nanomaterials for the detection and removal of wastewater pollutants

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Nanomaterials for the Detection and Removal of Wastewater Pollutants
Author : Barbara Bonelli,Francesca S. Freyria,Ilenia Rossetti,Rajandrea Sethi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2020-06-12
ISBN 10 : 0128184906
Pages : 480 pages
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Nanomaterials for the Detection and Removal of Wastewater Pollutants assesses the role of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in improving both the detection and removal of inorganic and organic contaminants from wastewater that originates from municipal and industrial plants. The book covers how nanotechnology is being used to remove common contaminants, including dyes, chlorinated solvents, nitrites/nitrates, and emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides. Sections cover nanofiltration, adsorption and remediation. Nanomaterial immobilization recovery is also addressed, along with the quantification of heat/mass transport limitations, sizing aspects and transport phenomena. Finally, regulatory aspects regarding contaminants and nanoparticles in the environment are covered. This book is an important resource for both materials scientists and environmental scientists looking to see how nanotechnology can play a role in making wastewater a less hazardous part of the global ecosystem. Addresses the role of new nanotechnology-based solutions for the detection and removal of common and emerging contaminants Discusses the environmental impact of nanoparticles used in wastewater contaminant detection and removal Explores the major challenges for using nanomaterials to detect and remove contaminants from wastewater

Advanced Nanomaterials for Wastewater Remediation
Author : Ravindra Kumar Gautam,Mahesh Chandra Chattopadhyaya
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-08-05
ISBN 10 : 1315351129
Pages : 430 pages
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Contamination of aqueous environments by hazardous chemical compounds is the direct cause of the decline of safe clean water supply throughout the globe. The use of unconventional water sources such as treated wastewater will be a new norm. Emerging nanotechnological innovations have great potential for wastewater remediation processes. Applications that use smart nanomaterials of inorganic and organic origin improve treatment efficiency and lower energy requirements. This book describes the synthesis, fabrication, and application of advanced nanomaterials in water treatment processes; their adsorption, transformation into low toxic forms, or degradation phenomena, and the adsorption and separation of hazardous dyes, organic pollutants, heavy metals and metalloids from aqueous solutions. It explains the use of different categories of nanomaterials for various pollutants and enhances understanding of nanotechnology-based water remediation to make it less toxic and reusable.

Nanotechnology in Industrial Wastewater Treatment
Author : Dr. Arup Roy,Jayanta Bhattacharya
Publisher : IWA Publishing
Release Date : 2015-01-15
ISBN 10 : 1780406878
Pages : 220 pages
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Nanotechnology in Industrial Wastewater Treatment is a state of the art reference book. The book is particularly useful for wastewater technology development laboratories and organizations. All professional and academic areas connected with environmental engineering, nanotechnology based wastewater treatment and related product design are incorporated and provide an essentialresource. The book describes the application and synthesis of Ca-based and magnetic nano-materials and their potential application for removal/treatment of heavy metals from wastewater. Nanotechnology in Industrial Wastewater Treatment discusses the rapid wastewater treatment methods using Ca-based nanomaterials and magnetic nanomaterials. This is an emerging area of new science and technology in wastewater treatment. The main audiences for the book are water industry professionals, research scholars and students in the area of Environmental Engineering and Nanotechnology. Authors: Dr. Arup Roy Department of Mining Engineering, Geo-Environmental Lab., Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur,India; and Professor Jayanta Bhattacharya, Department of Mining Engineering, Geo-Environmental Lab., Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India.

Emerging and Nanomaterial Contaminants in Wastewater
Author : Ajay Kumar Mishra,Hossain Md Anawar,Nadjib Drouiche
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-11-01
ISBN 10 : 0128146745
Pages : 378 pages
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Emerging and Nanomaterial Contaminants in Wastewater: Advanced Treatment Technologies describes the state-of-the-art of remediation technologies, such as those involving nanotechnology, filtration devices (e.g. membranes), strategies involving adsorption and precipitation processes, development of new sorbents, nanosorbents, biosorbents, green technology, bio-electrokinetics, degradation of pollutants, advanced oxidative process, oxidative electrochemical and photocatalytic processes, catalytic degradation, and emerging hybrid technologies, such as photocatalyst membrane photoreactors using TiO2. Scientists and researchers in academia and industry will benefit from this comprehensive resource on the fundamental science behind the mechanisms at which wastewater sources can be purified from emerging contaminants. Provides a fundamental understanding of emerging contaminants to help readers select appropriate remediation technologies Discusses, in detail, new and advanced green technologies that remove emerging contaminants from wastewater Shows how to ensure water quality and save public health by protecting water resources from contaminants

Nanomaterials for the Removal of Pollutants and Resource Reutilization
Author : Xubiao Luo,Fang Deng
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2018-11-15
ISBN 10 : 0128148381
Pages : 312 pages
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Nanomaterials for the Removal of Pollutants and Resource Reutilization presents the fundamental principles necessary for the application of nanomaterials in environmental pollution control and resource reutilization, also describing specific novel applications of environmentally functional nanomaterials. In addition to outlining the applications of nanomaterials for pollution control, the book highlights problems and offers solutions. This comprehensive resource will inspire the next generation of nanomaterial designers, providing a state-of-the-art review and exploration of emerging developments. Written by some of the world’s top researchers in smart nanomaterials for environmental applications Shows how to design novel functional nanomaterials for highly specific pollutant control and/or remediation uses Covers a variety of pollution types, including heavy metals, pesticides and other chemical pollutants

Nanomaterials for Air Remediation
Author : Abdeltif Amrane,Aymen Amine Assadi,Phuong Nguyen-Tri,Tuan Anh Nguyen,Sami Rtimi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2020-01-22
ISBN 10 : 0128188227
Pages : 420 pages
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Nanomaterials for Air Remediation provides a comprehensive description of basic knowledge and current research progress in the field of air treatment using nanomaterials. The book explores how nanomaterials are used in various air remediation techniques, including advanced oxidation processes, biological processes, and filtration. It also covers their combined use as nanocatalysts, nanoantibiotics, nanoadsorbents, nanocontainers, nanofiltrations and nanosensors. Major challenges to using nanomaterials for improving air quality on a mass scale, both practical and regulatory, are also presented. This is an important resource for materials scientists and environmental engineers who are looking to understand how nanotechnology is used to enhance air quality. Includes coverage of a wide range of nanomaterials, from biochemical to chemical materials, and nanomaterials supported photocatalysts Discusses how the properties of nanomaterials are being used to make more efficient air purification systems and products Assesses the practical and regulatory challenges of using different types of nanomaterials for air remediation

Novel Applications in Polymers and Waste Management
Author : Badal Jageshwar Prasad Dewangan,Maheshkumar Narsingrao Yenkie
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-01-19
ISBN 10 : 1771884762
Pages : 346 pages
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This book focuses on exciting new research in polymer science. The first section of the book deals with new advancements in polymer technology, which includes polymers that are responsible for progress in the field of energy, electronics, and medical sciences. It focuses on the most promising polymer nanocomposites and nanomaterials. Composites are becoming more important because they can help to improve quality of life. The second section of the book highlights this aspect of macromolecules, while the third section emphasizes biopolymers, their development, and applications.

Aquananotechnology
Author : Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam,Muhammad Zahid
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2020-12-10
ISBN 10 : 0128211423
Pages : 626 pages
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Aquananotechnology: Applications of Nanomaterials for Water Purification focuses on the impacts of, and opportunities for, the application of nanotechnology to enhance water quality and the societal concerns surrounding the widespread use of nanotechnology in the water arena. Sections cover the use of nano-sensors for the detection of water pollutants, the control of waterborne pathogens, and the use of nano-biochar coal fly composites for phytoremdtions wastewater pollutants. In addition, the book explores the uses of nanoadsorbents for heavy metals, dyes, Arsenic, pesticides, and water/wastewater remediation and decontamination of water from xenobiotics, bionanocomposites, metal oxides, silver, zinc nanoparticles, and carbon-based nanomaterials for wastewater treatment. In addition, the book covers the use of zerovalent iron nanomaterials and nanostructured mesoporous silica for water purification, along with nano-hydrogels to increase water efficiency and conservation. Finally, the socioeconomic impacts and risks of aquananotechnology in ecosystems are discussed. This book provides a detailed description of the ecological applications of nanomaterials in aquatic environments, offering a cogent analysis of both major applications and challenges. Shows how a range of nanomaterial types are being used for ecological applications in aquatic environments Explores the effects different types of nanomaterials have on a variety of ecosystems Assesses the major challenges of using nanotechnology to improve water quality on a mass scale

Nano-Materials as Photocatalysts for Degradation of Environmental Pollutants
Author : Pardeep Singh,Anwesha Borthakur,P.K. Mishra,Dhanesh Tiwary
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-12-02
ISBN 10 : 0128185996
Pages : 430 pages
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Nano-Materials as Photocatalysts for Degradation of Environmental Pollutants: Challenges and Possibilities contains both practical and theoretical aspects of environmental management using the processes of photodegradation and various heterogeneous catalysts. The book's main focus is on the degradation of harmful pollutants, such as petrochemicals, crude oils, dyes, xenobiotic pharmaceutical waste, endocrine disrupting compounds, and other common pollutants. Chapters incorporate both theoretical and practical aspects. This book is useful for undergraduate or university students, teachers and researchers, especially those working in areas of photocatalysis through heterogeneous catalysts. The primary audience for this book includes Chemical Engineers, Environmental Engineers and scientists, scholars working on the management of hazardous waste, scientists working in fields of materials science, and Civil Engineers working on wastewater treatment. Reviews recent trends in the photodegradation of organic pollutants Offers a bibliometric analysis of photocatalysis for environmental abatement Includes many degradation mechanisms of organic pollutants using various catalysts Includes examples on the degradation of organic pollutants from various sources, e.g., pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, etc. Discusses the effect of nanocatalysts on soil, plants and the ecosystem

Nanomaterials for Water Remediation
Author : Ajay Kumar Mishra
Publisher : Smithers Rapra
Release Date : 2016-06-28
ISBN 10 : 1910242543
Pages : 293 pages
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Nanomaterials are being used to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems. In the field of water research, nanomaterials have been extensively utilised for the treatment and remediation, in addition to pollution prevention, of this vital resource. Remediation is the process of transforming the toxic substances in polluted water to below the limits stipulated by national/international guidelines. Volume 1 focuses on the carbon-based materials employed for water remediation. This book contains detailed information on various carbon materials including: carbon nanotubes, nanofibres, nanocellulose, dendrimers, mesoporous materials, molecularly imprinted materials, polymeric membranes and waste-derived nanocarbon materials. Polluted water is the main cause of severe environmental and health problems, and it is a well-established fact that carbon-based materials are very effective in the removal of both organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater.This book covers the broad aspects of nanotechnology, environmental science and water research, and will be beneficial to researchers involved in these areas. In addition, this book will be of considerable interest to researchers who are working towards their graduate and postgraduate degrees in these areas. A platform for all researchers is also provided as it covers considerable background from recent literature, including the abbreviations used. This book covers the fundamental knowledge and recent advancements of the research and development in the fields of nanotechnology, environmental science and water research.

Advances in Nanotechnology and the Environment
Author : Juyoung Kim
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-04-19
ISBN 10 : 9814267600
Pages : 400 pages
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Nanoparticles and nano-sized materials created by nanotechnology (NT) have been considered unique and sole solutions to overcome the limitations of other technologies and widen their applications. Although these materials have been widely used in environmental technology (ET), most environmental applications of nanoparticles were limited to the fabrication of nano-sensors for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and as nano-sized catalysts for air purification systems. As a result, the use of nanoparticles for the direct removal of pollutants from contaminated soil and wastewater has seldom been reported. However, environmental processes for soil remediation, wastewater treatment, and air purification strongly need innovative new materials to highly improve their performance and efficiency. So, demands for materials created by NT in ET are stronger than ever. Advances in Nanotechnology and the Environment presents the possible applications of nano-sized materials in all environmental processes, providing the most reliable guideline for the selection of nanomaterials to improve the efficiency of environmental processes. It focuses on the design of specific nanomaterials for environmental processes and pollutants. It presents the impact and influence of nanomaterials on the environment and discusses how to avoid causing secondary contamination by the use of nanomaterials. The book provides proper information about nanomaterials for potential users who will use and apply nanomaterials in ET.

Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water
Author : Mamadou Diallo,Anita Street,Richard Sustich,Jeremiah Duncan,Nora Savage
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2009-02-12
ISBN 10 : 9780815519737
Pages : 700 pages
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The World Health Organization in 2004 estimated approximately 1.1 billion people did not have access to clean water and that 35% of Third World residents died from water-borne illnesses. While the situation is grim, recent advances strongly indicate that many of the current water quality problems can be addresses – and potentially resolved – using nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is already having a dramatic impact on research in water quality and Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water highlights both the challenges and the opportunities for nanotechnology to positively influence this area of environmental protection. Here you will find detailed information on breakthroughs, cutting edge technologies, current research, and future trends that may affect acceptance of widespread applications. The first four parts of the book cover specific topics including using nanotechnology for clean drinking water in both large scale water treatment plants and in point-of-use systems. For instance, recent advances show that many of the current problems involving water quality can be addressed using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle enhanced filtration. The book also discusses existing technologies and future potential for groundwater remediation, pollution prevention, and sensors. The final part discusses the inherent societal implications that may affect acceptance of widespread applications. Over 80 leading experts from around the world share their wealth of knowledge in this truly unique reference. Institutions such as Center for the Purification of Water and Systems (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); UCLA Water Technology Center; Carnegie Mellon University, University of Kentucky; The University of Western Ontario; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan), Munasinghe Institute for Development (Sri Lanka) and the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars are just a few of the knowledge centers represented in this book. Water quality is a serious, global issue in which government bodies and scientific communities face many challenges in ensuring clean water is available to everyone. Nanotechnology is already showing dramatic results, and this book is an attempt to share current technologies and future possibilities in reaching this goal. From the Foreword: "Researchers and practitioners may find in this volume, key challenges regarding clean water resources. The presentations may crystallize new research and education programs." - Mihail Roco, U.S. National Science Foundation and U.S. Nanotechnology Initiative • Contributors from the US, India, Canada, Japan, UK, Sri Lanka, and South Africa • Provides detailed information on breakthroughs, cutting edge technologies, current research, and future trends that may affect acceptance of widespread applications • Covers specific topics including using nanotechnology for clean drinking water in both large scale water treatment plants and in point-of-use systems. • Discusses existing technologies and future potential for groundwater remediation, pollution prevention, and sensors • Highlights both the challenges and the opportunities for nanotechnology to positively influence this area of environmental protection.

New Polymer Nanocomposites for Environmental Remediation
Author : Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain,Ajay Kumar Mishra
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2018-02-19
ISBN 10 : 0128110341
Pages : 756 pages
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New Polymer Nanocomposites for Environmental Remediation summarizes recent progress in the development of materials’ properties, fabrication methods and their applications for treatment of contaminants, pollutant sensing and detection. This book presents current research into how polymer nanocomposites can be used in environmental remediation, detailing major environmental issues, and key materials properties and existing polymers or nanomaterials that can solve these issues. The book covers the fundamental molecular structure of polymers used in environmental applications, the toxicology, economy and life-cycle analysis of polymer nanocomposites, and an analysis of potential future applications of these materials. Recent research and development in polymer nanocomposites has inspired the progress and use of novel and cost-effective environmental applications. Presents critical, actionable guidelines to the structure and property design of nanocomposites in environmental remediation Focuses on taking technology out of the lab and into the real world Summarizes the latest developments in polymer nanocomposites and their applications in catalytic degradation, adsorptive removal and detection of contaminants in the environment Enables researchers to stay ahead of the curve, with a full discussion of regulatory issues and potential new applications and materials in this area

Nanocomposites in Wastewater Treatment
Author : Ajay Kumar Mishra
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-12-04
ISBN 10 : 9814463558
Pages : 292 pages
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Nanocomposites have better adsorption capacity, selectivity, and stability than nanoparticles. Therefore, they find diversified applications in many areas. Recently, various methods for heavy metal detection from water have been extensively studied. The adsorption of various pollutants such as heavy metal ions and dyes from the contaminated water with the help of nanocomposites has attracted significant attention. This book presents a comprehensive discussion on wastewater research. It covers a vast background of the recent literature. It describes the applications of nanocomposites in various areas, including environmental science. Particularly, it is highly useful to researchers involved in the environmental and water research on nanocomposites and their applications. The book covers a broad research area of chemistry, physics, materials science, polymer science and engineering, and nanotechnology to present an interdisciplinary approach and also throws light on the recent advances in the field.

Nanostructured Metal-Oxide Electrode Materials for Water Purification
Author : Onoyivwe Monday Ama,Suprakas Sinha Ray
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-04-07
ISBN 10 : 3030433463
Pages : 193 pages
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This book reports on the development of nanostructured metal-oxide-based electrode materials for use in water purification. The removal of organic pollutants and heavy metals from wastewater is a growing environmental and societal priority. This book thus focuses primarily on new techniques to modify the nanostructural properties of various solvent-electrolyte combinations to address these issues. Water treatment is becoming more and more challenging due to the ever increasing complexity of the pollutants present, requiring alternative and complementary approaches toward the removal of toxic chemicals, heavy metals and micro-organisms, to name a few. This contributed volume cuts across the fields of electrochemistry, water science, materials science, and nanotechnology, while presenting up-to-date experimental results on the properties and synthesis of metal-oxide electrode materials, as well as their application to areas such as biosensing and photochemical removal of organic wastewater pollutants. Featuring an introductory chapter on electrochemical cells, this book is well positioned to acquaint interdisciplinary researchers to the field, while providing topical coverage of the latest techniques and methodology. It is ideal for students and research professionals in water science, materials science, and chemical and civil engineering.

Smart Materials for Waste Water Applications
Author : Ajay Kumar Mishra
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2016-01-29
ISBN 10 : 1119041198
Pages : 432 pages
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Smart materials are used to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems as well as instant and continuous ways to monitor water quality. Smart materials in water research have been extensively utilized for the treatment, remediation, and pollution prevention. Smart materials can maintain the long term water quality, availability and viability of water resource. Thus, water via smart materials can be reused, recycled, desalinized and also it can detect the biological and chemical contamination whether the source is from municipal, industrial or man-made waste. The 15 state-of-the-art review chapters contained in this book cover the recent advancements in the area of waste water, as well as the prospects about the future research and development of smart materials for the waste water applications in the municipal, industrial and manmade waste areas. Treatment techniques (nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, adsorption and nano-reactive membranes) are also covered in-depth. The chapters are divided into three groups: The first section includes the various carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, mixed oxides) with a focus on use of carbon at nanoscale applied for waste water research. The second section focuses on synthetic nanomaterials for pollutants removal. The third section highlights the bio-polymeric nanomaterials where the authors have used the natural polymers matrices in a composite and nanocomposite material for waste treatment. The large number of researchers working in the area will benefit from the fundamental concepts, advanced approaches and application of the various smart materials towards waste water treatment that are described in the book. It will also provide a platform for the researchers and graduate students to carry out advanced research and understand the building blocks.

Emerging Pollutants
Author : Sonia Soloneski,Marcelo Larramendy
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-07-04
ISBN 10 : 1789233844
Pages : 108 pages
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This edited book, Emerging Pollutants - Some Strategies for the Quality Preservation of Our Environment, contains a series of chapters providing some strategies for the preservation of our environmental quality focusing on the different categories of environmental pollutants and their negative consequences on living organisms.

Nanotechnology in the Beverage Industry
Author : Abdeltif Amrane,Susai Rajendran,Tuan Anh Nguyen,Ashraf Mahdy Sharoba,Aymen Amine Assadi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2020-05-04
ISBN 10 : 0128199415
Pages : 500 pages
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Nanotechnology in the Beverage industry: Fundamentals and Applications looks at how nanotechnology is being used to enhance water quality, as well as how the properties of nanomaterials can be used to create different properties in both alcoholic and no-alcoholic drinks and enhance the biosafety of both drinks and their packaging. This is an important reference for materials scientists, engineers, food scientists and microbiologists who want to learn more about how nanotechnology is being used to enhance beverage products. As active packaging technology, nanotechnology can increase shelf-life and maintain the quality of beverages. In the field of water treatment, nanomaterials offer new routes to address challenges.

Inorganic Pollutants in Water
Author : Pooja Devi,Pardeep Singh,Sushil Kumar Kansal
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2020-03
ISBN 10 : 0128189657
Pages : 444 pages
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Inorganic Pollutants in Water provides a clear understanding of inorganic pollutants and the challenges they cause in aquatic environments. The book explores the point of source, how they enter water, the effects they have, and their eventual detection and removal. Through a series of case studies, the authors explore the success of the detection and removal techniques they have developed. Users will find this to be a single platform of information on inorganic pollutants that is ideal for researchers, engineers and technologists working in the fields of environmental science, environmental engineering and chemical engineering/ sustainability. Through this text, the authors introduce new researchers to the problem of inorganic contaminants in water, while also presenting the current state-of-the-art in terms of research and technologies to tackle this problem.

Nanotechnology for Water and Wastewater Treatment
Author : P. Lens,J.Virkutyte,V. Jegatheesan,Seung-Hyun Kim and S,Al-Abed
Publisher : IWA Publishing
Release Date : 2013-07-15
ISBN 10 : 1780404581
Pages : 500 pages
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The rapid development of nanoscience enables a technology revolution that will soon impact virtually every facet of the water sector. Yet, there is still too little understanding of what nanoscience and nanotechnology is, what can it do and whether to fear it or not, even among the educated public as well as scientists and engineers from other disciplines. Despite the numerous books and textbooks available on the subject, there is a gap in the literature that bridges the space between the synthesis (conventional and more greener methods) and use (applications in the drinking water production, wastewater treatment and environmental remediation fields) of nanotechnology on the one hand and its potential environmental implications (fate and transport of nanomaterials, toxicity, Life Cycle Assessments) on the other. Nanotechnology for Water and Wastewater Treatment explores these topics with a broad-based multidisciplinary scope and can be used by engineers and scientists outside the field and by students at both undergraduate and post graduate level. Table of Contents Introduction: Nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment: potential and limitation; Characteristics and properties of nanoparticles; Physical and chemical analysis of nanoparticles; Fate and transport of nanoparticles/nanomaterials, toxicity studies; Nanoparticles and bioremediation; Nanosorbents; Effective Phosphate Removal Using Ca-based Layered Double Hydroxide Materials; Mg(OH)2 nanoadsorbent during Treating the Low Concentration of Cr; Nano catalysts; Visible-light doped titania for water purification: nitrogen and silver doping; Doping of Pd nanocatalysts for PCB removal; The use of bimetallic nanosystems to remove POPs from soils and sediments"; Nanomaterials for disinfection and microbial control; Microbial manufactured silver nanoparticles for water disinfection; Electrospun nanofibers for Point-of-Use Water Treatment; Nanomaterials to enhance filtration; Metalic and ceramic microreactors; Enzyme-Immobilized Nanofiltration Membrane To Mitigate Biofouling Based on Quorum Quenching; Biomimetic membranes for water filtration; Nano sensors ; Functionalised graphene: a novel platform for biosensors; Lab-on-a-Chip Interferometric Biosensor Nanotechnology; Nanosensors for pathogens; Nanomanufacturing: Materials Design and Production; Green synthesis of nanoparticles and nanocatalysts; Plant-based nanoparticle manufacturing.