Integrated circuits, and devices fabricated using the techniques developed for integrated circuits, have steadily gotten smaller, more complex, and more powerful. The rate of shrinking is astonishing – some components are now just a few dozen atoms wide. This book attempts to answer the questions, “What comes next? and “How do we get there? Nanolithography outlines the present state of the art in lithographic techniques, including optical projection in both deep and extreme ultraviolet, electron and ion beams, and imprinting. Special attention is paid to related issues, such as the resists used in lithography, the masks (or lack thereof), the metrology needed for nano-features, modeling, and the limitations caused by feature edge roughness. In addition emerging technologies are described, including the directed assembly of wafer features, nanostructures and devices, nano-photonics, and nano-fluidics. This book is intended as a guide to the researcher new to this field, reading related journals or facing the complexities of a technical conference. Its goal is to give enough background information to enable such a researcher to understand, and appreciate, new developments in nanolithography, and to go on to make advances of his/her own. Outlines the current state of the art in alternative nanolithography technologies in order to cope with the future reduction in size of semiconductor chips to nanoscale dimensions Covers lithographic techniques, including optical projection, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), nanoimprint, electron beam and ion beam lithography Describes the emerging applications of nanolithography in nanoelectronics, nanophotonics and microfluidics
Success in the fabrication of structures at the nanometer length scale has opened up a new horizon to condensed matter physics: the study of quantum phenomena in confined boxes, wires, rings, etc. A new class of electronic devices based on this physics has been proposed, with the promise of a new functionality for ultrafast and/or ultradense electronic circuits. Such applications demand highly sophisticated fabrication techniques, the crucial one being lithography. Nanolithography contains updated reviews by major experts on the well established techniques -- electron beam lithography (EBL), X-ray lithography (XRL), ion beam lithography (IBL) -- as well as on emergent techniques, such as scanning tunnelling lithography (STL).
|Author||: D Bucknall|
|Release Date||: 2005-09-30|
|ISBN 10||: 1845690907|
|Pages||: 424 pages|
Techniques such as surface patterning have facilitated the emergence of advanced polymers with applications in areas such as microelectronics. Surface patterning of polymers has conventionally been undertaken by optical lithography. However, a new generation of nanolithographic and patterning techniques has made it possible to develop complex patterns at the nanoscale. Non-conventional lithography and patterning summarises this new range of techniques and their industrial applications. A number of chapters look at ways of forming and modifying surfaces for patterning. These are complemented by chapters on particular patterning techniques such as soft lithography, ion beam patterning, the use of nanostencils, photolithography and inkjet printing. The book also discusses prototyping and the manufacture of particular devices. With its distinguished international team of contributors, Non-conventional lithography and patterning is a standard reference for both those researching and using advanced polymers in such areas as microelectronics and biomedical devices. Looks at alternative approaches used to develop complex patterns at the nanoscale Concentrates on state of the art nanolithographic methods Written by a distinguished international team of contributors
Lithography is an extremely complex tool – based on the concept of “imprinting” an original template version onto mass output – originally using relatively simple optical exposure, masking, and etching techniques, and now extended to include exposure to X-rays, high energy UV light, and electron beams – in processes developed to manufacture everyday products including those in the realms of consumer electronics, telecommunications, entertainment, and transportation, to name but a few. In the last few years, researchers and engineers have pushed the envelope of fields including optics, physics, chemistry, mechanics and fluidics, and are now developing the nanoworld with new tools and technologies. Beyond the scientific challenges that are endemic in this miniaturization race, next generation lithography techniques are essential for creating new devices, new functionalities and exploring new application fields. Nanolithography is the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the study and application of fabricating nanometer-scale structures − meaning the creation of patterns with at least one lateral dimension between the size of an individual atom and approximately 100 nm. It is used in the fabrication of leading-edge semiconductor integrated circuits (nanocircuitry) or nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). This book addresses physical principles as well as the scientific and technical challenges of nanolithography, covering X-ray and NanoImprint lithography, as well as techniques using scanning probe microscopy and the optical properties of metal nanostructures, patterning with block copolymers, and metrology for lithography. It is written for engineers or researchers new to the field, and will help readers to expand their knowledge of technologies that are constantly evolving.
The main objective of this book is to give proficient people a comprehensive review of up-to-date global improvements in hypothetical and experimental evidences, perspectives and prospects of some newsworthy instrumentation and its numerous technological applications for a wide range of lithographic fabrication techniques. The present theme of this book is concomitant with the lithographic ways and means of deposition, optimization parameters and their wide technological applications. This book consists of six chapters comprehending with eminence of lithography, fabrication and reproduction of periodic nanopyramid structures using UV nanoimprint lithography for solar cell applications, large-area nanoimprint lithography and applications, micro-/nanopatterning on polymers, OPC under immersion lithography associated to novel luminescence applications, achromatic Talbot lithography (ATL) and the soft X-ray interference lithography. Individual chapters provide a base for a wide range of readers from different fiels, students and researchers, who may be doing research pertinent to the topics discussed in this book and find basic as well as advanced principles of designated subjects related to these phenomena explained plainly. The book contains six chapters by experts in different fields of lithographic fabrication and technology from over 15 research institutes across the globe.
|Author||: Kenichi Takahata|
|Publisher||: BoD – Books on Demand|
|Release Date||: 2013-05-29|
|ISBN 10||: 9535110853|
|Pages||: 236 pages|
MEMS technology is increasingly penetrating into our lives and improving our quality of life. In parallel to this, advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have been catalyzing the rise of NEMS. Consisting of nine chapters reviewing state-of-the-art technologies and their future trends, this book focuses on the latest development of devices and fabrication processes in the field of these extremely miniaturized electromechanical systems. The book offers new knowledge and insight into design, fabrication, and packaging, as well as solutions in these aspects for targeted applications, aiming to support scientists, engineers and academic trainees who are engaged in relevant research. In the chapters, practical issues and advances are discussed for flexible microdevices, bioMEMS, intelligent implants, optical MEMS, nanomachined structures and NEMS, and others. Most of the chapters also focus on novel fabrication/packaging processes, including silicon bulk micromachining, laser micromachining, nanolithography, and packaging for implantable microelectronics enabled by nanomaterials.
|Author||: Andrew Julius Muray|
|Release Date||: 1985|
|Pages||: 414 pages|
|Author||: Jue Wang|
|Release Date||: 2004|
|Pages||: 88 pages|
|Author||: Yuansheng Ma|
|Release Date||: 2006|
|Pages||: 247 pages|
|Author||: Steven Wheng-Jing Kuan|
|Release Date||: 1990|
|Pages||: 514 pages|