Measuring Road Safety Using Surrogate Events provides researchers and practitioners with the tools they need to quickly and effectively measure traffic safety. As traditional crash-based safety analyses are being undermined by today’s growing use of intelligent vehicular and road safety technologies, crash surrogates--or near misses--can be more effectively used to measure the future risk of crashes. This book advances the idea of using these near-crash techniques to deliver quicker and more adequate measurements of safety. It explores the relationships between traffic conflicts and crashes using an extrapolation of observed events rather than post-crash data, which is significantly slower to obtain. Readers will find sound estimation methods based on rigorous scientific principles, offering compelling new tools to better equip researchers to understand road safety and its factors. Consolidates the latest updates/ideas from disparate places into a single resource Establishes a consistent use of key terms, definitions and concepts to help codify this emerging field Contains numerous application-oriented case studies throughout Includes learning aids, such as chapter objectives, a glossary, and links to data used in examples
This book increases the level of knowledge on road safety contexts, issues and challenges; shares what can currently be done to address the variety of issues; and points to what needs to be done to make further gains in road safety.
|Author||: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Transportation Research Board,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Human-Systems Integration,Committee on National Statistics,Panel on Research Methodologies and Statistical Approaches to Understanding Driver Fatigue Factors in Motor Carrier Safety and Driver Health|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2016-09-12|
|ISBN 10||: 0309392527|
|Pages||: 272 pages|
There are approximately 4,000 fatalities in crashes involving trucks and buses in the United States each year. Though estimates are wide-ranging, possibly 10 to 20 percent of these crashes might have involved fatigued drivers. The stresses associated with their particular jobs (irregular schedules, etc.) and the lifestyle that many truck and bus drivers lead, puts them at substantial risk for insufficient sleep and for developing short- and long-term health problems. Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Fatigue, Long-Term Health and Highway Safety assesses the state of knowledge about the relationship of such factors as hours of driving, hours on duty, and periods of rest to the fatigue experienced by truck and bus drivers while driving and the implications for the safe operation of their vehicles. This report evaluates the relationship of these factors to drivers' health over the longer term, and identifies improvements in data and research methods that can lead to better understanding in both areas.
|Author||: Winnie V. Mitullah,Marianne Vanderschuren,Meleckidzedeck Khayesi|
|Publisher||: Taylor & Francis|
|Release Date||: 2017-07-14|
|ISBN 10||: 1317086988|
|Pages||: 240 pages|
What challenges do pedestrians and cyclists face in cities of the developing world? What opportunities do these cities have to provide for walking and cycling? Based on in-depth research conducted in Cape Town (South Africa), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Nairobi (Kenya), this book explores these questions by presenting work on walking and cycling travel behaviour, the status of road safety in these cities, as well as an analysis of the infrastructure for walking and cycling, and the workings of the institutions responsible for planning for these modes. The book also presents case studies relating to particular opportunities and challenges, such as the development and evaluation of ‘walking bus’ interventions, and the opportunities micro-simulation of pedestrian interventions offers within a data-scarce environment. Non-motorized Transport Integration into Urban Transport Planning in Africa demonstrates that transport and urban planning remains situated in a logic of automobile-dependent transport planning and global city development. This logic of practice does not pay adequate attention to walking and cycling. It argues that a significant shift in both policy as well as political commitment is needed so as to prioritize walking and cycling as strategies for sustainable transport policy in urban Africa. This book will be a key text for practitioners and policy makers working in planning, transport policy and urban development in Africa, as well as students and scholars of African studies, development studies, urban geography, transport studies and sustainable development.
This unique book explains how to fashion useful regression models from commonly available data to erect models essential for evidence-based road safety management and research. Composed from techniques and best practices presented over many years of lectures and workshops, The Art of Regression Modeling in Road Safety illustrates that fruitful modeling cannot be done without substantive knowledge about the modeled phenomenon. Class-tested in courses and workshops across North America, the book is ideal for professionals, researchers, university professors, and graduate students with an interest in, or responsibilities related to, road safety. This book also: · Presents for the first time a powerful analytical tool for road safety researchers and practitioners · Includes problems and solutions in each chapter as well as data and spreadsheets for running models and PowerPoint presentation slides · Features pedagogy well-suited for graduate courses and workshops including problems, solutions, and PowerPoint presentations · Equips readers to perform all analyses on a spreadsheet without requiring mastery of complex and costly software · Emphasizes understanding without esoteric mathematics · Makes assumptions visible and explains their role and consequences
This report presents a framework for measuring safety in automated vehicles (AVs): how to define safety for AVs, how to measure safety for AVs, and how to communicate what is learned or understood about AVs.
|Author||: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Transportation Research Board,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel on the Review of the Compliance, Safety, and Accountability (CSA) Program of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2017-10-01|
|ISBN 10||: 0309462010|
|Pages||: 182 pages|
Every year roughly 100,000 fatal and injury crashes occur in the United States involving large trucks and buses. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) in the U.S. Department of Transportation works to reduce crashes, injuries, and fatalities involving large trucks and buses. FMCSA uses information that is collected on the frequency of approximately 900 different violations of safety regulations discovered during (mainly) roadside inspections to assess motor carriers' compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, as well as to evaluate their compliance in comparison with their peers. Through use of this information, FMCSA's Safety Measurement System (SMS) identifies carriers to receive its available interventions in order to reduce the risk of crashes across all carriers. Improving Motor Carrier Safety Measurement examines the effectiveness of the use of the percentile ranks produced by SMS for identifying high-risk carriers, and if not, what alternatives might be preferred. In addition, this report evaluates the accuracy and sufficiency of the data used by SMS, to assess whether other approaches to identifying unsafe carriers would identify high-risk carriers more effectively, and to reflect on how members of the public use the SMS and what effect making the SMS information public has had on reducing crashes.
|Author||: Gary L. Rupp|
|Release Date||: 2010|
|ISBN 10||: 9780768034967|
|Pages||: 264 pages|
This text focuses on the study of secondary task demands imposed by in-vehicle devices on the driver while driving. It provides a mechanism for researchers to evaluate how in-vehicle devices such as navigation systems - as well as other devices such as cell phones - affect driver distraction and impact safety.
|Author||: K. W. Terhune|
|Release Date||: 1986|
|Pages||: 71 pages|
The IRTAD Road Safety Annual Report 2017 provides an overview of road safety performance for 2015 in 40 countries, with preliminary data for 2016, and detailed reports for each country. It includes tables with cross country comparisons on key safety indicators. The report outlines the most ...
The book gathers selected papers presented at the KES International Symposium on Smart Transportation Systems (KES-STS 2019). Modern transportation systems have undergone a rapid transformation in recent years. This has produced a range of vehicle technology innovations such as connected vehicles, self-driving cars, electric vehicles, Hyperloop, and even flying cars, and with them, fundamental changes in transport systems around the world. The book discusses current challenges, innovations and breakthroughs in Smart Transportation Systems, as well as transport infrastructure modeling, safety analysis, freeway operations, intersection analysis, and other related cutting-edge topics.