The gut-brain axis has gained considerable attention from different branches of the scientific community in recent years. In this book, scientists from different disciplines present current scientific knowledge on the topic. The interaction between the prokaryote and eukaryote cells stimulates the evolutionary processes, and results in various systemic illnesses such as neuropsychiatric disorders and may help the continuity of health. Nature has provided us with healthy food that builds our pharmacy. This natural pharmacy store may help the body's healing processes through its effects on gut microbiota and the immune system. This book aims to provide the reader with detailed analyses of the current scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis and its relation with health and disease. We hope that the reader benefits from the presented material.
Microbiota-Brain Axis: A Neuroscience Primer provides neuroscience researchers with a comprehensive guide on how to conduct effective microbiota-brain research, understand the appropriate methodologies, and collect and analyze microbiota data. The book begins with an introduction to the importance of the microbiota-brain communication in development and how microbiota impact neurodevelopmental disorders, mental health and neurodegeneration. In addition, the book discusses advances in microbiota analysis tools and techniques for neuroscience related research. Reviews the many approaches to manipulating the microbiota in animal studies - including the use of germ-free animals, antibiotics and diet - and covers the strengths and limitations of each Outlines available microbiota research tools, such as 16S sequencing and shot-gun metagenomics Provides a comprehensive guide to analyzing microbiota-related data and the many choices for bioinformatics
The Gut-Brain Axis: Dietary, Probiotic, and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota examines the potential for microbial manipulation as a therapeutic avenue in central nervous system disorders in which an altered microbiota has been implicated, and explores the mechanisms, sometimes common, by which the microbiota may contribute to such disorders. Focuses on specific areas in which the microbiota has been implicated in gut-brain communication Examines common mechanisms and pathways by which the microbiota may influence brain and behavior Identifies novel therapeutic strategies targeted toward the microbiota in the management of brain activity and behavior
Microbial endocrinology represents a newly emerging interdisciplinary field that is formed by the intersection of the fields of neurobiology and microbiology. This book will introduce a new perspective to the current understanding not only of the factors that mediate the ability of microbes to cause disease, but also to the mechanisms that maintain normal homeostasis. The discovery that microbes can directly respond to neuroendocrine hormones, as evidenced by increased growth and production of virulence-associated factors, provides for a new framework with which to investigate how microorganisms interface not only with vertebrates, but also with invertebrates and even plants. The reader will learn that the neuroendocrine hormones that one most commonly associates with mammals are actually found throughout the plant, insect and microbial communities to an extent that will undoubtedly surprise many, and most importantly, how interactions between microbes and neuroendocrine hormones can influence the pathophysiology of infectious disease.
|Author||: Mark Lyte,John F. Cryan|
|Release Date||: 2014-07-05|
|ISBN 10||: 1493908979|
|Pages||: 436 pages|
The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.
Chances are, at some point in your life you’ve noticed the connection between your brain and your gut. If you’ve ever felt queasy as you walked into an uncomfortable situation or based a life decision based on a “gut feeling,” then you know that sometimes our bodies react faster than our minds. Most of us have also experienced the same phenomenon in reverse, where our mental state has affected our digestive system—like the butterflies in our stomach before an important meeting or a first date. But while the dialogue between the mind and the gut has been recognized for centuries, scientists today are just starting to understand how powerful that connection is. In The Mind-Gut Connection, Dr. Emeran Mayer, executive director of the UCLA Oppenheimer Center for the Neurobiology of Stress, offers a cutting-edge view into this developing science, showing us the full impact of how the brain, gut, and microbiome—the community of microorganisms that live inside the digestive tract—communicate. As Dr. Mayer explains, when this communication channel is out of whack, major health problems can crop up, including food sensitivities and allergies, digestive disorders, obesity, depression, anxiety, and fatigue. The Mind-Gut Connection teaches us how, with a few simple changes to our diet and lifestyle, we can enjoy a happier mindset, enhanced immunity, a decreased risk of developing neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, and even lose weight. With a simple, practical regimen drawn from the latest research, Dr. Mayer shows us that paying attention to the mind-gut balance is the key to unlocking vibrant health.
|Author||: M. Mohamed Essa,M. Walid Qoronfleh|
|Publisher||: Springer Nature|
|Release Date||: 2020-01-31|
|ISBN 10||: 3030304027|
|Pages||: 693 pages|
The book focuses on implications of traditional and processed foods for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) intervention and management. Numerous phytonutrients and pharmacologically active compounds in edible natural products and diet could influence and offer protection to neuronal dysfunction that occurs due to ASD. The neuroprotective effects of various fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds phytochemicals, and other natural bioactive ingredients against ASD and related conditions are discussed. Topics such as the possible neuroprotective mechanism of action of these foods and the therapeutic role of antioxidants in relation to ASD are addressed. This book also highlights the scope of using anti-inflammatory agents and antioxidants to promote neurogenesis and improve other symptoms in ASD. It emphasizes personalized nutritional approaches with dietary management of neurodevelopmental disorders/ASD cases. Information in this book is relevant to researchers in the field of complementary and alternative medicine, nutraceuticals, neuroscience, agriculture, nutrition, and food science. This volume is beneficial to students of varying levels, and across multiple disciplines.
Aging well and actively is the real objective of human being. This book is an up-to-date and realistic view on physiopathological mechanisms of aging and age-related diseases. The book includes topical contributions from multiple disciplines to support the fundamental goals of extending active life and enhancing its quality.
Brain related disorders are among the most challenging health issues of our time. The development of effective therapeutic and preventive strategies for these disorders relies on a comprehensive understanding of the underlying causative mechanisms. And, until recently, these mechanisms have remained somewhat elusive. The newly discovered pivotal role of the intestinal microbiome in brain health, functionality, and resistance to disease is revolutionizing neuroscience. The Microbiome and the Brain, through the contributions of some of the most forward thinking researchers and clinicians in the field, comprehensively reveals the leading edge of our understanding of the fundamental role of gut microbes and their metabolites in a wide array of seemingly diverse brain issues including Alzheimer’s disease, autism, multiple sclerosis, and mood disorders. In addition, mechanisms defining these relationships are explored along with a presentation of the state-of-the-art as it relates to interpretation of relevant laboratory assessments. Finally, novel therapeutic opportunities, derived from this exciting science are presented. Readers will learn: The highly validated relationship between alterations of gut microbes and their metabolites, and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. The important link between autism and intestinal dysbiosis. Appropriate interpretation of available laboratory assessments of the intestinal microbiome. The potential role of fecal microbial transplant in neurological diseases. The influence of diet and other lifestyle choices on the microbiome as it relates to brain health and functionality.
Drawing on expert opinions from the fields of nutrition, gut microbiology, mammalian physiology, and immunology, Diet-Microbe Interactions for Human Health investigates the evidence for a unified disease mechanism working through the gut and its resident microbiota, and linking many inflammation-related chronic diet associated diseases. State of the art post-genomic studies can highlight the important role played by our resident intestinal microbiota in determining human health and disease. Many chronic human diseases associated with modern lifestyles and diets — including those localized to the intestinal tract like inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, and more pervasive systemic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease — are characterized by aberrant profiles of gut bacteria or their metabolites. Many of these diseases have an inflammatory basis, often presenting with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, hinting at persistent and inappropriate activation of inflammatory pathways. Through the presentation and analysis of recent nutrition studies, this book discusses the possible mechanisms underpinning the disease processes associated with these pathologies, with high fat diets appearing to predispose to disease, and biologically active plant components, mainly fiber and polyphenols, appearing to reduce the risk of chronic disease development. One comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of nutrition and diet's effect on gastrointestinal health and disease Experts in nutrition, diet, microbiology and immunology take readers from the bench research (cellular and biochemical mechanisms of vitamins and nutrients) to new preventive and therapeutic approaches Clear presentations by leading researchers of the cellular mechanisms underlying diet, immune response, and gastrointestinal disease help practicing nutritionists and clinicians (gastroenterologists, endocrinologists) map out new areas for clinical research and structuring clinical recommendations
|Author||: Manon Mathias,Alison M. Moore|
|Release Date||: 2018-11-17|
|ISBN 10||: 3030018571|
|Pages||: 276 pages|
This book considers the historical and cultural origins of the gut-brain relationship now evidenced in numerous scientific research fields. Bringing together eleven scholars with wide interdisciplinary expertise, the volume examines literal and metaphorical digestion in different spheres of nineteenth-century life. Digestive health is examined in three sections in relation to science, politics and literature during the period, focusing on Northern America, Europe and Australia. Using diverse methodologies, the essays demonstrate that the long nineteenth century was an important moment in the Western understanding and perception of the gastroenterological system and its relation to the mind in the sense of cognition, mental wellbeing, and the emotions. This collection explores how medical breakthroughs are often historically preceded by intuitive models imagined throughout a range of cultural productions.
|Author||: Dorina Papageorgiou,George Christopoulos,Stelios Smirnakis|
|Publisher||: BoD – Books on Demand|
|Release Date||: 2014-05-31|
|ISBN 10||: 9535112031|
|Pages||: 680 pages|
The brain is the most complex computational device we know, consisting of highly interacting and redundant networks of areas, supporting specific brain functions. The rules by which these areas organize themselves to perform specific computations have only now started to be uncovered. Advances in non-invasive neuroimaging technologies have revolutionized our understanding of the functional anatomy of cortical circuits in health and disease states, which is the focus of this book. The first section of this book focuses on methodological issues, such as combining functional MRI technology with other brain imaging modalities. The second section examines the application of brain neuroimaging to understand cognitive, visual, auditory, motor and decision-making networks, as well as neurological diseases. The use of non-invasive neuroimaging technologies will continue to stimulate an exponential growth in understanding basic brain processes, largely as a result of sustained advances in neuroimaging methods and applications.
In the last decades, the importance of gut microbiome has been linked to medical research on different diseases. Developments of other medical disciplines (human clinical pharmacology, clinical nutrition and dietetics, everyday medical treatments of antibiotics, changes in nutritional inhabits in different countries) also called attention to study the changes in the gut microbiome. This book contains five excellent review chapters in the field of gut microbiome, written by researchers from the USA, Canada, China, and India. These chapters present a critical review about some clinically important changes in the gut microbiome in the development of some human diseases and therapeutic possibilities (liver disease, cardiovascular diseases, brain diseases, gastrointestinal diseases). The book brings to attention the essential role of gut microbiome in keeping our life healthy. This book is addressed to experts of microbiology, podiatrists, gastroenterologists, internists, nutritional experts, cardiologists, basic and clinical researchers, as well as experts in the field of food industry.
Written by the leading researchers in the field, this information-rich guide to improving your mood explains how gut health drives psychological well-being, and how depression and anxiety can be relieved by adjusting your intestinal bacteria. This groundbreaking book explains the revolutionary new science of psychobiotics and the discovery that your brain health and state of mind are intimately connected to your microbiome, that four-pound population of microbes living inside your intestines. Leading medical researchers John F. Cryan and Ted Dinan, working with veteran journalist Scott C. Anderson, explain how common mental health problems, particularly depression and anxiety, can be improved by caring for the intestinal microbiome. Science is proving that a healthy gut means a healthy mind—and this book details the steps you can take to change your mood and improve your life by nurturing your microbiome.
This book, Physical Disabilities - Therapeutic Implications, presents reports on a wide range of areas in the field of neurobiological disabilities, including movement disorders (Uner Tan syndrome, genetic and environmental influences, chronic brain damage, stroke, and pediatric disabilities) related to physical and stem cell therapy. Studies are presented from researchers around the world, looking at aspects as wide-ranging as the genetics, wheelchair, and robotics behind the conditions to new and innovative therapeutic approaches.
The word melanin refers to dark natural pigments produced by the oxidative degradation of tyrosine, catalyzed by tyrosinase, and polymerized into insoluble granular substance. The main function of melanin is to protect from harmful agents, primarily UV radiation, but also from oxidation, heavy metals, etc. In this volume, chapters deal with production of melanin in human oral mucosa (Liviu et al.), the regulation of melanin action (Cecile et al.), production and potential technological application of fungal melanins (Pombiero-Sponchiado et al.) and an innovative method for measuring melanin in various samples (Zdybel et al.). In conclusion, this volume presents various biological and industrial aspects of melanin production, uses and analysis.
|Author||: Martin H. Floch,Yehuda Ringel,W. Allen Walker|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2016-11-16|
|ISBN 10||: 0128040629|
|Pages||: 442 pages|
The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology: Implications for Human Health, Prebiotics, Probiotics and Dysbiosis is a one-stop reference on the state-of-the-art research on gut microbial ecology in relation to human disease. This important resource starts with an overview of the normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach, Ileum, and colon. The book then identifies what a healthy vs. unhealthy microbial community looks like, including methods of identification. Also included is insight into which features and contributions the microbiota make that are essential and useful to host physiology, as is information on how to promote appropriate mutualisms and prevent undesirable dysbioses. Through the power of synthesizing what is known by experienced researchers in the field, current gaps are closed, raising understanding of the role of the microbiome and allowing for further research. Explains how to modify the gut microbiota and how the current strategies used to do this produce their effects Explores the gut microbiota as a therapeutic target Provides the synthesis of existing data from both mainstream and non-mainstream sources through experienced researchers in the field Serves as a ‘one-stop’ shop for a topic that’s currently spread across a number of various journals
Microbiota-associated pathology can be a direct result of changes in general bacterial composition, such as might be found in periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis, and/or as the result of colonization and/or overgrowth of so called keystone species. The disruption in the composition of the normal human microbiota, or dysbiosis, plays an integral role in human health and human disease. The Human Microbiota and Human Chronic Disease: Dysbioses as a Cause of Human Pathology discusses the role of the microbiota in maintaining human health. The text introduces the reader to the biology of microbial dysbiosis and its potential role in both bacterial disease and in idiopathic chronic disease states. Divided into five sections, the text delineates the concept of the human bacterial microbiota with particular attention being paid to the microbiotae of the gut, oral cavity and skin. A key methodology for exploring the microbiota, metagenomics, is also described. The book then shows the reader the cellular, molecular and genetic complexities of the bacterial microbiota, its myriad connections with the host and how these can maintain tissue homeostasis. Chapters then consider the role of dysbioses in human disease states, dealing with two of the commonest bacterial diseases of humanity – periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis. The composition of some, if not all microbiotas can be controlled by the diet and this is also dealt with in this section. The discussion moves on to the major ‘idiopathic’ diseases afflicting humans, and the potential role that dysbiosis could play in their induction and chronicity. The book then concludes with the therapeutic potential of manipulating the microbiota, introducing the concepts of probiotics, prebiotics and the administration of healthy human faeces (faecal microbiota transplantation), and then hypothesizes as to the future of medical treatment viewed from a microbiota-centric position. Provides an introduction to dysbiosis, or a disruption in the composition of the normal human microbiota Explains how microbiota-associated pathology and other chronic diseases can result from changes in general bacterial composition Explores the relationship humans have with their microbiota, and its significance in human health and disease Covers host genetic variants and their role in the composition of human microbial biofilms, integral to the relationship between human health and human disease Authored and edited by leaders in the field, The Human Microbiota and Human Chronic Disease will be an invaluable resource for clinicians, pathologists, immunologists, cell and molecular biologists, biochemists, and system biologists studying cellular and molecular bases of human diseases.
Our understanding of the intricate nature of the immune response on both a cellular and molecular level has both contributed to and benefited from the work of immunopharmacologists. An increasing number of immunologists have become interested in agents which exert selective effects on the immune system. This has prompted the development of the subject of immunopharmacology which broadly addresses the effects of natural and synthetic substances on the immune response