While existing approaches to monitoring environmental contaminants tend to focus on a small suite of contaminant types and often involve monitoring at fixed points and at fixed times, Monitoring Environmental Contaminants focuses on a wide range of new technologies and approaches available for monitoring chemical and biological contaminants in air, water, soil and food. These new methods allow the ability to monitor a wider range of contaminants at much greater and temporal resolutions. Adoption of these methods could result in a change in our understanding of how humans and ecosystems are exposed to contaminants in different environmental media. This volume in the Environmental Contaminants Series provides an overview of a wide range of monitoring approaches ranging from citizen science networks to the use of robotics and sensor networks. Monitoring Environmental Contaminants describes challenges in the adoption of some of these new approaches and methods for dealing with these challenges such as the use of mining techniques for large data. The case studies within will provide a thorough illustration for researchers, academics, and scientists involved in ecology and environmental sciences. Brings together chapters from a wide range of research in ecology and the environmental sciences Utilizes an easily understandable style that can be absorbed by a wide audience Uses case studies to illuminate the application of selected novel contamination monitoring approaches
|Author||: Satinder Kaur Brar,Krishnamoorthy Hegde,Vinayak Laxman Pachapur|
|Release Date||: 2019-06-04|
|ISBN 10||: 012814680X|
|Pages||: 432 pages|
Tools, Techniques and Protocols for Monitoring Environmental Contaminants describes information on the strategic integration of available monitoring methods with molecular techniques, with a focus on omics (DNA, RNA and protein based) and molecular imprinted polymer and nanomaterial based advanced biosensors for environmental applications. It discusses the most commonly practiced analytic techniques, such as HPLC, MS, GCMS and traditional biosensors, giving an overview of the benefits of advanced biosensors over commonly practiced methods in the rapid and reliable assessment of environmental contaminants. As environmental contaminants have become one of the serious concerns in terms of their rapid growth and monitoring in the environment, which is often limited due to costly and laborious methods, this book provides a comprehensive update on their removal, the challenges they create for environmental regulatory agencies, and their diverse effects on terrestrial and aquatic environments. Provides methods for assessing and monitoring environmental contaminants Includes recent advancement in molecular techniques Outlines rapid environmental monitoring methods Explains the use of biosensors for environmental monitoring Reviews monitoring methods beyond conventional analytic techniques
How can biological markers help assess and predict human health risks? Find out the answers to this question and others in this timely new book examining the use of biological markers in animals and plants for evaluating the ecological and health effects of environmental contamination. The book explains the concept of environmental sentinels, presents example of field studies and discusses the utility of biomarkers within a risk analysis paradigm. Anyone who needs to know how to assess and predict environmental contamination should consider this book essential reading.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Committee on Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 1997-08-02|
|ISBN 10||: 0309057442|
|Pages||: 150 pages|
Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space was written in response to a request from NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA) to evaluate its Advanced Human Support Technology Program. This report reviews the four major areas of the program: advanced life support (ALS), environmental monitoring and control (EMC), extravehicular activities (EVA), and space human factors (SHF). The focus of this program is on long-term technology development applicable to future human long-duration space missions, such as for a hypothetical new mission to the Moon or Mars.
|Author||: Irena Twardowska,Herbert E. Allen,Max M. Häggblom|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2007-04-30|
|ISBN 10||: 1402047282|
|Pages||: 607 pages|
This book details the state-of-the art in early warning monitoring of anthropogenic pollution of soil and water. It is unique with regard to its complex, multidisciplinary, mechanistic approach. Top scientists establish links and strengthen weak connections between specific fields in biology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology, sensoristics, soil science and hydrogeology.
|Author||: Joel Jacknow,J. Larry Ludke,Nancy C. Coon|
|Release Date||: 1986|
|Pages||: 15 pages|
Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications explores the key aspects of sensor technologies, covering wired, wireless, and discrete sensors for the specific application domains of healthcare, wellness and environmental sensing. It discusses the social, regulatory, and design considerations specific to these domains. The book provides an application-based approach using real-world examples to illustrate the application of sensor technologies in a practical and experiential manner. The book guides the reader from the formulation of the research question, through the design and validation process, to the deployment and management phase of sensor applications. The processes and examples used in the book are primarily based on research carried out by Intel or joint academic research programs. “Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications provides an extensive overview of sensing technologies and their applications in healthcare, wellness, and environmental monitoring. From sensor hardware to system applications and case studies, this book gives readers an in-depth understanding of the technologies and how they can be applied. I would highly recommend it to students or researchers who are interested in wireless sensing technologies and the associated applications.” Dr. Benny Lo Lecturer, The Hamlyn Centre, Imperial College of London “This timely addition to the literature on sensors covers the broad complexity of sensing, sensor types, and the vast range of existing and emerging applications in a very clearly written and accessible manner. It is particularly good at capturing the exciting possibilities that will occur as sensor networks merge with cloud-based ‘big data’ analytics to provide a host of new applications that will impact directly on the individual in ways we cannot fully predict at present. It really brings this home through the use of carefully chosen case studies that bring the overwhelming concept of 'big data' down to the personal level of individual life and health.” Dermot Diamond Director, National Centre for Sensor Research, Principal Investigator, CLARITY Centre for Sensor Web Technologies, Dublin City University "Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications takes the reader on an end-to-end journey of sensor technologies, covering the fundamentals from an engineering perspective, introducing how the data gleaned can be both processed and visualized, in addition to offering exemplar case studies in a number of application domains. It is a must-read for those studying any undergraduate course that involves sensor technologies. It also provides a thorough foundation for those involved in the research and development of applied sensor systems. I highly recommend it to any engineer who wishes to broaden their knowledge in this area!" Chris Nugent Professor of Biomedical Engineering, University of Ulster What you’ll learnThe relevant sensing approaches and the hardware and software components required to capture and interpret sensor data. The importance of regulations governing medical devices. A design methodology for developing and deploying successful home- and community-based technologies, supported by relevant case studies. Health, wellness, and environmental sensing applications and how they work. The challenges and future directions of sensing in these domains. Who this book is for Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications is targeted at clinical and technical researchers, engineers, and students who want to understand the current state of the art in sensor applications in these domains. The reader gains a full awareness of the key technical and non-technical challenges that must be addressed in the development of successful end-to-end sensor applications. Real-world examples help give the reader practical insights into the successful development, deployment, and management of sensor applications. The reader will also develop an understanding of the personal, social, and ethical impact of sensor applications, now and in the future. Table of ContentsChapter One: Introduction Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the key challenges and drivers for sensor application development. The reader should also understand how sensor technologies can play a role in addressing some of the key challenges facing global society in the short to medium term. 1. Book overview 2. Drivers for Sensor Applications (Infrastructure Growth in Developing Countries, Advances in Energy Harvesting, New Applications, Cost reduction, Real-time monitoring of situations to avoid unplanned downtime, Security (personal and national), the internet of things). 3. Challenges for Sensor Applications (Power, Efficient Operation in Harsh Environments, Number of Deployable Nodes, Safety and Regulations, High Cost of Installation, Security and Reliability, sensor management) 4. Global Megatrends and the opportunities for sensing technologies o Water and Food Constraints o Aging Demographics o Public Health o Pandemics o Security Chapter 2: Sensing and Sensor Fundamentals Chapter Goal: Reader should understand existing sensor technologies, which can be used in healthcare, wellness, and environmental domains. They should also understand the role of smart sensors and smart phones as mobile sensing platforms and aggregators. 1. Sensing Modalities (Mechanical, MEMS, Optical, ISFET, μTAS) 2. Sensing Domains (Air, Water, Noise, Bacterial, Chemical, Kinematic, DNA, Physiological) 3. Functional Characterisation of Sensors o Communication methods – discrete, wired, wireless o Smart Sensors and Sensor Platforms § MSP430 (SHIMMER and telosB motes) § ATmega § PIC 4. Smart Phones as mobile sensor platforms 5. Selecting and specifying sensors Chapter 3 Key Sensor Technology Components – Hardware and Software Overview Chapter Goal: Reader should have a high level understanding of the key hardware and software components, which are necessary for the development of sensors systems and why technologies are selected for specific applications. 1. Overview – Sensor systems 2. MCU’s (TI MSP430, ATmega, PIC) a. ADCs b. Interrupts c. Real-time Clocks 3. Sensor Interfaces a. Digital b. Analog c. I2C 4. Communications – wired and wireless interfaces RS232/485, USB, Ethernet, FieldbusProprietary Short Range Wireless Protocols (e.g. ANT, BodyLAN, Sensium)Standard Short Range Protocols i. IEEE 802.15.6 ii. Bluetooth/Smart Bluetooth iii. 802.15.4 iv. UWB Medium Range i. Wi-Fi 5. Data storage (EEPROM, sd card, data forwarding) 6. Power management and Energy Harvesting 7. Operating Systems and Software Development Environments (SDK’s) Chapter 4 Sensor Network Architectures Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the various approaches to the design of sensor network architectures; scaling from body worn systems, to ambient sensing, to city-scale deployments. The reader should also understand the advantages and disadvantages of current and evolving sensor network architectures. 1. Sensor network architectures o Discrete Sensor o Sensor to aggregator o PAN/WPAN/smart clothing o Pervasive/Ambient sensor networks o Wide area networks (city-wide, country wide) 2. Challenges in developing and deploying sensor networks 3. Current and Proposed Solutions o Remote sensor management o Edge Processing o Power harvesting o New communication standards Chapter 5: Adding Vibrancy to Sensor Data Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the various methods to interpret and display sensor data to the user. They will understand the importance of creating a data analysis plan from the outset, and the different types of data analysis throughout the application stack. 1. Data Literacy – How can we intuitively answer questions with sensor data and contextualise answers 2. Data Quality a. Calibration b. Trust and Repudiation 3. Sensor Fusion – combining sensory data from disparate sources 4. Data Mining 5. Data Visualisation 6. Openness, data integration, virtual sensors 7. Exploiting the power of the cloud Chapter 6: Regulation and Standards Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the key technologies, which impact or influence the development of sensor deployment and applications including the emerging standards and regulatory considerations. 1. Regulatory Standards (US, EU, Japan) : why, which, and how standards impact your application 2. Regulatory Issues: Certification 3. Smartphones Considerations o Privacy and data security 4. Standards Bodies and Industry Groups o Continua Healthcare Alliance o ISO/IEEE 11073 5. Wearable Wireless Health Communication Standards Chapter 7: Biosensing in Everyday Life – Driving Biocontextual Aware Computing Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the social relationships that create opportunities and barriers for widespread, consumer-based biosensing. The reader should understand how the social world is shifting from sensor technologies of “should” to sensor technologies of “could” to facilitate new understandings of health and wellness and drive new methods and practices of personal data sharing. 1. Data Security and Ownership - Sharing and Managing Personal Data 2. Game Changing Pressure for Affordable Healthcare 3. Continuous, Personal Data is Improving Lives 4. Emerging Tech-Empowered Citizens 5. Sensing for Self-Discovery, Culture and Play 6. User feedback/Supporting sustainable human behaviours – leveraging the gaming culture Chapter 8: Development and Deployment of Sensor Technologies for Home and Community Settings Chapter Goal: Reader should understand how to design a sensor deployment for a home or community. The chapter informs the reader how to formulate the research question the deployment will address, how to develop prototypes, and manage and deploy them successful. The chapter will finish with exemplar case studies of real world sensor deployments. Study Design – The Right QuestionHome Deployment ElementsHome Deployment ManagementThe Prototyping Design ProcessCase Studies Chapter 9: Body Worn and Ambient Sensor Applications for Assessment, Monitoring, and Diagnostics Chapter Goal: Reader should at the end of this chapter have an understanding of the key characteristics of how body worn and ambient sensor applications, and how they vary according to the domain in which they are deployed. The reader will be presented with the key challenges faced in each domain, and emerging solutions for these challenges. 1. Drivers and Inhibitors (Incidence of chronic diseases, aging demographics, Adjusting provider compensation, prevention, medical work practice changes) 2. Hospital based sensing for assessment and diagnosis 3. Supervised Assessment and Monitoring in Community Settings 4. Home Based Applications o Clinical grade sensing for patient monitoring o Body worn sensing (e.g. PERS) for monitoring and
|Author||: Richard O. Gilbert|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 1987-02-15|
|ISBN 10||: 9780471288787|
|Pages||: 336 pages|
This book discusses a broad range of statistical design and analysis methods that are particularly well suited to pollution data. It explains key statistical techniques in easy-to-comprehend terms and uses practical examples, exercises, and case studies to illustrate procedures. Dr. Gilbert begins by discussing a space-time framework for sampling pollutants. He then shows how to use statistical sample survey methods to estimate average and total amounts of pollutants in the environment, and how to determine the number of field samples and measurements to collect for this purpose. Then a broad range of statistical analysis methods are described and illustrated. These include: * determining the number of samples needed to find hot spots * analyzing pollution data that are lognormally distributed * testing for trends over time or space * estimating the magnitude of trends * comparing pollution data from two or more populations New areas discussed in this sourcebook include statistical techniques for data that are correlated, reported as less than the measurement detection limit, or obtained from field-composited samples. Nonparametric statistical analysis methods are emphasized since parametric procedures are often not appropriate for pollution data. This book also provides an illustrated comprehensive computer code for nonparametric trend detection and estimation analyses as well as nineteen statistical tables to permit easy application of the discussed statistical techniques. In addition, many publications are cited that deal with the design of pollution studies and the statistical analysis of pollution data. This sourcebook will be a useful tool for applied statisticians, ecologists, radioecologists, hydrologists, biologists, environmental engineers, and other professionals who deal with the collection, analysis, and interpretation of pollution in air, water, and soil.
This book addresses the measurement of environmental contaminants in water, air, and soil. It also presents modifications of and improvements to existing control technologies for remediation of environmental contaminants. It covers improved designs of wastewater systems and innovations in designing newer membranes for water treatment. In addition, it includes two separate sections on the modelling and control of different existing and emerging pollutants. It covers major topics such as: pharmaceutical wastes, paper and pulp waste, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, mining dust, bioaerosols, endosulphan, biomass combustion, and landfill design aspects. It also features chapters on environmental exposure and modelling of aerosol deposition within human lungs. The content of this book will be of interest to researchers, professionals, and policymakers whose work involves environmental contaminants and related solutions.
|Author||: Marco Mascini,Ilaria Palchetti|
|Publisher||: Royal Society of Chemistry|
|Release Date||: 2011|
|ISBN 10||: 1849731314|
|Pages||: 176 pages|
This book discusses recent advances in the use of nucleic acid based biosensors and related bioanalytical assays for environmental monitoring.
Examining tissue residues of contaminants in biota reveals the movement of contaminants within organisms and through food chains as well as the context for understanding and quantifying injuries to organisms and their communities. Yet tissue concentrations of some contaminants are especially challenging to interpret and the ability of today’s analytical chemists to provide reliable analytical data of most important environmental contaminants often surpasses the ability of ecotoxicologists to interpret those data. Offering guidance on the ecotoxicologically meaningful interpretation of tissue concentrations, Environmental Contaminants in Biota, Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, Second Edition is updated with current data and new ways of analyzing those data as well as additional contaminants not previously considered. Beginning with a history of wildlife toxicology and data interpretation, chapters cover a wide range of contaminants and their hazardous and lethal concentrations in various animals including DDT, Dioxins, PCBs, and PBDEs in aquatic organisms; methylmurcury, selenium, and trace metals in fishes and aquatic invertebrates; and pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants in marine mammals. The book considers the impact of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans, and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers; cyclodiene; and other organochlorine pesticides in birds and mammals. Later chapters examine the effects and analysis of lead, cadmium, and radionuclides in biota. With thousands of published research papers reporting tissue concentrations each year, Environmental Contaminants in Biota, Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, Second Edition gives ecotoxicologists the ability to draw actionable value regarding the toxicological consequences of those concentrations and relate tissue concentrations quantitatively to injury: the core of ecotoxicology.
|Author||: Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain,Rustem Kecili|
|Release Date||: 2019-08-20|
|ISBN 10||: 0128169354|
|Pages||: 424 pages|
Modern Environmental Analysis Techniques for Pollutants presents established environmental analysis methods, rapidly emerging technologies, and potential future research directions. As methods of environmental analysis move toward lower impact, lower cost, miniaturization, automation, and simplicity, new methods emerge and ultimately improve the accuracy of their analytical results. This book gives in-depth, step-by-step descriptions of a variety of techniques, including methods used in sampling, field sample handling, sample preparation, quantification, and statistical evaluation. Modern Environmental Analysis Techniques for Pollutants aims to deliver a comprehensive and easy-to-read text for students and researchers in the environmental analysis arena and to provide essential information to consultants and regulators about analytical and quality control procedures helpful in their evaluation and decision-making procedures. Bridges the gap in current literature on analytical chemistry techniques and their application to environmental analysis Covers the use of nanomaterials in environmental analysis, as well as the monitoring and analysis of nanomaterials in the environment Looks to the past, present and future of environmental analysis, with chapters on historical background, established and emerging techniques and instrumentation, and predictions
|Author||: D. Pooja,Praveen Kumar,Pardeep Singh,Sandip Patil|
|Publisher||: Springer Nature|
|Release Date||: 2019-10-24|
|ISBN 10||: 981150671X|
|Pages||: 319 pages|
This book discusses the sensitivity, selectivity, and response times of different sensor materials and their potential application in the design of portable sensor systems for monitoring water pollutants and remediation systems. Beginning with an overview on water pollutants and analytical methods for their detection, the book then moves on to describing the advances in sensor materials research, and the scope for their use in different types of sensors. The book lays emphasis on techniques such as colorimetric, fluorescence, electrochemical, and biological sensing of conventional and emerging pollutants. This book will serve as a handy guide for students, researchers, and professional engineers working in the field of sensor systems for monitoring water pollutants to address various challenges.
|Author||: Maria C. Hernandez Soriano|
|Publisher||: BoD – Books on Demand|
|Release Date||: 2014-03-26|
|ISBN 10||: 953511235X|
|Pages||: 920 pages|
Soil is an irreplaceable resource that sustains life on the planet, challenged by food and energy demands of an increasing population. Therefore, soil contamination constitutes a critical issue to be addressed if we are to secure the life quality of present and future generations. Integrated efforts from researchers and policy makers are required to develop sound risk assessment procedures, remediation strategies and sustainable soil management policies. Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination provides a wide depiction of current research in soil contamination and risk assessment, encompassing reviews and case studies on soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants. The book introduces several innovative approaches for soil remediation and risk assessment, including advances in phytoremediation and implementation of metabolomics in soil sciences.
|Author||: Katalin Gruiz,Tamas Meggyes,Eva Fenyvesi|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2017-01-20|
|ISBN 10||: 1317697456|
|Pages||: 436 pages|
This is the third volume of the five-volume book series “Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management”. The book series deals with the following topics: • Environmental deterioration and pollution, management of environmental problems • Environmental toxicology – a tool for managing chemical substances and contaminated environment • Assessment and monitoring tools, risk assessment • Risk reduction measures and technologies • Case studies for demonstration of the application of engineering tools The authors aim to describe interactions and options in risk management by providing a broad scientific overview of the environment, its human uses and the associated local, regional and global environmental problems; interpreting the holistic approach used in solving environmental protection issues; striking a balance between nature’s needs and engineering capabilities; understanding interactions between regulation, management and engineering; obtaining information about novel technologies and innovative engineering tools. This third volume provides an overview on the basic principles, concepts, practices and tools of environmental monitoring and contaminated site assessment. The volume focuses on those engineering tools that enable integrated site assessment and decision making and ensure an efficient control of the environment. Some topics supporting sustainable land use and efficient environmental management are listed below: • Efficient management and regulation of contaminated land and the environment; • Early warning and environmental monitoring; • Assessment of contaminated land: the best practices; • Environmental sampling; • Risk characterization and contaminated matrix assessment; • Integrated application of physical, chemical, biological, ecological and (eco) toxicological characterization methods; • Direct toxicity assessment (DTA) and decision making; • Online analyzers, electrodes and biosensors for assessment and monitoring of waters.; • In situ and real-time measurement tools for soil and contaminated sites; • Rapid on-site methods and contaminant and toxicity assessment kits; • Engineering tools from omics technologies, microsensors to heavy machinery; • Dynamic characterization of subsurface soil and groundwater using membrane interface probes, optical and X-ray fl uorescence and ELCAD wastewater characterization; • Geochemical modeling: methods and applications; • Environmental assessment using cyclodextrins. This book series focuses on the state of knowledge about the environment and its conscious and structured application in environmental engineering, management and decision making.
Environmental and Pollution Science, Third Edition, continues its tradition on providing readers with the scientific basis to understand, manage, mitigate, and prevent pollution across the environment, be it air, land, or water. Pollution originates from a wide variety of sources, both natural and man-made, and occurs in a wide variety of forms including, biological, chemical, particulate or even energy, making a multivariate approach to assessment and mitigation essential for success. This third edition has been updated and revised to include topics that are critical to addressing pollution issues, from human-health impacts to environmental justice to developing sustainable solutions. Environmental and Pollution Science, Third Edition is designed to give readers the tools to be able to understand and implement multi-disciplinary approaches to help solve current and future environmental pollution problems. Emphasizes conceptual understanding of environmental systems and can be used by students and professionals from a diversity of backgrounds focusing on the environment Covers many aspects critical to assessing and managing environmental pollution including characterization, risk assessment, regulation, transport and fate, and remediation or restoration New topics to this edition include Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services, Pollution in the Global System, Human Health Impacts, the interrelation between Soil and Human Health, Environmental Justice and Community Engagement, and Sustainability and Sustainable Solutions Includes color photos and diagrams, chapter questions and problems, and highlighted key words
Monitoring Water Quality is a practical assessment of one of the most pressing growth and sustainability issues in the developed and developing worlds: water quality. Over the last 10 years, improved laboratory techniques have led to the discovery of microbial and viral contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and endocrine disruptors in our fresh water supplies that were not monitored previously. This book offers in-depth coverage of water quality issues (natural and human-related), monitoring of contaminants, and remediation of water contamination. In particular, readers will learn about arsenic removal techniques, real-time monitoring, and risk assessment. Monitoring Water Quality is a vital text for students and professionals in environmental science, civil engineering, chemistry — anyone concerned with issues of water analysis and sustainability assessment. Covers in depth the scope of sustainable water problems on a worldwide scale Provides a rich source of sophisticated methods for analyzing water to assure its safety Describes the monitoring of contaminants, including pharmaceutical and endocrine disruptors Helps to quickly identify the sources and fates of contaminants and sources of pollutants and their loading
|Author||: D.P. Nikolelis,Ulrich J. Krull,Joseph Wang,Marco Mascini|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2013-06-29|
|ISBN 10||: 9401589739|
|Pages||: 381 pages|
Biosensors offer clear and distinct advantages over standard analytical methods for the direct monitoring of environmental pollutants in the field, such as real-time detection with minimum sample preparation and handling. The present book highlights recent advantages that will be of great value to a range of scientists, researchers and students dealing with analytical and environmental chemistry and biosensor technology. It presents recent trends in analytical methodology for the determination of indoor and outdoor pollutants, advances in DNA, biological and recognition-based sensors, examples of biosensors for use in field and water analysis, biosensors based on non-aqueous systems, and recent advances in the miniaturisation and micromachining of biosensors.
The current rate and scale of environmental change around the world makes the detection and understanding of these changes increasingly urgent. Subsequently, government legislation is focusing on measurable results of environmental programs, requiring researchers to employ effective and efficient methods for acquiring high-quality data. Envi