Nanostructured Photocatalysts: From Materials to Applications in Solar Fuels and Environmental Remediation addresses the different properties of nanomaterials-based heterogeneous photocatalysis. Heterogeneous nanostructured photocatalysis represents an interesting and viable technique to address issues of climate change and global energy supply. Sustainable hydrogen (H2) fuel production from water via semiconductor photocatalysis, driven by solar energy, is regarded as a viable and sustainable solution to address increasing energy and environmental issues. Similarly, photocatalytic reduction of CO2 with water for the production of hydrocarbons could also be a viable solution. Sections cover band gap tuning, high surface area, the short diffusion path of carriers, and more. Introduces the utilization of nanostructured materials in heterogeneous photocatalysis for hydrogen fuel production via water splitting Explains preparation techniques for different nanomaterials and hybrid nanocomposites, enabling improved sunlight absorption efficiency and enhanced charge separation Assesses the challenges that need to be addressed before this technology can be practically implemented, particularly of identifying cost-effective nanophotocatalysts
While books on semiconductor TiO2 photocatalysis are legion, nanostructured controlled photocatalysts are attractive beyond standard semiconductors, and this book is devoted to the many novel uses of advanced TiO2 and MOF-based photocatalysts. Details on synthesis, characterization, and reaction applications of nanostructured photocatalysts are summarized. Other new materials discussed in this book are Bi- W- oxides, metal complexes, and unique porous materials. This book contains methods of preparation and characterization of unique nanostructured photocatalysts, and details about their catalytic action. Contributors to this volume are leading Asian researchers in Photocatalysis. It will appeal to researchers wishing to know how to design new types of photocatalysts with controlled nanostructures.
Nanostructured Photocatalysts: From Fundamental to Practical Applications offers a good opportunity for academic, industrial researchers, engineers to gain insights on the fundamental principles and updated knowledge on the engineering aspects and various practical applications of photocatalysis. This book comprehensively and systematically reviews photocatalytic fundamental aspects ranging from reaction mechanism, kinetic modelling, nano-catalyst synthesis and design, essential material characterization using advanced techniques as well as novel reactor design and scale-up. The future perspectives, techno-economical evaluation and life-cycle assessment of photocatalytic processes are also provided in this book. In addition, a wide range of practical, important and emerging photocatalytic applications, namely, wastewater treatment, air pollution remediation, renewable and green energy generation as well as vital chemicals production is thoroughly offered in this book. Thus, this book would be interesting, useful and beneficial for engineers, scientists, academic researchers, undergraduates and postgraduates in their studies, research and development as well as industrial applications. Provides fundamental understanding of photocatalysis Covers all aspects of recent developments in photocatalytic processes and photocatalytic materials Focuses on advanced photocatalytic applications and future research advancements on energy, environment, biomedical, and other specialty fields Contains contributions from leading international experts in photocatalysis Presents a valuable reference for academic and industrial researchers, scientists, engineers
|Author||: Raju Kumar Gupta,Mrinmoy Misra|
|Release Date||: 2017-04-28|
|ISBN 10||: 0128124458|
|Pages||: 218 pages|
Metal Semiconductor Core-Shell Nanostructures for Energy and Environmental Applications provides a concise, scholarly overview of current research into the characterization of metal semiconductor core-shell nanostructures; the book shows how their properties can be best used in energy and environmental applications, particularly for solar cell and catalysis application. Coverage is also given to the effect of metal nanoparticle for charge generation or charge separation. The book is a valuable resource for academic researchers working in the areas of nanotechnology, sustainable energy and chemical engineering, and is also of great use to engineers working in photovoltaic and pollution industries. Includes a clear method for synthesis of core-shell nanomaterials Explores how metal semiconductor core-shell nanostructures can be used to improve the efficiency of solar cells Explains how the characteristics of metal semiconductor core-shell nanostructures make them particularly useful for sustainable energy and environmental applications
A comprehensive and timely overview of this important and hot topic, with special emphasis placed on environmental applications and the potential for solar light harvesting. Following introductory chapters on environmental photocatalysis, water splitting, and applications in synthetic chemistry, further chapters focus on the synthesis and design of photocatalysts, solar energy conversion, and such environmental aspects as the removal of water pollutants, photocatalytic conversion of CO2. Besides metal oxide-based photocatalysts, the authors cover other relevant material classes including carbon-based nanomaterials and novel hybrid materials. Chapters on mechanistic aspects, computational modeling of photocatalysis and Challenges and perspectives of solar reactor design for industrial applications complete this unique survey of the subject. With its in-depth discussions ranging from a comprehensive understanding to the engineering of materials and applied devices, this is an invaluable resource for a range of disciplines.
This book discusses fundamentals of nanostructured ceramics involving functional, structural and high temperature materials. It provides both solved numerical problems and unsolved problems to enable the reader to envisage the correlation between synthesis process and properties in the perspective of new material development. It serves as a concise text to answer the basics and achieve research goals for academia and industry. Key Features Deals with basic strategy on data interpretation for nanostructured ceramics Proposes to bridge the gap between the nano and bulk properties of nanostructured ceramics Discusses brief schematics and equations to understand the different properties of nano to bulk ceramics Presents mode of data acquisition and interpretation through statistical module and solved numerical Includes unsolved numericals based on properties, data acquisition and interpretation
|Author||: Sergio Gonzalez-cortes|
|Publisher||: World Scientific|
|Release Date||: 2020-10-23|
|ISBN 10||: 1786348713|
|Pages||: 268 pages|
The term 'green chemistry' was coined by Anastas and Warner in the early 1990s and it is nowadays the mainstay of designing and implementing advanced chemical processes that decrease or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances whilst minimizing energy consumption.Solution Combustion Synthesis of Nanostructured Solid Catalysts for Sustainable Chemistry is an interdisciplinary collection of fundamental and applied cutting-edge studies which highlight general and specific aspects of the synthesis of nanostructured catalysts through Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS), studying their applications from the perspective of green chemistry.This book intends to integrate the fundamental principles of the SCS process with its engineering aspects and covers the synthesis of a wide variety of catalytic materials. This reference book can be used as a permanent consulting material for students, researchers and the general readership for green chemistry, nanochemistry, materials science and chemical engineering.
This volume will present critical and comphrehensive reviews examining the latest research and developments in nanoscience in accessible articles. Quantum dot synthesis, soft lithography and graphene will feature in the debut volume, along with perspectives on research in China and India.
|Author||: Rajesh J. Tayade|
|Publisher||: Trans Tech Publications Ltd|
|Release Date||: 2016-05-19|
|ISBN 10||: 3035730210|
|Pages||: 180 pages|
This special topic volume on Photocatalytic Materials and Surfaces for Environmental Cleanup IV addresses photocatalysis in wide sense focus on the environmental applications of photocatalytic materials. Photocatalytic materials had been widely studied for the various applications such as water and air purification, CO2 reduction, hydrogen generation, and development of auto-cleaning surfaces etc. The present special topic volume covers the application of various photocatalytic materials for CO2 reduction, hydrogen generation, removal of pesticides, degradation of organic pollutant and recent development in the fabrication of photocatalytic reactors.
From the Introduction: Nanotechnology and its underpinning sciences are progressing with unprecedented rapidity. With technical advances in a variety of nanoscale fabrication and manipulation technologies, the whole topical area is maturing into a vibrant field that is generating new scientific research and a burgeoning range of commercial applications, with an annual market already at the trillion dollar threshold. The means of fabricating and controlling matter on the nanoscale afford striking and unprecedented opportunities to exploit a variety of exotic phenomena such as quantum, nanophotonic and nanoelectromechanical effects. Moreover, researchers are elucidating new perspectives on the electronic and optical properties of matter because of the way that nanoscale materials bridge the disparate theories describing molecules and bulk matter. Surface phenomena also gain a greatly increased significance; even the well-known link between chemical reactivity and surface-to-volume ratio becomes a major determinant of physical properties, when it operates over nanoscale dimensions. Against this background, this comprehensive work is designed to address the need for a dynamic, authoritative and readily accessible source of information, capturing the full breadth of the subject. Its six volumes, covering a broad spectrum of disciplines including material sciences, chemistry, physics and life sciences, have been written and edited by an outstanding team of international experts. Addressing an extensive, cross-disciplinary audience, each chapter aims to cover key developments in a scholarly, readable and critical style, providing an indispensible first point of entry to the literature for scientists and technologists from interdisciplinary fields. The work focuses on the major classes of nanomaterials in terms of their synthesis, structure and applications, reviewing nanomaterials and their respective technologies in well-structured and comprehensive articles with extensive cross-references. It has been a constant surprise and delight to have found, amongst the rapidly escalating number who work in nanoscience and technology, so many highly esteemed authors willing to contribute. Sharing our anticipation of a major addition to the literature, they have also captured the excitement of the field itself in each carefully crafted chapter. Along with our painstaking and meticulous volume editors, full credit for the success of this enterprise must go to these individuals, together with our thanks for (largely) adhering to the given deadlines. Lastly, we record our sincere thanks and appreciation for the skills and professionalism of the numerous Elsevier staff who have been involved in this project, notably Fiona Geraghty, Megan Palmer and Greg Harris, and especially Donna De Weerd-Wilson who has steered it through from its inception. We have greatly enjoyed working with them all, as we have with each other.
An overview of the recent developments and prospects in this highly topical area, covering the synthesis, characterization, properties and applications of hierarchical nanostructured materials. The book concentrates on those materials relevant for research and development in the fields of energy, biomedicine and environmental protection, with a strong focus on 3D materials based on nanocarbons, mesoporous silicates, hydroxides, core-shell particles and helical nanostructures. Thanks to its clear concept and application-oriented approach, this is an essential reference for experienced researchers and newcomers to the field alike.
|Author||: Pardeep Singh,Anwesha Borthakur,P.K. Mishra,Dhanesh Tiwary|
|Release Date||: 2019-12-02|
|ISBN 10||: 0128185996|
|Pages||: 430 pages|
Nano-Materials as Photocatalysts for Degradation of Environmental Pollutants: Challenges and Possibilities contains both practical and theoretical aspects of environmental management using the processes of photodegradation and various heterogeneous catalysts. The book's main focus is on the degradation of harmful pollutants, such as petrochemicals, crude oils, dyes, xenobiotic pharmaceutical waste, endocrine disrupting compounds, and other common pollutants. Chapters incorporate both theoretical and practical aspects. This book is useful for undergraduate or university students, teachers and researchers, especially those working in areas of photocatalysis through heterogeneous catalysts. The primary audience for this book includes Chemical Engineers, Environmental Engineers and scientists, scholars working on the management of hazardous waste, scientists working in fields of materials science, and Civil Engineers working on wastewater treatment. Reviews recent trends in the photodegradation of organic pollutants Offers a bibliometric analysis of photocatalysis for environmental abatement Includes many degradation mechanisms of organic pollutants using various catalysts Includes examples on the degradation of organic pollutants from various sources, e.g., pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, etc. Discusses the effect of nanocatalysts on soil, plants and the ecosystem
|Author||: Jiarui Wang|
|Release Date||: 2015|
|ISBN 10||: 9781339543994|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Solar energy is a promising sustainable energy source to reduce greenhouse gas emission from combustion of fossil fuels and slow down the global climate change. Solar hydrogen generation via photocatalytic water splitting is potentially the most cost-effective way to produce solar fuels, so the development of efficient photocatalysts is one of the most important targets for scientific research. However, the application of inorganic materials for solar water splitting is currently limited by our understanding of photochemical charge transfer on the nanoscale, where space charge layers are less effective for carrier separation. Therefore, this dissertation focuses on the preparation of well-defined photocatalysts for the water splitting reaction and on the characterization of photochemical charge transfer on their interfaces. This will be accomplished through the application of surface photovoltage and photoelectrochemical measurements, and with photocatalytic reactivity tests. Results from this study can guide the design of inorganic photocatalysts with improved efficiency for solar energy conversion into fuel. Chapter 2 describes surface photovoltage spectroscopy studies to measure the internal photovoltages in a hydrogen evolution photocatalyst, single crystalline platinum/ruthenium-modified Rh-doped SrTiO3 nanocrystals. Voltages of -0.88 V and -1.13 V are found between the light absorber and the Ru and Pt cocatalysts, respectively, and a voltage of -1.48 V for a Rh-doped SrTiO3 film on an Au substrate. The voltages shows that the Pt and Ru cocatalysts not only improve the redox kinetics but also aid charge separation in the absorber. The voltages with redox agents correlate well with the photocatalytic performance of the catalyst and are influenced by the built-in potentials of the donor-acceptor configurations, the physical separation of donors and acceptors, and the reversibility of the redox reaction. The photovoltage data also allow the identification of a photosynthetic system for hydrogen evolution (80 [mu]mol·g−11h−1) under visible light illumination (>400 nm) from 0.05 M aqueous K4[Fe(CN)6]. Chapter 3 shows that suspended p-Si nanowires obtained by etching of an Al-doped silicon wafer facilitate photochemical hydrogen evolution under visible light. The activity varies greatly between sacrificial donors and can be increased by attachment of MoS2 cocatalysts, which promote proton reduction and charge transfer at the silicon-MoS2 interface. Overall, the activity of suspended p-Si nanorods is limited by the stability of the material in neutral solutions. A basic or neutral environment with photo-excitation can lead to silicon corrosion. In 0.05 M ferrocyanide at pH 6.5, the hydrogen evolution rate for SiNW/MoS2 was as high as 106 [mu]mol (10mg)−1 h−1 accompanied by silicon corrosion. The rate without corrosion decreased to 0.64 [mu]mol (10mg)−1 h−1 at a lower pH of 4.7. With silicon corrosion, the rate also reached 117 [mu]mol (10mg)−1 h−1 in pH 6.5 0.05 M Na2SO3 solution and 678 [mu]mol (10mg)−1 h−1 in 0.1 M NaSH without pH control. Silicon corrosion was not found in formaldehyde and methanol solutions, but the rates of SiNW/MoS2 and SiNW were as low as 0.40 and 0.18 [mu]mol (10mg)−1 h−1 for methanol solution, and 0.71 and 0.27 [mu]mol (10mg)−1 h−1 for formaldehyde solution. The increased hydrogen evolution with silicon corrosion can be attributed to both electron donating of silicon and reduced charge transfer resistivity with the dissolution of surface oxide layer on silicon nanowires. These findings can improve the understanding of photochemistry of Si-MoS2 catalyst, and help avoiding silicon corrosion in photocatalysis.
Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Materials: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications presents the latest fabrication, properties, and applications of hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials in two sections-powders and arrays. After a general introduction to hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials, the first section begins with a detailed
|Author||: Rajendra Pawar,Caroline Sunyong Lee|
|Publisher||: William Andrew|
|Release Date||: 2015-04-29|
|ISBN 10||: 0323393136|
|Pages||: 110 pages|
In Heterogeneous Nanocomposite-Photocatalysis for Water Purification, the authors introduce various heterogeneous photocatalysts based on novel nanostructures of metal oxide semiconductors and graphene used for water purification, including TiO2, Fe2O3, SnO2, WO3 and g-C3N4, and outlines their advantages and drawbacks. The nanocomposite-photocatalysts ZnO and CdS are compared with reduced graphene oxide (rGO), a rapidly growing materials system. The authors describe how the photocatalytic activity of known nanomaterials can be improved by modifying the structural and optical properties (i.e., phase composition). Introductory portion of the book includes a brief survey of all different kinds of heterogeneous photocatalysts Discusses the possible photocatalysis mechanism occurring during the degradation of different toxic pollutants Provides the photoelectrochemical measurement for synthesized catalysts, supporting the effective transportation of photoelectrons resulting into better catalytic properties
Photocatalysis is a hot topic because it is an environmentally friendly approach toward the conversion of light energy into chemical energy at mild reaction environments. Also, it is well applied in several major areas such as water splitting, bacterial inactivation, and pollutants elimination, which is a possible solution to energy shortage and environmental issues. The fundamental knowledge and the frontier research progress in typical photocatalytic materials, such as TiO2-based and non-TiO2-based photocatalysts, are included in this book. Methods to improve the photocatalytic efficiency and to provide a hint for the rational design of the new photocatalysts are covered.
A collection of papers from The American Ceramic Society s 32nd International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, held in Daytona Beach, Florida, January 27-February 1, 2008. Topics include basic and applied research in nanomaterials such as synthesis, functionalization, processing, and characterization; structure-property correlations; bio- and magnetic nanomaterials; nanostructured materials for chemical mechanical planarization, display, health, and cosmetic applications; nanotubes and nanowires; and industrial development.
With increasing demand for hygienic, self-disinfecting and contamination free surfaces, interest in developing self-cleaning protective materials and surfaces has grown rapidly in recent times. This new title comprises of invited chapters from renowned researchers in the area of self-cleaning nano-coatings and the result is a comprehensive review of current research on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic (photocatalytic effect) self-cleaning materials.
|Author||: Muhammad Bilal Tahir,Muhammad Rafique,Muhammad Shahid Rafique|
|Release Date||: 2020-07-14|
|ISBN 10||: 0128211970|
|Pages||: 244 pages|
Nanotechnology and Photocatalysis for Environmental Applications focuses on nanostructured control, synthesis methods, activity enhancement strategies, environmental applications, and perspectives of semiconductor-based nanostructures. The book offers future guidelines for designing new semiconductor-based photocatalysts, with low cost and high efficiency, for a range of products aimed at environmental protection. The book covers the fundamentals of nanotechnology, the synthesis of nanotechnology, and the use of metal oxide, metal sulfide, and carbon-based nanomaterials in photocatalysis. The book also discusses the major challenges of using photocatalytic nanomaterials on a broad scale. The book then explores how photocatalytic nanomaterials and nanocomposites are being used for sustainable development applications, including environmental protection, pharmaceuticals, and air purification. The final chapter considers the recent advances in the field and outlines future perspectives on the technology. This is an important reference for materials scientists, chemical engineers, energy scientists, and anyone looking to understand more about the photocatalytic potential of nanomaterials, and their possible environmental applications. Explains why the properties of semiconductor-based nanomaterials make them particularly good for environmental applications Explores how photocatalytic nanomaterials and nanocomposites are being used for sustainable development applications, including environmental protection, pharmaceuticals, and air purification Discusses the major challenges of using photocatalytic nanomaterials on a broad scale
Semiconductors for Photocatalysis, Volume 97 covers the latest breakthrough research and exciting developments in semiconductor photocatalysts and electrodes for water splitting and CO2 reduction. It includes a broad range of materials such as metal-oxides, metal-nitrides, silicon, III-V semiconductors, and the emerging layered compounds. New to this volume are chapters covering the Fundamentals of Semiconductor Photoelectrodes, Charge Carrier Dynamics in Metal Oxide Photoelectrodes for Water Oxidation, Photophysics and Photochemistry at the Semiconductor/Electrolyte Interface for Solar Water Splitting, V Semiconductor Photoelectrodes, III-Nitride Semiconductor Photoelectrodes, and Rare Earth Containing Materials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Applications. In addition, the design and modeling of photocatalysts and photoelectrodes and the fundamental mechanisms of water splitting and CO2 reduction is also discussed. Features the latest breakthroughs and research and development in semiconductor photocatalysis, solar fuels, and artificial photosynthesis Covers a broad range of topics, including a wide variety of materials and many important aspects of solar fuels Includes in-depth discussions on materials design, growth and synthesis, engineering, characterization, and photoelectrochemical studies