Microgrids and Methods of Analysis addresses systematic analysis, control/protection systems design, and optimal operation of a distribution system under high-depth of DER penetration and the required, appropriate methods and software tools that are analogous to large interconnected power systems. Topics covered have been presented in many research papers, but there is still a need to summarize and categorize the presented and existing knowledge on this subject. This book presents the concept of the microgrid and the methods to analyze them systematically. Presents new analytical solutions for solving microgrid operational problems Develops the old methods for microgrid analysis Provides a new systematic insight to study in the field of microgrids
|Author||: Naser Mahdavi Tabatabaei,Ersan Kabalci,Nicu Bizon|
|Release Date||: 2019-08-01|
|ISBN 10||: 3030237230|
|Pages||: 781 pages|
This book presents intuitive explanations of the principles of microgrids, including their structure and operation and their applications. It also discusses the latest research on microgrid control and protection technologies and the essentials of microgrids as well as enhanced communication systems. The book provides solutions to microgrid operation and planning issues using various methodologies including planning and modelling; AC and DC hybrid microgrids; energy storage systems in microgrids; and optimal microgrid operational planning. Written by specialists, it is filled in innovative solutions and research related to microgrid operation, making it a valuable resource for those interested in developing updated approaches in electric power analysis, design and operational strategies. Thanks to its in-depth explanations and clear, three-part structure, it is useful for electrical engineering students, researchers and technicians.
|Author||: Wenchao Meng,Xiaoyu Wang,Shichao Liu|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2020-03-20|
|ISBN 10||: 012816946X|
|Pages||: 400 pages|
Distributed Control and Cyber Security Issues in Microgrids presents a thorough treatment of distributed control methods and cyber security issues for power system researchers and engineers. With the help of mathematical tools, this reference gives a deep understanding of microgrids and new research directions, addressing emerging concepts, methodologies and applications of monitoring, control and protection in smart microgrids with large-scale renewables. With the integration of more distributed or aggregated renewables and the wide utilization of power electronic devices, the smart microgrid is facing new stability and security challenges.
Distributed Energy Resources in Microgrids: Integration, Challenges and Optimization unifies classically unconnected aspects of microgrids by considering them alongside economic analysis and stability testing. In addition, the book presents well-founded mathematical analyses on how to technically and economically optimize microgrids via distributed energy resource integration. Researchers and engineers in the power and energy sector will find this information useful for combined scientific and economical approaches to microgrid integration. Specific sections cover microgrid performance, including key technical elements, such as control design, stability analysis, power quality, reliability and resiliency in microgrid operation. Addresses the challenges related to the integration of renewable energy resources Includes examples of control algorithms adopted during integration Presents detailed methods of optimization to enhance successful integration
|Author||: Gkountaras, Aris|
|Publisher||: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin|
|Release Date||: 2017-02-15|
|ISBN 10||: 3798328722|
|Pages||: 169 pages|
The character of modern power systems is changing rapidly and inverters are taking over a considerable part of the energy generation. A future purely inverter-based grid could be a viable solution, if its technical feasibility can be first validated. The focus of this work lies on inverter dominated microgrids, which are also mentioned as 'hybrid' in several instances throughout the thesis. Hybrid, as far as the energy input of each generator is concerned. Conventional fossil fuel based generators are connected in parallel to renewable energy sources as well as battery systems. The main contributions of this work comprise of: The analysis of detailed models and control structures of grid inverters, synchronous generators and battery packs and the utilization of these models to formulate control strategies for distributed generators. The developed strategies accomplish objectives in a wide time scale, from maintaining stability during faults and synchronization transients as well as optimizing load flow through communication-free distributed control. Die Struktur der modernen Energieversorgung hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten massiv geändert. Dezentrale Generatoren, die auf Wechselrichtern basieren, übernehmen einen großen Teil der Energieerzeugung. Ein ausschließlich wechselrichterbasiertes Netz wäre ein realistischer Ansatz, wenn seine technische Machbarkeit verifiziert werden könnte. Die wichtigste Beiträge dieser Arbeit sind: Die Analyse von Modellen und Regelstrukturen von Netzwechselrichtern, Synchrongeneratoren und Batterieanlagen. Die entwickelten Modelle werden verwendet, um Regelstrategien für dezentrale Generatoren in Mittelspannungsinselnetzen zu formulieren. Die erste Strategie ist eine Synchronisationsmethode für netzbildende Wechselrichter. Zweitens wird die Leistungsaufteilung in Mittelspannungsinselnetzen mittels Droop Regelung analysiert. Weiterhin erfolgt die Untersuchung der transienten Lastaufteilung zwischen netzbildenden Einheiten mit unterschiedlichen Zeitkonstanten. Beim Betrieb mehrerer paralleler Wechselrichter wird der Einfluss der Netzimpedanz auf die transiente Lastaufteilung analysiert. Die dritte entworfene Regelstrategie umfasst die Integration der Sekundärregelung in die Primärregelung. Der Ladezustand von Batterien wird mit der Lastaufteilung gekoppelt, um die Autonomie des Netzes zu stärken. Abschließend wird eine Kurzschlussstrategie für netzbildende und netzspeisende Wechselrichter entwickelt. Ziel der Strategie ist die Maximierung des Kurzschlussstromes. Als zusätzliche Randbedingung soll keine Kommunikation zwischen Generatoren stattfinden.
Electrical power systems are evolving at the generation, transmission, and distribution levels. At distribution level, small generating and storage units—the so-called distributed energy sources (DERs)—are being installed close to consumption sites. The expansion of DERs is empowering renewable energy source integration and, as a consequence, new actors are appearing in electrical systems. Among them, the prosumer is a game-changer; the fruit of the behavior transformation of the consumer who has not only the ability to consume power but also to produce it. Microgrids can be understood as DER installations that have the capability of both grid-connected and grid-isolated operation. During the last decades, there has been a significant deployment of microgrids (e.g., in countries like the United States, Switzerland, and Denmark) and a consequent increase in renewable energy generation. This is contributing to the decarbonization of electrical power systems. However, the variability and intermittency of renewable sources introduce uncertainty, which implies a more complex operation and control. Taking into account that existing and future planned microgrids are being/going to be interconnected to the current electrical network, challenges in terms of design, operation, and control at power system level need to be addressed, considering existing regulations.
Microgrids: Advanced Control Methods and Renewable Energy System Integration demonstrates the state-of-art of methods and applications of microgrid control, with eleven concise and comprehensive chapters. The first three chapters provide an overview of the control methods of microgrid systems that is followed by a review of distributed control and management strategies for the next generation microgrids. Next, the book identifies future research directions and discusses the hierarchical power sharing control in DC Microgrids. Chapter 4 investigates the demand side management in microgrid control systems from various perspectives, followed by an outline of the operation and controls of the smart microgrids in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 deals with control of low-voltage microgrids with master/slave architecture. The final chapters explain the load-Frequency Controllers for Distributed Power System Generation Units and the issue of robust control design for VSIs, followed by a communication solution denoted as power talk. Finally, in Chapter 11, real-time implementation of distributed control for an autonomous microgrid system is performed. Addresses issues of contemporary interest to practitioners in the power engineering and management fields Focuses on the role of microgrids within the overall power system structure and attempts to clarify the main findings relating to primary and secondary control and management at the microgrid level Provides results from a quantified assessment of benefits from economic, environmental, operational, and social point-of-views Presents the hierarchical control levels manifested in microgrid operations and evaluates the principles and main functions of centralized and decentralized control
Hybrid-Renewable Energy Systems in Microgrids: Integration, Developments and Control presents the most up-to-date research and developments on hybrid-renewable energy systems (HRES) in a single, comprehensive resource. With an enriched collection of topics pertaining to the control and management of hybrid renewable systems, this book presents recent innovations that are molding the future of power systems and their developing infrastructure. Topics of note include distinct integration solutions and control techniques being implemented into HRES that are illustrated through the analysis of various global case studies. With a focus on devices and methods to integrate different renewables, this book provides those researching and working in renewable energy solutions and power electronics with a firm understanding of the technologies available, converter and multi-level inverter considerations, and control and operation strategies. Includes significant case studies of control techniques and integration solutions which provide a deeper level of understanding and knowledge Combines existing research into a single informative resource on micro grids with HRES integration and control Includes architectural considerations and various control strategies for the operation of hybrid systems
Energy Storage for Sustainable Microgrid addresses the issues related to modelling, operation and control, steady-state and dynamic analysis of microgrids with ESS. This book discusses major electricity storage technologies in depth along with their efficiency, lifetime cycles, environmental benefits and capacity, so that readers can envisage which type of storage technology is best for a particular microgrid application. This book offers solutions to numerous difficulties such as choosing the right ESS for the particular microgrid application, proper sizing of ESS for microgrid, as well as design of ESS control systems for proper interfacing with the microgrid. Explanations for major power electronic converters/technology required to achieve the desired interfacing Case studies on the major impacts of energy storage on microgrid Detailed solutions for choosing the right ESS for particular microgrid applications Valuable economics chapter to help evaluate entire systems
Microgrids are the most innovative area in the electric power industry today. Future microgrids could exist as energy-balanced cells within existing power distribution grids or stand-alone power networks within small communities. A definitive presentation on all aspects of microgrids, this text examines the operation of microgrids – their control concepts and advanced architectures including multi-microgrids. It takes a logical approach to overview the purpose and the technical aspects of microgrids, discussing the social, economic and environmental benefits to power system operation. The book also presents microgrid design and control issues, including protection and explaining how to implement centralized and decentralized control strategies. Key features: original, state-of-the-art research material written by internationally respected contributors unique case studies demonstrating success stories from real-world pilot sites from Europe, the Americas, Japan and China examines market and regulatory settings for microgrids, and provides evaluation results under standard test conditions a look to the future – technical solutions to maximize the value of distributed energy along with the principles and criteria for developing commercial and regulatory frameworks for microgrids Offering broad yet balanced coverage, this volume is an entry point to this very topical area of power delivery for electric power engineers familiar with medium and low voltage distribution systems, utility operators in microgrids, power systems researchers and academics. It is also a useful reference for system planners and operators, manufacturers and network operators, government regulators, and postgraduate power systems students. CONTRIBUTORS Thomas Degner Aris Dimeas Alfred Engler Nuno Gil Asier Gil de Muro Guillermo Jiménez-Estévez George Kariniotakis George Korres André Madureira Meiqin Mao Chris Marnay Jose Miguel Yarza Satoshi Morozumi Alexander Oudalov Frank van Overbeeke Rodrigo Palma Behnke Joao Abel Pecas Lopes Fernanda Resende John Romankiewicz Christine Schwaegerl Nikos Soultanis Liang Tao Antonis Tsikalakis
|Author||: Shady H.E. Abdel Aleem,Almoataz Youssef Abdelaziz,Ahmed F. Zobaa,Ramesh Bansal|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2019-09-21|
|ISBN 10||: 0128166266|
|Pages||: 576 pages|
Decision Making Applications in Modern Power Systems presents an enhanced decision-making framework for power systems. Designed as an introduction to enhanced electricity system analysis using decision-making tools, it provides an overview of the different elements, levels and actors involved within an integrated framework for decision-making in the power sector. In addition, it presents a state-of-play on current energy systems, strategies, alternatives, viewpoints and priorities in support of decision-making in the electric power sector, including discussions of energy storage and smart grids. As a practical training guide on theoretical developments and the application of advanced methods for practical electrical energy engineering problems, this reference is ideal for use in establishing medium-term and long-term strategic plans for the electric power and energy sectors. Provides panoramic coverage of state-of-the-art energy systems, strategies and priorities in support of electrical power decision-making Introduces innovative research outcomes, programs, algorithms and approaches to address challenges in understanding, creating and managing complex techno-socio-economic engineering systems Includes practical training on theoretical developments and the application of advanced methods for realistic electrical energy engineering problems
In recent years, along with the rise of global warming issue, researches of renewable energy usage for producing electricity are sprung up. The penetration of renewable energy usage to microgrid brings new challenge as most of the renewable energy are unpredictable. In order to get optimal microgrid operation, integration of methods and softwares are needed in microgrid analysis. This study will use OpenDSS in cooperation with Matlab. Thus optimization algorithm implementation can be achieved by Matlab and simulations of microgrid performed in OpenDSS. The establishment constructs a flexible framework for microgrid analysis which is extensible for various practical studies.
The analysis of energy systems is of paramount importance in modern societies, since it is fundamental to guarantee a sustainable economic development. It combines technical and economic research with a specific focus on quantitative modelling, in order to optimize the modalities of energy demand and supply globally. The book covers major advanced topics related to the analysis of energy by considering different aspects, namely management, planning and policies. The most recent trends, such as smart grids, transition from fossil fuels to renewables based energy systems and distributed generation, are also discussed in this book. Intended to be a collection of various contributions from experts all around the world, it includes latest research results, innovations and methodologies about the analysis of energy systems. The book also focuses to contribute to the current debate related to the evolution of energy systems, by discussing in an open way the pro’s and con’s without any pre-constitute point of view. Title is aimed to be a reference for the academic community, students and professionals with a wider interdisciplinary background. Key Features: Presents integration of renewable sources with conventional energy systems. Topic is addressed from a multidisciplinary point of view, i.e. economy, technical, modelling, planning. Investigates management and planning aspects of future energy supplies. Multidimensional nature of energy systems is highlighted and discussed. Contributes towards implementing policy measures to reduce primary energy consumptions and carbon footprint.
This book constitutes the postproceedings of the First International Conference on Energy-Efficient Computing and Networking, E-Energy, held in Passau, Germany in April 2010. The 23 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the post-proceedings. The papers are organized in topical sections on energy market and algorithms, ICT technology for the energy market, implementation of smart grid and smart home technology, microgrids and energy management, and energy efficiency through distributed energy management and buildings.
Fuel Cell Micro-grids describes an energy supply method based on a network of two or more proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM-FC). Such a network enables the effective use of exhaust heat, the simplification of the transmission network, the possibility of backup during disruptive hazards and the consideration of regional factors. Furthermore, green energy and renewable energy systems can be connected to the network, to function in cooperation with the fuel cells. For these reasons, it is believed that an increasing number of applications will make use of such fuel cell energy networks. Fuel Cell Micro-grids analyses the operation plan of these new energy supply methods using genetic algorithms. The book explains the results of the analysis of the optimization operation plan, energy cost, and greenhouse gas discharge characteristics for many application cases of the fuel cell network.
|Author||: Alexis Kwasinski,Wayne Weaver,Robert S. Balog|
|Publisher||: Cambridge University Press|
|Release Date||: 2016-07-14|
|ISBN 10||: 1107012791|
|Pages||: 450 pages|
A graduate text and professional reference covering all aspects of microgrid design and applications.
|Author||: Mohsen Shiralizadeh Nemati|
|Publisher||: kassel university press GmbH|
|Release Date||: 2018-04-16|
|ISBN 10||: 3737604649|
|Pages||: 187 pages|
Energy Management System (EMS) applications of modern power networks like microgrids have to respond to a number of stringent challenges due to current energy revolution. Optimal resource dispatch tasks must be handled with specific regard to the addition of new resource types and the adoption of novel modeling considerations. In addition, due to the comprehensive changes concerning the multi cell grid structure, new policies should be fulfilled via microgrids’ EMS. At the same time achieving a variety of conflicting goals in different microgrids requires a universal and a multi criteria optimization tool. In this work two dispatch-optimizers based on genetic algorithm and mixed integer linear programming for a centralized EMS are introduced which can schedule the unit commitment and economic dispatch of microgrid units. In the proposed methods, different network restrictions like voltages and equipment loadings and unit constraints have been considered.
|Author||: Zhixiong Zhong|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2019-10-28|
|ISBN 10||: 1351032453|
|Pages||: 379 pages|
Due to increasing economic and environmental pressures, small-scale grids have received increasing attention in the last fifteen years. These renewable sources, such as solar PVs, wind turbines, and fuel cells, integrated with grid, have changed the way we live our lives. This book describes microgrid dynamics modeling and nonlinear control issues from introductory to the advanced steps. The book addresses the most relevant challenges in microgrid protection and control including modeling, uncertainty, stability issues, local control, coordination control, power quality, and economic dispatch.
|Release Date||: 2018|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Abstract: Constant power loads (CPLs) often cause instability due to its negative impedance characteristics. In this study, the stability of a DC microgrid with CPLs under a distributed control that aims at current sharing and voltage recovery is analyzed. The effect of the negative impedance on the behavior of distributed controller is investigated. The small-signal model is established to predict the system qualitative behavior around equilibrium. The stability conditions of the system with time delay are derived based on the equivalent linearized model. Additionally, eigenvalue analysis based on inertia theorem provides analytical sufficient conditions as a function of the system parameters, and thus it leads to a design guideline to build reliable microgrids. Simulations are performed to confirm the effectiveness and validity of the proposed method.
|Author||: Papia Ray|
|Publisher||: Springer Nature|
|ISBN 10||: 9811517819|
|Pages||: 329 pages|