infected with viruses isolated from African species, disease and death normally results. Meanwhile, these African nonhuman primate natural hosts maintain similar levels of plasma and cellular viremia and exhibit compellingly different, essentially disease-free, states. This work attempts to answer the question of how the natural host remains disease resistant. Summarizes the past 30 years of research in this field and describes the latest developments in AIDS research using nonhuman primate animal models Provides insights into how this large body of scientific work can be translated into novel approaches to treat and prevent HIV Highlights the areas that merit future pursuit, focusing on potential applications for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection
"As a model for viral evolution, this book is a gold mine." -- European Molecular Biology Organization Reports
A successful vaccine for the prevention and/or immunotherapy against HIV/AIDS is one of the prominent challenges of the 21st century. To date, all human vaccine trials against this virus/disease have resulted in failure, or at best have shown very low efficacy. The scientific community dealing with HIV/AIDS has unanimously proposed a focus on basic science, with the intention of identifying correlates of protection that can serve as guides in developing and evaluating vaccine preparation. However, Nature seems to have already found several ways of dealing with infections by HIV and related primate lentiviruses, either by resisting infection or, once infected, avoiding immune damage and immunodeficiency. Models of Protection Against HIV/SIV will allow for an in-depth reflection on the perspectives for vaccine and therapy research derived from important recent studies. It will be authored by some of the most well known specialists in the field of HIV resistance/protection: including F. Barré-Sinoussi (2008 Nobel Prize for Medicine winner), B. Walker, S. Rowland-Jones, A. Telenti, M. Lederman and F. Plummer. This book is structured in a unique way, looking at three models of resistance/protection separately and then comparing the models against one another to provide its readership with a detailed examination of the research that is most predominant in the search for a vaccine. This structure presents the information in an easy-to-understand format and gives the book a cross-discipline appeal -- an important reference for those in the scientific community, medical care, public health and academia alike. Provides extensive descriptions and comparisons on the different models of protection agains HIV/AIDS Comprehensive writing and illustrations Contributors are among the most eminent specialists in the field
Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus is characterized by the destruction of the host immune system as also reflected by a progressive loss of CD4-positive T-cells. This finally results in the host's incapacity to deal with opportunistic infections and the immune surveillance of tumors, a clinical status known as the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The book AIDS Pathogenesis provides the reader with a complete overview of the clinical course of HIV-1 infection. It describes the clinical aspects of primary infection, the different clinical outcomes of HIV-1 infection, and strategies for anti-viral treatment. In addition, more fundamental aspects of HIV-1 infection are reviewed. These include the biology of the virus and the novel insights in AIDS pathogenesis. Not only is the significance of an HIV-specific cellular and humoral immune response discussed, but also the possible incapacity of the adult human host to deal with T-cell destruction. Finally, the book discusses the currently used laboratory markers that allow for monitoring of the clinical course of infection.
For the first time, the world’s experts in HIV-AIDS have come together to publish the Encyclopedia of AIDS. The work features over 4000 A-Z entries including medical, cultural, social, and pharmacological essays. The Pathology entries cover the various types of HIV-related illnesses, including those that are and are not AIDS-defining. Many of the conditions that are AIDS-defining illnesses have their own entries or are cross-referenced to a generic entry in which several related conditions are discussed (such as enteric diseases and fungal infections). Typically, the treatment of any given form of pathology is briefly discussed in the entry that covers that illness. The reference is a must-read for Infectious Disease specialists, Immunologists, Public Health researchers, Virologists, Microbiologists, Pharmacologists, and Physicians.
|Author||: David Quammen|
|Publisher||: W. W. Norton & Company|
|Release Date||: 2015-02-16|
|ISBN 10||: 0393350851|
|Pages||: 144 pages|
In this "frightening and fascinating masterpiece" (Walter Isaacson), David Quammen explores the true origins of HIV/AIDS. The real story of AIDS—how it originated with a virus in a chimpanzee, jumped to one human, and then infected more than 60 million people—is very different from what most of us think we know. Recent research has revealed dark surprises and yielded a radically new scenario of how AIDS began and spread. Excerpted and adapted from the book Spillover, with a new introduction by the author, Quammen's hair-raising investigation tracks the virus from chimp populations in the jungles of southeastern Cameroon to laboratories across the globe, as he unravels the mysteries of when, where, and under what circumstances such a consequential "spillover" can happen. An audacious search for answers amid more than a century of data, The Chimp and the River tells the haunting tale of one of the most devastating pandemics of our time.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Committee on Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2003-07-13|
|ISBN 10||: 030908914X|
|Pages||: 180 pages|
The field of occupational health and safety constantly changes, especially as it pertains to biomedical research. New infectious hazards are of particular importance at nonhuman-primate facilities. For example, the discovery that B virus can be transmitted via a splash on a mucous membrane raises new concerns that must be addressed, as does the discovery of the Reston strain of Ebola virus in import quarantine facilities in the U.S. The risk of such infectious hazards is best managed through a flexible and comprehensive Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) that can identify and mitigate potential hazards. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates is intended as a reference for vivarium managers, veterinarians, researchers, safety professionals, and others who are involved in developing or implementing an OHSP that deals with nonhuman primates. The book lists the important features of an OHSP and provides the tools necessary for informed decision-making in developing an optimal program that meets all particular institutional needs.
By joining phylogenetics and evolutionary ecology, this book explores the patterns of parasite diversity while revealing diversification processes.
Living across Africa and the Caribbean, this widely dispersed primate population must adapt to different environmental challenges. How do members of the genus Chlorocebus live in desert-like conditions and in areas with freezing temperatures and snow in winter? This book examines the ways these primates adapt genetically, hormonally, physically and behaviourally to their changing landscapes. It features summary chapters for major topics such as behavioural ecology, life history, taxonomy, genetics and ethnoprimatology. Shorter essays supplement the work, with experts detailing their particular research on these primates. The combination of scholarship provides both a comprehensive view of this adaptable genus while enabling the reader to gain depth in specific topics. Developed from a symposium, this book combines decades of experience working with savanna monkeys into a tangible resource, for students and researchers in primatology as well as evolutionary and behavioural studies.
For over 25 years the study of retroviruses has underpinned much of what is known about information transfer in cells and the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that underlie cell growth and cancer induction. Emergent diseases such as AIDS and adult T-cell lymphoma have widened even further the community of investigators directly concerned with retroviruses, a development that has highlighted the need for an integrated understanding of their biology and their unique association with host genomes. This remarkable volume satisfies that need. Written by a group of the field's most distinguished investigators, rigorously edited to provide a seamless narrative, and elegantly designed for clarity and readability, this book is an instant classic that demands attention from scientists and physicians studying retroviruses and the disorders in which they play a role.
Leading AIDS researcher Jaap Goudsmit illuminates the origins and nature of the world's most lethal epidemic. Goudsmit takes us on a journey from the African rainforest to ancient Egypt to pioneering research labs in the U.S. and Europe. Impeccably researched, VIRAL SEX instills readers with a new sense of the urgent need to contain HIV and other similarly lethal viruses. Illustrated.
|Author||: SivToveKulbrandstad Walker|
|Release Date||: 2017-07-05|
|ISBN 10||: 135154912X|
|Pages||: 276 pages|
Employing a wide range of approaches from various disciplines, contributors to this volume explore the diverse ways in which European art and cultural practice from the fourteenth through the seventeenth centuries confronted, interpreted, represented and evoked the realm of the sensual. Sense and the Senses in Early Modern Art and Cultural Practice investigates how the faculties of sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell were made to perform in a range of guises in early modern cultural practice: as agents of indulgence and pleasure, as bearers of information on material reality, as mediators between the mind and the outer world, and even as intercessors between humans and the divine. The volume examines not only aspects of the arts of painting and sculpture but also extends into other spheres: philosophy, music and poetry, gardens, food, relics and rituals. Collectively, the essays gathered here form a survey of key debates and practices attached to the theme of the senses in Renaissance and Baroque art and cultural practice.