molecular characterization of polymers

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Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Polymers
Author : John M. Chalmers,Robert J. Meier
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2008-12-09
ISBN 10 : 9780080932040
Pages : 776 pages
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Written by expert contributors from the academic and industrial sectors, this book presents traditional and modern approaches to polymer characterization and analysis. The emphasis is on pragmatics, problem solving and property determination; real-world applications provide a context for key concepts. The characterizations focus on organic polymer and polymer product microstructure and composition. Approaches molecular characterization and analysis of polymers from the viewpoint of problem-solving and polymer property characterization, rather than from a technique championing approach Focuses on providing a means to ascertaining the optimum approach or technique(s) to solve a problem/measure a property, and thereby develop an analytical competence in the molecular characterization and analysis of real-world polymer products Provides background on polymer chemistry and microstructure, discussions of polymer chain, morphology, degradation, and product failure and additive analysis, and considers the supporting roles of modeling and high-throughput analysis

Molecular Characterization of Polymers
Author : Muhammad Imran Malik,Jimmy Mays,Muhammad Raza Shah
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2021-02-15
ISBN 10 : 9780128197684
Pages : 450 pages
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Molecular Characterization of Polymers presents a range of advanced and cutting-edge methods for the characterization of polymers at the molecular level, guiding the reader through theory, fundamentals, instrumentation, and applications, and supporting the end goal of efficient material selection and improved material performance. Each chapter focuses on a specific technique or family of techniques, including the different areas of chromatography, field flow fractionation, long chain branching, static and dynamic light scattering, mass spectrometry, NMR, X-Ray and neutron scattering, polymer dilute solution viscometry, microscopy, and vibrational spectroscopy. In each case, in-depth coverage explains how to successfully implement and utilize the technique. This practical resource is highly valuable to researchers and advanced students in polymer science, materials science, and engineering, and to those from other disciplines and industries who are unfamiliar with polymer characterization techniques. Introduces a range of advanced characterization methods, covering aspects such as molecular weight, polydispersity, branching, composition, and tacticity Enables the reader to understand and to compare the available technique, and implement the selected technique(s), with a view to improving properties of the polymeric material Establishes a strong link between basic principles, characterization techniques, and real-life applications

Characterization and Analysis of Polymers
Author : Arza Seidel
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2008-02-08
ISBN 10 : 0470233001
Pages : 977 pages
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Based on Wiley′s renowned Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, this book provides coverage of key methods of characterization of the physical and chemical properties of polymers, including atomic force microscopy, chromatographic methods, laser light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance, and thermal analysis, among others. Written by prominent scholars from around the world, this reference presents over twenty–five self –contained articles on the most used analytical techniques currently practiced in polymer science.

Molecular Characterization of Composite Interfaces
Author : Hatsuo Ishida,Ganesh Kumar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-11-11
ISBN 10 : 1489922512
Pages : 454 pages
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This book is an extended version of the proceedings of the Symposium on Polymer Composites, Interfaces, which was held under the auspices of the Division of Polymer Chemistry, American Chemical Society (ACS) during the annual ACS meeting in Seattle, March, 1983. The importance of the interface in composite materials has been recognized since the inception of modern composite technology. Specifically, silane coupling agents were developed for glass fiber reinforced compOSites at a very early date. Ever since then the diversity of composite materials and the development of various surface treatment methods have led to the establishment of an "interface art." A trial-and-error approach has dominated the interfacial aspects of composite technology until very recently. With the advent of modern analytical techniques for surface characterization, it became possible to study detailed surface and interface structures. It was hoped that this symposium would catalyze such a fundamental and scientific approach in composite studies. For this reason, the symposium was structured to verify the influence of interfacial structures on the mechanical and physical performance of composites and to improve our knowledge of the microstructure of composite interfaces. As the word ·composite" indicates, interdisciplinary interaction is indispensable for proper understanding of multiphase systems.

Polymer Characterization
Author : Dan Campbell,Richard A. Pethrick,Jim R. White
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2000-09-28
ISBN 10 : 9780748740055
Pages : 481 pages
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Discerning the properties of polymers and polymer-based materials requires a good understanding of characterization. This revised and updated text provides a comprehensive survey of characterization methods within its simple, concise chapters. Polymer Characterization: Physical Techniques, provides an overview of a wide variety of characterization methods, which makes it an excellent textbook and reference. It starts with a description of basic polymer science, providing a solid foundation from which to understand the key physical characterization techniques. The authors explain physical principles without heavy theory and give special emphasis to the application of the techniques to polymers, with plenty of illustrations. Topics covered include molecular weight determination, molecular and structural characterization by spectroscopic techniques, morphology and structural characterization by microscopy and diffraction, and thermal analysis. This edition contains a new chapter on surface analysis as well as some revised problems and solutions. The concise treatment of each topic offers even those with little prior knowledge of the subject an accessible source to relevant, simple descriptions in a well-organized format.

Polymer Science and Engineering
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Committee on Polymer Science and Engineering
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1994-01-01
ISBN 10 : 0309049989
Pages : 192 pages
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Polymers are used in everything from nylon stockings to commercial aircraft to artificial heart valves, and they have a key role in addressing international competitiveness and other national issues. Polymer Science and Engineering explores the universe of polymers, describing their properties and wide-ranging potential, and presents the state of the science, with a hard look at downward trends in research support. Leading experts offer findings, recommendations, and research directions. Lively vignettes provide snapshots of polymers in everyday applications. The volume includes an overview of the use of polymers in such fields as medicine and biotechnology, information and communication, housing and construction, energy and transportation, national defense, and environmental protection. The committee looks at the various classes of polymers--plastics, fibers, composites, and other materials, as well as polymers used as membranes and coatings--and how their composition and specific methods of processing result in unparalleled usefulness. The reader can also learn the science behind the technology, including efforts to model polymer synthesis after nature's methods, and breakthroughs in characterizing polymer properties needed for twenty-first-century applications. This informative volume will be important to chemists, engineers, materials scientists, researchers, industrialists, and policymakers interested in the role of polymers, as well as to science and engineering educators and students.

Nonlinear Polymer Rheology
Author : Shi-Qing Wang
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2018-02-06
ISBN 10 : 0470946989
Pages : 464 pages
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Integrating latest research results and characterization techniques, this book helps readers understand and apply fundamental principles in nonlinear polymer rheology. The author connects the basic theoretical framework with practical polymer processing, which aids practicing scientists and engineers to go beyond the existing knowledge and explore new applications. Although it is not written as a textbook, the content can be used in an upper undergraduate and first year graduate course on polymer rheology. • Describes the emerging phenomena and associated conceptual understanding in the field of nonlinear polymer rheology • Incorporates details on latest experimental discoveries and provides new methodology for research in polymer rheology • Integrates latest research results and new characterization techniques like particle tracking velocimetric method • Focuses on the issues concerning the conceptual and phenomenological foundations for polymer rheology • Has a companion website for readers to access with videos complementing the content within several chapters

Characterization of Polymer Blends
Author : Sabu Thomas,Yves Grohens,P. Jyotishkumar
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-10-28
ISBN 10 : 3527645616
Pages : 994 pages
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Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.

Molecular Weight Characterisation of Synthetic Polymers
Author : S. R. Holding,E. Meehan
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release Date : 1995
ISBN 10 : 9781859570524
Pages : 108 pages
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The report comprises a state-of-the-art overview of the subject of molecular c099 characterisation, supported by an extensive, indexed bibliography. The current methodology for GPC is described along with its use in combination with other techniques such as light scattering and viscosity c094. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.

Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives
Author : Kenji Kamide
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2005-08-31
ISBN 10 : 9780080454443
Pages : 652 pages
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Many highly acclaimed and authoritative books on polymer science tend to focus on synthetic polymers. Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives is the first authoritative book on the subject. It examines recent developments, with particular reference to cellulose (in aqueous alkali) and cellulose acetate. Packed with examples, the author takes an in-depth look at the topic, using the most reliable experimental data available. A comprehensive approach to the fundamental principles of cellulose and its derivatives in solution makes Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives ideal reading for novices as well as experienced cellulose scientists. * Outlines the theoretical fundamentals of cellulose and cellulose derivatives * Presents comprehensive and reliable experimental results in figures and tables * Highly illustrated and easy to read

Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Crop Resistance to Abiotic Stresses
Author : Monica Boscaiu,Ana Fita
Publisher : MDPI
Release Date : 2020-12-02
ISBN 10 : 3039434586
Pages : 488 pages
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Abiotic stress represents the main constraint for agriculture, affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Yield losses in agriculture will be potentiated in the future by global warming, increasing contamination, and reduced availability of fertile land. The challenge for agriculture of the present and future is that of increasing the food supply for a continuously growing human population under environmental conditions that are deteriorating in many areas of the world. Minimizing the effects of diverse types of abiotic stresses represents a matter of general concern. Research on all topics related to abiotic stress tolerance, from understanding the stress response mechanisms of plants to developing cultivars and crops tolerant to stress, is a priority. This Special Issue is focused on the physiological and molecular characterization of crop resistance to abiotic stresses, including novel research, reviews, and opinion articles covering all aspects of the responses and mechanisms of plant tolerance to abiotic. Contributions on physiological, biochemical, and molecular studies of crop responses to abiotic stresses; the description and role of stress-responsive genes; marker-assisted screening of stress-tolerant genotypes; genetic engineering; and other biotechnological approaches to improve crop tolerance were considered.

NMR Methods for Characterization of Synthetic and Natural Polymers
Author : Toshikazu Miyoshi,Pingchuan Sun,Rongchun Zhang
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2019-07-29
ISBN 10 : 178801863X
Pages : 565 pages
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Since the introduction of FT-NMR spectroscopy around five decades ago, NMR has achieved significant advances in hardware and methodologies, accompanied with the enhancement of spectral resolution and signal sensitivity. Rapid developments in the polymers field mean that accurate and quantitative characterization of polymer structures and dynamics is the keystone for precisely regulating and controlling the physical and chemical properties of the polymer. This book specifically focuses on NMR investigation of complex polymers for the polymer community as well as NMR spectroscopists, and will push the development of both fields. It covers the latest advances, for example high field DNP and ultrafast MAS methodologies, and show how these novel NMR methods characterize various synthetic and natural polymers.

Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives
Author : Kenji Kamide
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2005-08-31
ISBN 10 : 9780080454443
Pages : 652 pages
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Many highly acclaimed and authoritative books on polymer science tend to focus on synthetic polymers. Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives is the first authoritative book on the subject. It examines recent developments, with particular reference to cellulose (in aqueous alkali) and cellulose acetate. Packed with examples, the author takes an in-depth look at the topic, using the most reliable experimental data available. A comprehensive approach to the fundamental principles of cellulose and its derivatives in solution makes Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives ideal reading for novices as well as experienced cellulose scientists. * Outlines the theoretical fundamentals of cellulose and cellulose derivatives * Presents comprehensive and reliable experimental results in figures and tables * Highly illustrated and easy to read

Polymer Chemistry
Author : Andrew J. Peacock,Allison Calhoun
Publisher : Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
Release Date : 2012-11-12
ISBN 10 : 3446433430
Pages : 420 pages
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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the study of polymers. Special emphasis is given to the characteristics that set polymers apart from small molecules, as studied in classic chemistry courses. The various branches of polymer science are introduced and discussed in a systematic manner, starting from basic chemical structures, continuing through supermolecular organization and physical properties. Specific examples are used throughout to illustrate how end usage relates to the principles under discussion. A series of chapters is devoted to case studies describing the principal classes of synthetic polymers. Content includes: - Polymerization - Characterization of Polymers - Rheological Description of Polymer Melts - Structural Development - Properties - Compounding and Extrusion Processes - Molding processes - Additional Methods of Manufacture - Commodity Polymers - Engineering Thermoplastics - Neat Stuff

Monitoring Polymerization Reactions
Author : Wayne F. Reed,Alina M. Alb
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2013-12-02
ISBN 10 : 1118733975
Pages : 488 pages
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Offers new strategies to optimize polymer reactions With contributions from leading macromolecular scientists and engineers, this book provides a practical guide to polymerization monitoring. It enables laboratory researchers to optimize polymer reactions by providing them with a better understanding of the underlying reaction kinetics and mechanisms. Moreover, it opens the door to improved industrial-scale reactions, including enhanced product quality and reduced harmful emissions. Monitoring Polymerization Reactions begins with a review of the basic elements of polymer reactions and their kinetics, including an overview of stimuli-responsive polymers. Next, it explains why certain polymer and reaction characteristics need to be monitored. The book then explores a variety of practical topics, including: Principles and applications of important polymer characterization tools, such as light scattering, gel permeation chromatography, calorimetry, rheology, and spectroscopy Automatic continuous online monitoring of polymerization (ACOMP) reactions, a flexible platform that enables characterization tools to be employed simultaneously during reactions in order to obtain a complete record of multiple reaction features Modeling of polymerization reactions and numerical approaches Applications that optimize the manufacture of industrially important polymers Throughout the book, the authors provide step-by-step strategies for implementation. In addition, ample use of case studies helps readers understand the benefits of various monitoring strategies and approaches, enabling them to choose the best one to match their needs. As new stimuli-responsive and "intelligent" polymers continue to be developed, the ability to monitor reactions will become increasingly important. With this book as their guide, polymer scientists and engineers can take full advantage of the latest monitoring strategies to optimize reactions in both the lab and the manufacturing plant.

Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules
Author : Chin Han Chan,Chin Hua Chia,Sabu Thomas
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-03-27
ISBN 10 : 148223419X
Pages : 656 pages
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Knowledge of thermodynamics is a necessary tool for describing and understanding the physical behavior of new polymers and polymer blends, for instance, compatibility of components, rheological properties, morphological features, and mechanical properties. This book summarizes in a fairly comprehensive manner the recent technical research accomplishments in the area of thermodynamics, characterizations, and applications of polymer blends. In the first chapter, an overview of thermodynamic behaviors of non-equilibrium polymers is discussed. In the consecutive chapters, different properties of polymer blends are discussed, including surface tension, transition, crystallization, morphology, and flow behaviors. Miscibility and molecular characterizations of polymer blends are also covered in this book. Applications to various systems are reviewed, and both experimental concerns and references are supplied. In this time when science has such a strong tendency for diversification, this book demonstrates the relevance of one’s own activities with neighboring branches of activities. This book is unique in that the mathematics of the physics of polymers are minimized in order not to discourage the interest of a junior or senior undergraduate or new graduate student by an unnecessarily rigorous approach. However, book aims to widen the readers’ general knowledge with a better understanding of the physics of polymers. Applications to various systems are reviewed, and both experimental concerns and references are supplied.

Polymer Characterisation
Author : B.J. Hunt,M.I. James
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
ISBN 10 : 9401121605
Pages : 362 pages
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Polymers continue to play an ever increasing role in the modern world. In fact it is quite inconceivable to most people that we could ever have existed of the increased volume and variety of materials without them. As a result currently available, and the diversity of their application, characterisation has become an essential requirement of industrial and academic laboratories in volved with polymeric materials. On the one hand requirements may come from polymer specialists involved in the design and synthesis of new materials who require a detailed understanding of the relationship between the precise molecular architecture and the properties of the polymer in order to improve its capabilities and range of applications. On the other hand, many analysts who are not polymer specialists are faced with the problems of analysing and testing a wide range of polymeric materials for quality control or material specification purposes. We hope this book will be a useful reference for all scientists and techno or industrial laboratories, logists involved with polymers, whether in academic and irrespective of their scientific discipline. We have attempted to include in one volume all of the most important techniques. Obviously it is not possible to do this in any great depth but we have encouraged the use of specific examples to illustrate the range of possibilities. In addition numerous references are given to more detailed texts on specific subjects, to direct the reader where appropriate. The book is divided into II chapters.

Natural and Synthetic Biomedical Polymers
Author : Sangamesh Kumbar,Cato Laurencin,Meng Deng
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2014-01-21
ISBN 10 : 0123972906
Pages : 420 pages
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Polymers are important and attractive biomaterials for researchers and clinical applications due to the ease of tailoring their chemical, physical and biological properties for target devices. Due to this versatility they are rapidly replacing other classes of biomaterials such as ceramics or metals. As a result, the demand for biomedical polymers has grown exponentially and supports a diverse and highly monetized research community. Currently worth $1.2bn in 2009 (up from $650m in 2000), biomedical polymers are expected to achieve a CAGR of 9.8% until 2015, supporting a current research community of approximately 28,000+. Summarizing the main advances in biopolymer development of the last decades, this work systematically covers both the physical science and biomedical engineering of the multidisciplinary field. Coverage extends across synthesis, characterization, design consideration and biomedical applications. The work supports scientists researching the formulation of novel polymers with desirable physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical and degradation properties for specific targeted biomedical applications. Combines chemistry, biology and engineering for expert and appropriate integration of design and engineering of polymeric biomaterials Physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical and degradation properties alongside currently deployed clinical applications of specific biomaterials aids use as single source reference on field. 15+ case studies provides in-depth analysis of currently used polymeric biomaterials, aiding design considerations for the future

Mechanical Properties and Testing of Polymers
Author : G.M. Swallowe
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-04-17
ISBN 10 : 9401592314
Pages : 302 pages
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This volume represents a continuation of the Polymer Science and Technology series edited by Dr. D. M. Brewis and Professor D. Briggs. The theme of the series is the production of a number of stand alone volumes on various areas of polymer science and technology. Each volume contains short articles by a variety of expert contributors outlining a particular topic and these articles are extensively cross referenced. References to related topics included in the volume are indicated by bold text in the articles, the bold text being the title of the relevant article. At the end of each article there is a list of bibliographic references where interested readers can obtain further detailed information on the subject of the article. This volume was produced at the invitation of Derek Brewis who asked me to edit a text which concentrated on the mechanical properties of polymers. There are already many excellent books on the mechanical properties of polymers, and a somewhat lesser number of volumes dealing with methods of carrying out mechanical tests on polymers. Some of these books are listed in Appendix 1. In this volume I have attempted to cover basic mechanical properties and test methods as well as the theory of polymer mechanical deformation and hope that the reader will find the approach useful.

Thermal Characterization of Polymeric Materials
Author : Edith Turi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012-12-02
ISBN 10 : 0323141889
Pages : 986 pages
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Thermal Characterization of Polymeric Materials is a critical review and a concise evaluation of the application of thermal analysis in polymer science and engineering. This book is divided into nine chapters that specifically tackle the instrumentation, theory, and a wide variety of applications of thermal characterization. The introductory chapters provide an overview of all aspects of thermal analytical methods and apparatus and the theory underlying the basic principles of thermal analysis. These chapters also examine the theories and functions of state for thermometry, dilatometry, thermomechanical analysis, calorimetry, thermogravimetry. These topics are followed by a discussion on single-component and multicomponent systems and their phase transitions, as influenced by concentration, pressure, deformation, molecular weight, and copolymerization. The subsequent chapters explore the influence of important chemical and physical parameters on the glass transition, crystallization, and melting of thermoplastic materials. The discussion then shifts to the theoretical aspects of polymer-polymer compatibility, phase separation, and miscibility in mixed polymer systems. This book further considers the thermal analysis in thermosets, elastomers, and fibers. The concluding chapters present the methods of obtaining information on the relative flammability properties of polymers, for screening fire retardant additives, and for studying the mechanism of flame inhibition. These chapters also look into the thermal analysis of antioxidants, stabilizers, lubricants, plasticizers, impact modifiers, and fire retardants. Polymer scientists and researchers will find this book invaluable.