In the field of forensics, there is a critical need for genetic tests that can function in a predictive or inferential sense, before suspects have been identified, and/or for crimes for which DNA evidence exists but eye-witnesses do not. Molecular Photofitting fills this need by describing the process of generating a physical description of an individual from the analysis of his or her DNA. The molecular photofitting process has been used to assist with the identification of remains and to guide criminal investigations toward certain individuals within the sphere of prior suspects. Molecular Photofitting provides an accessible roadmap for both the forensic scientist hoping to make use of the new tests becoming available, and for the human genetic researcher working to discover the panels of markers that comprise these tests. By implementing population structure as a practical forensics and clinical genomics tool, Molecular Photofitting serves to redefine the way science and history look at ancestry and genetics, and shows how these tools can be used to maximize the efficacy of our criminal justice system. Explains how physical descriptions of individuals can be generated using only their DNA Contains case studies that show how this new forensic technology is used in practical application Includes over 100 diagrams, tables, and photos to illustrate and outline complex concepts
|Author||: Sara Lynn Jubelirer|
|Release Date||: 2010|
|Pages||: 210 pages|
Our genetic markers have come to be regarded as portals to the past. Analysis of these markers is increasingly used to tell the story of human migration; to investigate and judge issues of social membership and kinship; to rewrite history and collective memory; to right past wrongs and to arbitrate legal claims and human rights controversies; and to open new thinking about health and well-being. At the same time, in many societies genetic evidence is being called upon to perform a kind of racially charged cultural work: to repair the racial past and to transform scholarly and popular opinion about the “nature” of identity in the present. Genetics and the Unsettled Past considers the alignment of genetic science with commercial genealogy, with legal and forensic developments, and with pharmaceutical innovation to examine how these trends lend renewed authority to biological understandings of race and history. This unique collection brings together scholars from a wide range of disciplines—biology, history, cultural studies, law, medicine, anthropology, ethnic studies, sociology—to explore the emerging and often contested connections among race, DNA, and history. Written for a general audience, the book’s essays touch upon a variety of topics, including the rise and implications of DNA in genealogy, law, and other fields; the cultural and political uses and misuses of genetic information; the way in which DNA testing is reshaping understandings of group identity for French Canadians, Native Americans, South Africans, and many others within and across cultural and national boundaries; and the sweeping implications of genetics for society today.
The book "Technology in Forensic Science" provides an integrated approach by reviewing the usage of modern forensic tools as well as the methods for interpretation of the results. Starting with best practices on sample taking, the book then reviews analytical methods such as high-resolution microscopy and chromatography, biometric approaches, and advanced sensor technology as well as emerging technologies such as nanotechnology and taggant technology. It concludes with an outlook to emerging methods such as AI-based approaches to forensic investigations.
In 2000, with the success of the Human Genome Project, scientists declared the death of race in biology and medicine. But within five years, many of these same scientists had reversed course and embarked upon a new hunt for the biological meaning of race. Drawing on personal interviews and life stories, Race Decoded takes us into the world of elite genome scientists—including Francis Collins, director of the NIH; Craig Venter, the first person to create a synthetic genome; and Spencer Wells, National Geographic Society explorer-in-residence, among others—to show how and why they are formulating new ways of thinking about race. In this original exploration, Catherine Bliss reveals a paradigm shift, both at the level of science and society, from colorblindness to racial consciousness. Scientists have been fighting older understandings of race in biology while simultaneously promoting a new grand-scale program of minority inclusion. In selecting research topics or considering research design, scientists routinely draw upon personal experience of race to push the public to think about race as a biosocial entity, and even those of the most privileged racial and social backgrounds incorporate identity politics in the scientific process. Though individual scientists may view their positions differently—whether as a black civil rights activist or a white bench scientist—all stakeholders in the scientific debates are drawing on memories of racial discrimination to fashion a science-based activism to fight for social justice.
Draws together a wide range of elements relating to craniofacial analysis and identification, examining the latest advances in the field.
DNA profiling—commonly known as DNA fingerprinting—is often heralded as unassailable criminal evidence, a veritable “truth machine” that can overturn convictions based on eyewitness testimony, confessions, and other forms of forensic evidence. But DNA evidence is far from infallible. Truth Machine traces the controversial history of DNA fingerprinting by looking at court cases in the United States and United Kingdom beginning in the mid-1980s, when the practice was invented, and continuing until the present. Ultimately, Truth Machine presents compelling evidence of the obstacles and opportunities at the intersection of science, technology, sociology, and law.
Forensic Facial Identification discusses the latestscientific and technical advancements in the field and theirimplications for practice in psychology, criminology, and law. Provides an up-to-date set of best practices for forensicfacial identification Reviews current procedures for different facial identificationmethods and their reliability Covers eyewitness testimony, line-ups, facial composites,anthropological face reconstructions, CCTV images, and computerizedautomatic face recognition systems Incorporates case studies which put the latest research andtechnology in the proper legal context
Fashionable new theories tend to reject universal reason in favour of pluralism and locality. Marxism, Mysticism and Modern Theory examines some of these theories and argues that they are the mystified expression of the current political and economic impasse. Today's relativistic outlook reveals a minimalist and atomized viewpoint - a retreat from the goal of rational understanding. Marxism, Mysticism and Modern Theory sets out, in this critique, the case for developing a new humanism to extend rationality.
All aspects of our lives, industry, health, travel and leisure, are utterly reliant on rubber materials, yet typically this notion rarely occurs to us. Increasingly, greater demands are made on elastomeric compounds and we seek elevated performance in terms of improved physical and chemical properties. In particular, we have come to expect rubber components (tyres, vibration isolators, seals etc) to exhibit exceptional wear and fatigue resistance, often at elevated temperatures. Unsurprisingly then, the emphasis in characterising isochoric materials has shifted significantly away from understanding and modelling hyperelastic material behaviour, to a position where we can confi dently design and manufacture rubber components having the functionality and resilience to meet the dynamic loading and harsh environmental conditions that are prevalent today. In consequence, state-of-the-art technology in terms of dynamic response and fatigue resistance are strongly represented here along with numerous insights into advanced elastomers used in novel applications. This development is not at the expense of research devoted to current test procedures and the constitutive equations and algorithms that underpin finite element methods. As a result, Constitutive Models for Rubber VII is not only essential reading for undergraduates, postgraduates, academics and researchers working in the discipline, but also for all those designers and engineers involved in the improvement of machines and devices by introducing new and novel elastomers possessing elevated properties.
According to the National Institute of Health, a genome-wide association study is defined as any study of genetic variation across the entire human genome that is designed to identify genetic associations with observable traits (such as blood pressure or weight), or the presence or absence of a disease or condition. Whole genome information, when combined with clinical and other phenotype data, offers the potential for increased understanding of basic biological processes affecting human health, improvement in the prediction of disease and patient care, and ultimately the realization of the promise of personalized medicine. In addition, rapid advances in understanding the patterns of human genetic variation and maturing high-throughput, cost-effective methods for genotyping are providing powerful research tools for identifying genetic variants that contribute to health and disease. This burgeoning science merges the principles of statistics and genetics studies to make sense of the vast amounts of information available with the mapping of genomes. In order to make the most of the information available, statistical tools must be tailored and translated for the analytical issues which are original to large-scale association studies. Analysis of Complex Disease Association Studies will provide researchers with advanced biological knowledge who are entering the field of genome-wide association studies with the groundwork to apply statistical analysis tools appropriately and effectively. With the use of consistent examples throughout the work, chapters will provide readers with best practice for getting started (design), analyzing, and interpreting data according to their research interests. Frequently used tests will be highlighted and a critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantage complimented by case studies for each will provide readers with the information they need to make the right choice for their research. Additional tools including links to analysis tools, tutorials, and references will be available electronically to ensure the latest information is available. Easy access to key information including advantages and disadvantage of tests for particular applications, identification of databases, languages and their capabilities, data management risks, frequently used tests Extensive list of references including links to tutorial websites Case studies and Tips and Tricks