With the recently well developed areas of Internet of Thing, consumer wearable gadgets and artificial intelligence, flexible and stretchable electronic devices have spurred great amount of interest from both the global scientific and industrial communities. As an emerging technology, flexible and stretchable electronics requires the scale-span fabrication of devices involving nano-features, microstructures and macroscopic large area manufacturing. The key factor behind covers the organic, inorganic and nano materials that exhibit completely different mechanical and electrical properties, as well as the accurate interfacial control between these components. Based on the fusion of chemistry, physics, biology, materials science and information technology, this review volume will try to offer a timely and comprehensive overview on the flexible and stretchable electronic materials and devices. The book will cover the working principle, materials selection, device fabrication and applications of electronic components of transistors, solar cells, memories, sensors, supercapacitors, circuits and etc.
This first book dedicated to the topic provides an up-to-date account of the many opportunities graphene offers for robust, workable energy generation and storage devices. Following a brief overview of the fundamentals of graphene, including the main synthesis techniques, characterization methods and properties, the first part goes on to deal with graphene for energy storage applications, such as lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen storage. The second part is concerned with graphene-based energy-generation devices, in particular conventional as well as microbial and enzymatic fuel cells, with chapters on graphene photovoltaics rounding off the book. Throughout, device architectures are not only discussed on a laboratory scale, but also ways for upscaling to an industrial level, including manufacturing processes and quality control. By bridging academic research and industrial development this is invaluable reading for materials scientists, physical chemists, electrochemists, solid state physicists, and those working in the electrotechnical industry.
Recent development in miniaturized electronic devices has been boosting the demand for power sources that are sufficiently thin, flexible/bendable, and even tailorable and can potentially be integrated in a package with other electronic components. Reduced graphene oxide can be a promising electrode material for miniaturized microsupercapacitors due to their excellent electrical conductivity, high surface-to-volume ratio, outstanding intrinsic electrochemical double-layer capacitance, and facile production in large scale and low cost. Therefore, the routes to produce high-quality reduced graphene oxide as electrode materials, along with the typical fabrication techniques for miniaturized electrodes, are deliberately discussed in this chapter. Furthermore, breakthroughs in the area of the advanced packaging technology, deciding the electrochemical performance and stability of these miniaturized microsupercapacitors, are highlighted. Lastly, a summary of the overall electrochemical properties and current development of the reported devices is presented progressively to provide insights into the development of novel miniaturized energy storage technologies.
|Author||: Szymon Sollami Delekta|
|Release Date||: 2019|
|ISBN 10||: 9789178732555|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
|Author||: Can Liu|
|Release Date||: 2016|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Micro-supercapacitors (m-SC) arise from the demand of developing micro-power system for MEMS devices, attracting much research interest in recent years. As m-SC has to achieve high areal energy and power densities, the volumetric capacitance and the rate capability of the electrode materials have become the most important concern. This review compares the intrinsic electrochemical properties of the state-of-art electrode materials for m-SC, reporting the recent advances in the three types of electrode materials. For carbon electrode materials, two developing trends are identified: one is to enhance volumetric capacitance through a proper film fabrication process, while the other one is to further promote its fast response rate by making open-structured devices. For pseudocapacitive oxides, in order to achieve better rate capability and cyclability, the relationship between the electrochemical property and the structure is worth further exploration. As an example, the composition, microstructure, and morphology of the molybdenum oxide film were optimized to realize superior electrochemical performance as an electrode material for m-SC. Architecture design is another important factor for m-SC. In-plane interdigital architectures have proven its success to fabricate fast response devices. Further study on the interplay effect between such architecture and pseudocapacitive materials is in need.
|Author||: Panpan Zhang|
|Release Date||: 2019|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
In this book, authors investigated asymmetric and symmetric supercapacitor configurations for different electrode materials. Besides the already standard activated carbon (AC), studies were done with other materials and technologies for their preparation and activation. Also, the research info was presented with different electrolytes in order to obtain a higher capacitance and potential window, with as small as possible serial resistance. Achieved high performance enables wide application, and some of the new applications (spacecraft power systems, powering heart pacemakers and wireless sensors) are also described in this book.
|Author||: Peihua Huang|
|Release Date||: 2013|
|Pages||: 157 pages|
The increasing number of functions in portable electronic devices requires more and more energy and power within a limited space. Li-ion thin film or so-called micro-batteries are the current solution for power supply. Drawbacks of these storage elements are poor power performance with limited life-span and temperature range. Carbon-based micro- supercapacitors, on the other hand, are able to deliver energy in short time, thus offering high power capability, to work at low temperature and they present an unlimited life-span. This thesis proposes several carbon-based micro-supercapacitors, to be integrated on a silicon substrate together with other electronics components or sensors. They are foreseen as a potential replacement or complement of Li-ion micro-batteries to enhance the total performance of the whole power source system. The thesis work is mainly focused on adapted materials and technologies for enabling micro-supercapacitors realization. Two types of on-chip micro-supercapacitors with planar interdigitated electrodes configuration were developed: one prepared from Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and its combination of different carbon materials and different types of electrolytes, the other from patterned titanium or silicon carbide derived carbon film (TiC-CDC or SiC-CDC) on Si chip with different microfabrication techniques. Onion like carbon-based micro-supercapacitor by EPD shows high power delivery (scan rate up to 100V/s) in organic electrolyte, and high temperature range (-50 °C - 80 °C) in a eutectic mixture of ionic liquids. Different techniques for patterning carbide films have been developed to fabricate a CDC based micro- supercapacitor: reactive ion etching (RIE) or focused ion beam (FIB). TiC-CDC film based micro-supercapacitors show promising preliminary results. The developed technologies pave the way to a full and effective integration of micro-size energy storage devices on-chip.
New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Supercapacitors have been widely acknowledged to be promising devices for energy storage. This book describes the latest progress in the discovery and development of nanoelectrolytes and nanoelectrodes for supercapacitor applications.
Graphene is, basically, a single atomic layer of graphite, an abundant mineral that is an allotrope of carbon that is made up of very tightly bonded carbon atoms organized into a hexagonal lattice. What makes graphene so special is its sp2 hybridization and very thin atomic thickness (of 0.345 Nm). These properties are what enable graphene to break so many records in terms of strength, electricity, and heat conduction (as well as many others). This book gathers valuable information about many advanced applications of graphene (electrical, optical, environmental, cells, capacitors, etc).
Supercapacitors are widely used in tiny (MEMS) high-tech devices, as well as in advanced energy systems. Practical use of ultracapacitors opens up new horizons in the technology of accumulation, storing and delivery of electrical energy. Modern materials and technologies which are used to create supercapacitors are results of the advanced achievements in the field of fundamental and applied physics and materials science. The special collection Supercapacitors consists of papers published by Trans Tech Publications Inc. from 2010 up to 2015 and covers a wide range of advanced achievements in the field of applied research of materials and technologies for manufacturing of supercapacitors and some of their application in different branches of engineering practice. Chapter 1: Materials and Technologies for Creating of Supercapacitors Chapter 2: Modeling and Measurements of Properties of Supercapacitors Chapter 3: Some Examples of Practical Application of Supercapacitors
|Author||: Aneeya Kumar Samantara,Satyajit Ratha|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2020-11-17|
|ISBN 10||: 1000764176|
|Pages||: 326 pages|
This new volume discusses new and well-known electrochemical energy harvesting, conversion, and storage techniques. It provides significant insight into the current progress being made in this field and suggests plausible solutions to the future energy crisis along with approaches to mitigate environmental degradation caused by energy generation, production, and storage. Topics in Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems for Future Sustainability: Technological Advancements address photoelectrochemical catalysis by ZnO, hydrogen oxidation reaction for fuel cell application, and miniaturized energy storage devices in the form of micro-supercapacitors. The volume looks at the underlying mechanisms and acquired first-hand information on how to overcome some of the critical bottlenecks to achieve long-term and reliable energy solutions. The detailed synthesis processes that have been tried and tested over time through rigorous attempts of many researchers can help in selecting the most effective and economical ways to achieve maximum output and efficiency, without going through time-consuming and complex steps. The theoretical analyses and computational results corroborate the experimental findings for better and reliable energy solutions.
Cutting-edge coverage of ultracapacitors and their applications Written by a global expert in the field, this pioneering work discusses ultracapacitors and their applications for short-term electrical energy storage. The book describes different types of ultracapacitors and their classification based on energy storage mechanism and electrode combinations. The characteristics, reliability, cycle life, and properties of ultracapacitors, as well as their manufacturing techniques, are discussed in detail. The book examines various applications of ultracapacitors, including electronics, grid systems, automotive, public transportation, military, and other sectors. Emerging trends are also addressed in this ground-breaking resource. Ultracapacitors covers: Electrochemical capacitors Types of ultracapacitors Ultracapacitor characteristics Ultracapacitor charging Ultracapacitor materials Construction of EC capacitors Ultracapacitor cell balancing and modules Hybrid capacitors Li-ion capacitors Applications in the electronics industry Grid system applications Ultracapacitors in vehicles Bus and rail transport Ultrabattery: advanced battery power Military applications Water desalination Ultracapacitor manufacturers Pseudocapacitors Notes on using ultracapacitors Future scenarios
|Publisher||: Materials Research Forum LLC|
|Release Date||: 2020-01-20|
|ISBN 10||: 1644900548|
|Pages||: 284 pages|
The book presents a comprehensive review of graphene-based supercapacitor technology. It focusses on synthesis, characterization, fundamental properties and promising applications of graphene materials and various types of graphene-based composites. The wide range of applications include electric power systems of portable electronics, hybrid-electric vehicles, mobile phones etc. Keywords: Graphene, Energy Storage Materials, Supercapacitors, Micro-Supercapacitors, Self-Healable Supercapacitors, Graphene-Based ZnO Nanocomposites, Defect Engineered Graphene Materials, Electric Power Systems.
This book presents the unique mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of nanomaterials, which play an important role in the recent advances of energy-related applications. Different nanomaterials have been employed in energy saving, generation, harvest, conversion, storage, and transport processes very effectively and efficiently. Recent progress in the preparation, characterization and usage of 1D, 2D nanomaterials and hybrid architectures for energy-related applications and relevant technologies and devices, such as solar cells, thermoelectronics, piezoelectronics, solar water splitting, hydrogen production/storage, fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors is covered. Moreover, the book also highlights novel approaches in nanomaterials design and synthesis and evaluating materials sustainability issues. Contributions from active and leading experts regarding important aspects like the synthesis, assembly, and properties of nanomaterials for energy-related applications are compiled into a reference book. As evident from the diverse topics, the book will be very valuable to researchers working in the intersection of physics, chemistry, biology, materials science and engineering. It may set the standard and stimulates future developments in this rapidly emerging fertile frontier of nanomaterials for energy.
The vast reduction in size and power consumption of CMOS circuitry has led to a large research effort based around the vision of wireless sensor networks. The proposed networks will be comprised of thousands of small wireless nodes that operate in a multi-hop fashion, replacing long transmission distances with many low power, low cost wireless devices. The result will be the creation of an intelligent environment responding to its inhabitants and ambient conditions. Wireless devices currently being designed and built for use in such environments typically run on batteries. However, as the networks increase in number and the devices decrease in size, the replacement of depleted batteries will not be practical. The cost of replacing batteries in a few devices that make up a small network about once per year is modest. However, the cost of replacing thousands of devices in a single building annually, some of which are in areas difficult to access, is simply not practical. Another approach would be to use a battery that is large enough to last the entire lifetime of the wireless sensor device. However, a battery large enough to last the lifetime of the device would dominate the overall system size and cost, and thus is not very attractive. Alternative methods of powering the devices that will make up the wireless networks are desperately needed.
This book introduces an innovative and high-efficiency technology for mechanical energy harvesting. The book covers the history and development of triboelectric nanogenerators, basic structures, working principles, performance characterization, and potential applications. It is divided into three parts: Part A illustrates the fundamental working modes of triboelectric nanogenerators with their prototype structures and theoretical analysis; Part B and Part C introduce two categories of applications, namely self-powered systems and self-powered active sensors. The book will be an ideal guide to scientists and engineers beginning to study triboelectric nanogenerators or wishing to deepen their knowledge of the field. Readers will be able to place the technical details about this technology in context, and acquire the necessary skills to reproduce the experimental setups for fabrication and measurement.
This Brief reviews contemporary research conducted in university and industry laboratories on thermal management in electrochemical energy storage systems (capacitors and batteries) that have been widely used as power sources in many practical applications, such as automobiles, hybrid transport, renewable energy installations, power backup and electronic devices. Placing a particular emphasis on supercapacitors, the authors discuss how supercapacitors, or ultra capacitors, are complementing and replacing, batteries because of their faster power delivery, longer life cycle and higher coulombic efficiency, while providing higher energy density than conventional electrolytic capacitors. Recent advances in both macro- and micro capacitor technologies are covered. The work facilitates systematic understanding of thermal transport in such devices that can help develop better power management systems.
What are the chemical aspects of graphene as a novel 2D material and how do they relate to the molecular structure? This book addresses these important questions from a theoretical and computational standpoint. Graphene Chemistry: Theoretical Perspectives presents recent exciting developments to correlate graphene’s properties and functions to its structure through state-of-the-art computational studies. This book focuses on the chemistry aspect of the structure-property relationship for many fascinating derivatives of graphene; various properties such as electronic structure, magnetism, and chemical reactivity, as well as potential applications in energy storage, catalysis, and nanoelectronics are covered. The book also includes two chapters with significant experimental portions, demonstrating how deep insights can be obtained by joint experimental and theoretical efforts. Topics covered include: Graphene ribbons: Edges, magnetism, preparation from unzipping, and electronic transport Nanographenes: Properties, reactivity, and synthesis Clar sextet rule in nanographene and graphene nanoribbons Porous graphene, nanomeshes, and graphene-based architecture and assemblies Doped graphene: Theory, synthesis, characterization and applications Mechanisms of graphene growth in chemical vapor deposition Surface adsorption and functionalization of graphene Conversion between graphene and graphene oxide Applications in gas separation, hydrogen storage, and catalysis Graphene Chemistry: Theoretical Perspectives provides a useful overview for computational and theoretical chemists who are active in this field and those who have not studied graphene before. It is also a valuable resource for experimentalist scientists working on graphene and related materials, who will benefit from many concepts and properties discussed here.