Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments: Structure and Functions presents research gained on coastal microbiology over the past two decades. The book covers the source of organic matter, which is found to design sediment microbial communities, and goes on to consider the quality of this matter with regard to degradation in coastal sediment. The book explores human induced changes in coastal ecosystems, then later focuses on the availability of nutrients, source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the sediment, and the sequencing of microbial structures and functions when using molecular tools. Despite the years of research, this is the first book to focus purely on coastal microbes in coastal ecosystems. As such, it is for gaining a better understanding of the diversity and functions of different types of microbes in coastal ecosystems across the globe. The book outlines the microbial community structure in marine sediments while also elaborating on the methods of assessment of the microbial community, making it of great relevance to aquatic microbiologists, marine ecologists, marine microbiologists, aquatic researchers, and scientists alike. Presents data on physico-chemical and biological features of coastal ecosystems and microbial community composition, allowing researchers to compare their data with pre-existing data Includes unique figures, schematic diagrams and photographs related to microbial processes of coastal ecosystems, providing a clear representation on the different aspects of microbial structure and functions Provides analytical methods and detailed molecular techniques for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microbial community structure, enabling scientists and students to follow the protocols provided in the book for assessment in their own research
|Author||: Susma Bhattarai Gautam|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2018-08-14|
|ISBN 10||: 9781138330214|
|Pages||: 250 pages|
Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (AOM-SR) is a biological process mediated by anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria. It has scientific and societal relevance in regulating the global carbon and biotechnological application for treating sulfate-rich wastewater. However, the detailed knowledge on ANME community is less available. This research aimed to enhance the recent knowledge on ANME distribution and enrichment in different bioreactor configurations, i.e. membrane bioreactor (MBR), biotrickling filter (BTF) and high pressure bioreactor (HPB). AOM-SR was observed in the coastal sediments from marine Lake Grevelingen (the Netherlands), which was dominated by ANME-3 among known ANME types. The BTF operation showed the enrichment of ANME in the biofilm, especially ANME-1 (40%) and ANME-2 (10%). Interestingly, in the MBR, dominancy of aggregates of ANME-2 and Desulfosarcina were observed. Moreover, during the study of highly enriched ANME-2a clade from cold seep in HPB at different temperature and pressure conditions, the incubation at 10 MPa pressure and 15oC was observed to be the most suitable condition for the ANME-2a phylotype, which is similar to in situ conditions where the biomass was sampled, i.e. Captain Aryutinov mud volcano, Gulf of Cadiz.
This accessible textbook provides an ideal point of entry into the field, providing basic information on the nature of soft-sediment ecosystems, examples of how and why we research them, the new questions these studies inspire, and the applications that ultimately benefit society.
|Author||: Stefan M. Sievert|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2019-04-05|
|ISBN 10||: 2889458075|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Marine environments are fluid. Microorganisms living in the ocean experience diverse environmental changes over wide spatiotemporal scales. For microorganisms and their communities to survive and function in the ocean, they need to have the capacity to sense, respond to, adapt to and/or withstand periodic and sporadic environmental changes. This eBook collates a variety of recent research reports and theoretical discussions on the ecoenergetic strategies, community structure, biogeochemical and ecosystem functions as well as regulatory processes and mechanisms that marine microorganisms employ in response to environmental gradients and variations.
|Author||: Baolin Sun|
|Release Date||: 1999|
|Pages||: 218 pages|
Deep subsurface microbiology is a highly active and rapidly advancing research field at the interface of microbiology and the geosciences; it focuses on the detection, identification, quantification, cultivation and activity measurements of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes that permeate the subsurface biosphere of deep marine sediments and the basaltic ocean and continental crust. The deep subsurface biosphere abounds with uncultured, only recently discovered and – at best - incompletely understood microbial populations. In spatial extent and volume, Earth's subsurface biosphere is only rivaled by the deep sea water column. So far, no deep subsurface sediment has been found that is entirely devoid of microbial life; microbial cells and DNA remain detectable at sediment depths of more than 1 km; microbial life permeates deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs, and is also found several kilometers down in continental crust aquifers. Severe energy limitation, either as electron acceptor or donor shortage, and scarcity of microbially degradable organic carbon sources are among the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the genomic and physiological repertoire of the deep subsurface biosphere. Its biogeochemical role as long-term organic carbon repository, inorganic electron and energy source, and subduction recycling engine continues to be explored by current research at the interface of microbiology, geochemistry and biosphere/geosphere evolution. This Research Topic addresses some of the central research questions about deep subsurface microbiology and biogeochemistry: phylogenetic and physiological microbial diversity in the deep subsurface; microbial activity and survival strategies in severely energy-limited subsurface habitats; microbial activity as reflected in process rates and gene expression patterns; biogeographic isolation and connectivity in deep subsurface microbial communities; the ecological standing of subsurface biospheres in comparison to the surface biosphere – an independently flourishing biosphere, or mere survivors that tolerate burial (along with organic carbon compounds), or a combination of both? Advancing these questions on Earth’s deep subsurface biosphere redefines the habitat range, environmental tolerance, activity and diversity of microbial life.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Antarctic Research Series, Volume 72. The McMurdo Dry Valleys of southern Victoria Land comprise the largest ice?]free expanse (about 4000 km2) on the Antarctic continent. Research in this region began during British expeditions of the early 1900's and has yielded much information on specific physical, chemical and biological features of the area. Only recently have scientists begun to view the region as an integrated system which includes dynamic interactions among biotic and abiotic components of the environment. The McMurdo Dry Valleys represents the coldest and driest desert on this planet. Photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms that are intimately linked with the presence of liquid water and nutrients dominate the biological assemblages. Owing to the low average temperature (−20° C) in the region, liquid water is a rare commodity that often exists for a short period only and occurs in many inconspicuous places. It is now clear that the presence of liquid water produces a cascade of tightly coupled events that ultimately leads to the biological production and cycling of organic carbon and related elements. It also is clear that an integrated knowledge of biological, chemical, and physical factors is required to understand biogeochemical dynamics within the cold desert ecosystem of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. While various aspects of this ecosystem have formed the basis of several excellent publications, the compendium of manuscripts published within this volume represents a first attempt to compile complementary information on the abiotic and biotic components of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and link them in a final synthesis chapter.
This book describes the state-of-the-art concerning the ‘marine microbiome’ and its uses in biotechnology. The first part discusses the diversity and ecology of marine microorganisms and viruses, including all three domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. It discusses whether marine microorganisms exist and, if so, why they might be unique. The second part presents selected marine habitats, their inhabitants and how they influence biogeochemical cycles, while the third discusses the utilization of marine microbial resources, including legal aspects, dissemination, and public awareness. The marine microbiome is the total of microorganisms and viruses in the ocean and seas and in any connected environment, including the seafloor and marine animals and plants. The diversity of microbial life remains unquantified and largely unknown, and could represent a hidden treasure for human society. Accordingly, this book is also intended to connect academics and industry, providing essential information for microbiologists from both fields.
Over the last two decades, exploration of the deep subsurface biosphere has developed into a major research area. New findings constantly challenge our concepts of global biogeochemical cycles and the ultimate limits to life. In order to explain our observations from deep subsurface ecosystems it is necessary to develop truly interdisciplinary approaches, ranging from microbiology and geochemistry to physics and modeling. This book aims to bring together a wide variety of topics, covering the broad range of issues that are associated with deep biosphere exploration. Not only does the book present case studies of selected projects, but also treats questions arising from our current knowledge. Despite nearly two decades of research, there are still many boundaries to exploration caused by technical limitations and one section of the book is devoted to these technical challenges and the latest developments in this field. This volume will be of high interest to biologists, chemists and earth scientists all working on the deep biosphere.
This book presents the state-of-art marine metagenome research and explains the method of marine metagenomic analysis in an easy-to-understand manner. Changes in the marine environment due to global warming and pollution have become a major global problem. Maintaining a healthy marine ecosystem requires advanced environmental monitoring and assessment systems. As such, the book presents a novel metagenomic monitoring method, which has been developed for comprehensive analyses of the DNA of microorganisms living in seawater to further our understanding of the dynamics of the marine environment. The book can be used as a primer for new researchers and as a manual on experimental methods.
|Author||: Christon J. Hurst|
|Release Date||: 2019-05-13|
|ISBN 10||: 3030167755|
|Pages||: 351 pages|
This book discusses how aquatic microbial communities develop interactive metabolic coordination both within and between species to optimize their energetics. It explains that microbial community structuration often includes functional stratification among a multitude of organisms that variously exist either suspended in the water, lodged in sediments, or bound to one another as biofilms on solid surfaces. The authors describe techniques that can be used for preparing and distributing microbiologically safe drinking water, which presents the challenge of successfully removing the pathogenic members of the aquatic microbial community and then safely delivering that water to consumers. Drinking water distribution systems have their own microbial ecology, which we must both understand and control in order to maintain the safety of the water supply. Since studying aquatic microorganisms often entails identifying them, the book also discusses techniques for successfully isolating and cultivating bacteria. As such, it appeals to microbiologists, microbial ecologists and water quality scientists.