Microbial and Natural Macromolecules: Synthesis and Applications brings together active scientists and academicians in the field who share updated information and research outcomes from global experts. Microbial macromolecular diversity, molecular composure, genetics, usability of advanced molecular tools and techniques for their study as well as their applicability are discussed with detailed research perspectives. Illustrates fundamental discoveries and methodological advancements Discusses novel functional attributes of macromolecules Updates progress on microbial macromolecular research
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2009-04-10|
|ISBN 10||: 0080923356|
|Pages||: 350 pages|
Microbial natural products have been an important traditional source of valuable antibiotics and other drugs but interest in them waned in the 1990s when big pharma decided that their discovery was no longer cost-effective and concentrated instead on synthetic chemistry as a source of novel compounds, often with disappointing results. Moreover understanding the biosynthesis of complex natural products was frustratingly difficult. With the development of molecular genetic methods to isolate and manipulate the complex microbial enzymes that make natural products, unexpected chemistry has been revealed and interest in the compounds has again flowered. This two-volume treatment of the subject will showcase the most important chemical classes of complex natural products: the peptides, made by the assembly of short chains of amino acid subunits, and the polyketides, assembled from the joining of small carboxylic acids such as acetate and malonate. In both classes, variation in sub-unit structure, number and chemical modification leads to an almost infinite variety of final structures, accounting for the huge importance of the compounds in nature and medicine. * Gathers tried and tested methods and techniques from top players in the field. * In depth coverage of ribosomally-synthesised and Non-ribosomally-synthesised peptides. * Provides an extremely useful reference for the experienced research scientist.
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2009-04-11|
|ISBN 10||: 9780080923369|
|Pages||: 398 pages|
Microbial natural products have been an important traditional source of valuable antibiotics and other drugs but interest in them waned in the 1990s when big pharma decided that their discovery was no longer cost-effective and concentrated instead on synthetic chemistry as a source of novel compounds, often with disappointing results. Moreover understanding the biosynthesis of complex natural products was frustratingly difficult. With the development of molecular genetic methods to isolate and manipulate the complex microbial enzymes that make natural products, unexpected chemistry has been revealed and interest in the compounds has again flowered. This two-volume treatment of the subject will showcase the most important chemical classes of complex natural products: the peptides, made by the assembly of short chains of amino acid subunits, and the polyketides, assembled from the joining of small carboxylic acids such as acetate and malonate. In both classes, variation in sub-unit structure, number and chemical modification leads to an almost infinite variety of final structures, accounting for the huge importance of the compounds in nature and medicine. * Gathers tried and tested methods and techniques from top players in the field. * Provides an extremely useful reference for the experienced research scientist. * Covers biosynthesis of Polyketides, Tarpenoids, Aminocoumarins and Crabohydrates
Microbial ecology is the study of interactions among microbes in natural environments and their roles in biogeochemical cycles, food web dynamics, and the evolution of life. Microbes are the most numerous organisms in the biosphere and mediate many critical reactions in elemental cycles and biogeochemical reactions. Because microbes are essential players in the carbon cycle and related processes, microbial ecology is a vital science for understanding the role of the biosphere in global warming and the response of natural ecosystems to climate change. This novel textbook discusses the major processes carried out by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and other protists - the microbes - in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. It focuses on biogeochemical processes, starting with primary production and the initial fixation of carbon into cellular biomass, before exploring how that carbon is degraded in both oxygen-rich (oxic) and oxygen-deficient (anoxic) environments. These biogeochemical processes are affected by ecological interactions, including competition for limiting nutrients, viral lysis, and predation by various protists in soils and aquatic habitats. The book neatly connects processes occurring at the micron scale to events happening at the global scale, including the carbon cycle and its connection to climate change issues. A final chapter is devoted to symbiosis and other relationships between microbes and larger organisms. Microbes have huge impacts not only on biogeochemical cycles, but also on the ecology and evolution of more complex forms of life, including Homo sapiens..
|Author||: Kui Hong,Changsheng Zhang,Alan Dobson|
|Release Date||: 2020-01-07|
|ISBN 10||: 3039280902|
|Pages||: 202 pages|
Two review papers, eight research articles, and one brief report were published in this Special Issue. They showed the rich resources that are present within the genomes of marine microorganisms and discussed the use of recently developed tools and technologies to exploit this genetic richness. Examples include the rational supply of precursors according to the relevant biosynthetic pathway and stress driven discovery together with the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors to facilitate the discovery of new bioactive molecules with potential biopharmaceutical applications. We believe that the content of this Special Issue reflects the current state-of-the-art research in this area and highlights the interesting strategies that are being employed to uncover increasing numbers of exciting novel compounds for drug discovery from marine genetic resources.
Marine micro-organisms play a vital role in the maintenance of our planet, a fact which will have great bearing on our ability to respond to problems such as population increase, over-exploitation of fisheries, climate change and population. Powerful new tools, especially in molecular biology, remote sending and deep-sea exploration, have led to astonishing discoveries of the abundance and diversity of marine microbial life and its role in global ecology. New tools and an increased interest in ecological factors have caused an upsurge of interest in this field of study. The book aims to convey the fascinating discoveries and great importance of this fast moving discipline to the student. Marine Microbiology is divided into three sections: the first reviews the main features of the marine environment and key aspects of marine microbial life; the second looks at the role of marine microorganisms in ecology, and the final section considers some of the applications of this knowledge, looking into areas such as disease and biodegradation.
|Author||: P. M. Huang,M. Schnitzer|
|Publisher||: Soil Science Society of Amer|
|Release Date||: 1986|
|Pages||: 606 pages|
Nitrogen is an essential element in biological systems, and one that often limits production in both aquatic and terrestrial systems. Due to its requirement in biological macromolecules, its acquisition and cycling have the potential to structure microbial communities, as well as to control productivity on the ecosystem scale. In addition, its versatile redox chemistry is the basis of complex biogeochemical transformations that control the inventory of fixed nitrogen, both in local environments and over geological time. Although many of the pathways in the microbial nitrogen cycle were described more than a century ago, additional fundamental pathways have been discovered only recently. These findings imply that we still have much to learn about the microbial nitrogen cycle, the organisms responsible for it, and their interactions in natural and human environments. Progress in nitrogen cycle research has been facilitated by recent rapid technological advances, especially in genomics and isotopic approaches. In this Research Topic, we reviewed the leading edge of nitrogen cycle research based on these approaches, as well as by exploring microbial processes in modern ecosystems.
|Author||: Martin Kussmann,Patrick J. Stover|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2017-03-21|
|ISBN 10||: 1119101255|
|Pages||: 344 pages|
Now in a revised second edition, Nutrigenomics and Proteomics in Health and Disease brings together the very latest science based upon nutrigenomics and proteomics in food and health. Coverage includes many important nutraceuticals and their impact on gene interaction and health. Authored by an international team of multidisciplinary researchers, this book acquaints food and nutrition professionals with these new fields of nutrition research and conveys the state of the science to date. Thoroughly updated to reflect the most current developments in the field, the second edition includes six new chapters covering gut health and the personal microbiome; gut microbe-derived bioactive metabolites; proteomics and peptidomics in nutrition; gene selection for nutrigenomic studies; gene-nutrient network analysis, and nutrigenomics to nutritional systems biology. An additional five chapters have also been significantly remodelled. The new text includes a rethinking of in vitro and in vivo models with regard to their translatability into human phenotypes, and normative science methods and approaches have been complemented by more comprehensive systems biology-based investigations, deploying a multitude of omic platforms in an integrated fashion. Innovative tools and methods for statistical treatment and biological network analysis are also now included.
Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are the key components for the aggregation of microorganisms in biofilms, flocs and sludge. They are composed of polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and other biological macromolecules. EPS provide a highly hydrated gel matrix in which microbial cells can establish stable synergistic consortia. Cohesion and adhesion as well as morphology, structure, biological function and other properties such as mechanical stability, diffusion, sorption and optical properties of microbial aggregates are determined by the EPS matrix. Also, the protection of biofilm organisms against biocides is attributed to the EPS. Their matrix allows phase separation in biofiltration and is also important for the degradation of particulate material which is of great importance for the self purification processes in surface waters and for waste water treatment. In this volume, analysis, characterization, composition, regulation, function and interactions of microbial EPS are covered.
This book highlights analytical chemistry instrumentation and practices applied to the analysis of natural products and their complex mixtures, describing techniques for isolating and characterizing natural products. • Applies analytical techniques to natural products research – an area of critical importance to drug discovery • Offers a one-stop shop for most analytical methods: x-ray diffraction, NMR analysis, mass spectrometry, and chemical genetics • Includes coverage of natural products basics and highlights antibacterial research, particularly important as efforts to combat drug resistance gain prominence • Covers instrumental techniques with enough detail for both current practitioners and beginning researchers
|Author||: Karl Schügerl,T. Scheper,Shimshon Belkin,Isao Endo,Man Bock Gu,Wei Shou Hu,Bo Mattiasson,Jens Nielsen,Gregory N. Stephanopoulos,Roland Ulber,An-Ping Zeng,Jian-Jiang Zhong,Weichang Zhou|
|Release Date||: 1977-03-01|
|ISBN 10||: 9783540080749|
|Pages||: 148 pages|
|Author||: Louis A. Kaplan,M. Hulla,Laura Sappelsa|
|Publisher||: IWA Publishing|
|Release Date||: 2005-01-01|
|ISBN 10||: 1843398974|
|Pages||: 116 pages|
In this project the researchers addressed four maj
|Author||: Mark Preston Waldrop|
|Release Date||: 2002|
|Pages||: 352 pages|
Microbial production of butanol/acetone; Microbial production of 2,3-butanediol; Microbial production of glycerol and other polyols; Microbial production of hydrocarbons; Microbial production of hydrogen; Microbial production of poly-(beta)-hydroxybutyric acid; Microbial and enzymatic production of labeled compounds; Photosynthesis in biotechnology biomimetic models; Processes with plant cell cultures; Processes with animal cell and tissue cultures; Biosensors and "bioelectronics"; Leaching of metals; Accumulation of metals by microorganism and algae; Microbial elimination of nitrogen and phosphorus; Sulfur in biotechnology; Coal in biotechnology; Aerosols and transportation of microorganisms in air; Menbrane biotechnology: two-dimensional protein crystals forultrafiltration purposes; Biotechnology in space; Gliding bacteria in biotechnology; Archaeobacteria; Microorganisms in processing of leather; Microorganisms in processing of flax; Microorganisms in processing of tobaco; Biotechnology in agriculture - an overview.
The 25 chapters in this volume describe various fermentations and biotechnological processes which did not fit readily into preceding volumes. Among the topics are many that document the opening of new fields: coal in biotechnology, poly-?-hydroxy- butyric acid, biotechnological photosynthesis, accumulation and leaching of metals, microbial processing of tobacco, flax and leather, and future perspectives of biotechnology in space. Written by specialists from leading industrial countries who make their knowledge and expertise available to the reader, the contributions are highly applications oriented, thus following the basic principle of this series. They form at the same time a handy reference for everyone already working in the field. Together with the other volumes in the series they help to get a clearer understanding of the entire field of biotechnology.
|Author||: Raphael M. Ottenbrite,American Chemical Society,Samuel J. Huang,Kinam Park|
|Publisher||: Amer Chemical Society|
|Release Date||: 1996|
|Pages||: 268 pages|
Examines the use of reversible hydrogels, stimuli-sensitive hydrogels, and in vivo applications of hydrogels. Discusses current issues in biodegradation, including controlled release from degradable matrices, degradation of synthetic materials in marine and soil environments, and time-related degradation of support devices and other applications of biomaterials. Reviews applications of biomaterials and hydrogels.