Measuring and Modeling Persons and Situations presents major innovations and contributions on the topic, promoting deeper integration, cross-pollination of ideas across diverse academic disciplines, and the facilitation of the development of practical applications such as matching people to jobs, understanding decision making, and predicting how a group of individuals will interact with one another. The book is organized around two overarching and interrelated themes, with the first focusing on assessing the person and the situation, covering methodological advances and techniques for inferring and measuring characteristics, and showing how they can be instantiated for measurement and predictive purposes. The book's second theme presents theoretical models, conceptualizing how factors of the person and situation can help us understand the psychological dynamics which underlie behavior, the psychological experience of fit or congruence with one's environment, and changes in personality traits over time. Identifies technologies for measuring and predicting behavior Infers behavior causes from personality and/or situational variables Utilizes big data, machine learning and modeling to understand behavior Includes mobile phone, social media and wearable tech usage analysis Explores the stability of personality over time Considers behavior analysis to treat maladaptive behavior
|Author||: Elizabeth Anne Edwards|
|Release Date||: 1992|
|Pages||: 664 pages|
Situations matter. They let people express their personalities and values; provoke motivations, emotions, and behaviors; and are the contexts in which people reason and act. The psychological assessment of situations is a new and rapidly developing area of research, particularly within the fields of personality and social psychology. This volume compiles state-of-the-art knowledge on psychological situations in chapters written by experts in their respective research areas. Bringing together historical reviews, theoretical pieces, methodological descriptions, and empirical applications, this volume is the definitive, go-to source for a psychology of situations.
|Author||: Gerhard Stemmler|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2012-12-06|
|ISBN 10||: 3642846556|
|Pages||: 400 pages|
Those interested in the relationships between psychological and physiological functions will again and again be impressed by the fact that great individual differences and large situational variability are manifested in psychophysiological data. Psychophysiology from a differential perspective has been an enduring theme throughout the history of personality and temperament research. However, the present book is the first to bear the word differential in its title. Actually, this monography is not only concerned with psychophysiological personality research, but with a much broader program of systematic investigation. Multivariate research methodology permits one to operationalize physiological response profiles, both with regard to lasting differences between persons and the discrimination of situations. In order to determine functional relationships between person characteristics and situational demands, that is, to determine the processes of stimulus-response mediation, one first needs to systemize these various sources of variance in assessment models and subsequently partition the observed covariance. A series of the author's own investigations in the Hamburg and Freiburg laboratories shows just how fruitful this research approach can be.
The Psychology of Social Situations: Selected Readings focuses on the situations in which social behavior occurs, taking into consideration the effects of these situations on different forms of social behavior. The selection first discusses the structure of social situations, including the structural elements of games and scenes of social interaction. Topics include paradigm for the analysis of the components and dimensions of scenes and the components, dimensions, and behavioral consequences of scenes. The publication also reviews studies on behavioral appropriateness and situational constraint as dimensions of social behavior; the use of free-response description approach for the analysis of person-situation interaction; and goal structure of situations. The book examines situational dimensions, perceived dimensions of interpersonal relations, and psychological effects of social environments. The text also ponders on the trait-situation controversy and the concept of interaction, person-situation interactions, and personality measurement. The selection is a dependable reference for psychologists and social scientists.
|Author||: Panel on Modeling Human Behavior and Command Decision Making: Representations for Military Simulations,Board on Human-Systems Integration,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 1998-08-14|
|ISBN 10||: 0309523893|
|Pages||: 411 pages|
Simulations are widely used in the military for training personnel, analyzing proposed equipment, and rehearsing missions, and these simulations need realistic models of human behavior. This book draws together a wide variety of theoretical and applied research in human behavior modeling that can be considered for use in those simulations. It covers behavior at the individual, unit, and command level. At the individual soldier level, the topics covered include attention, learning, memory, decisionmaking, perception, situation awareness, and planning. At the unit level, the focus is on command and control. The book provides short-, medium-, and long-term goals for research and development of more realistic models of human behavior.
The articles which make up this book were all expressly written to honor a remarkable man and a remarkable psychologist, Joseph McVicker Hunt, on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The contributors to this volume, with the exception of Hunt's teacher, J. P. Guilford, are students and colleagues of Hunt's whose intellectual and professional paths have crossed his in some significant way. In terms of content, the contributions collectively range across many of the conventional boundaries that demarcate the territories into which psy chological subject-matter has been divided. In so doing, they remain faithful to the man they honor, for whom such boundaries have had, at best, only provisional reality. Yet as the introductory chapter attempts to make clear, there is a unifying theme that lies behind the apparent diversity of Hunt's work. While we wished to mark Hunt's specific contributions to the diverse areas represented in this book, we also hoped to capture the unity of viewpoint that ties them together.
This 1990 volume was written to re-examine the long-standing controversy about consistency in personality from a social psychological perspective. Barbara Krahé reconsiders the concept of consistency in terms of the systematic coherence of situation cognition and behaviour across situations. In the first part of the volume she undertakes an examination of social psychological models of situation cognition for their ability to clarify the principles underlying the perception of situational similarities. She then advances an individual-centred methodology in which nomothetic hypotheses about cross-situational coherence are tested on the basis of idiographic measurement of situation cognition and behaviour. In the second part of the volume, a series of empirical studies is reported which apply the individual-centred framework to the analysis of cross-situational coherence in the domain of anxiety-provoking situations. These studies are distinctive in that they extend over several months and use free-response data.
A clear and concise introduction and reference for anyone new to the subject of statistics.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Measuring Human Capabilities: Performance Potential of Individuals and Collectives|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2015-04-10|
|ISBN 10||: 0309317207|
|Pages||: 280 pages|
Every year, the U.S. Army must select from an applicant pool in the hundreds of thousands to meet annual enlistment targets, currently numbering in the tens of thousands of new soldiers. A critical component of the selection process for enlisted service members is the formal assessments administered to applicants to determine their performance potential. Attrition for the U.S. military is hugely expensive. Every recruit that does not make it through basic training or beyond a first enlistment costs hundreds of thousands of dollars. Academic and other professional settings suffer similar losses when the wrong individuals are accepted into the wrong schools and programs or jobs and companies. Picking the right people from the start is becoming increasingly important in today's economy and in response to the growing numbers of applicants. Beyond cognitive tests of ability, what other attributes should selectors be considering to know whether an individual has the talent and the capability to perform as well as the mental and psychological drive to succeed? Measuring Human Capabilities: An Agenda for Basic Research on the Assessment of Individual and Group Performance Potential for Military Accession examines promising emerging theoretical, technological, and statistical advances that could provide scientifically valid new approaches and measurement capabilities to assess human capability. This report considers the basic research necessary to maximize the efficiency, accuracy, and effective use of human capability measures in the military's selection and initial occupational assignment process. The research recommendations of Measuring Human Capabilities will identify ways to supplement the Army's enlisted soldier accession system with additional predictors of individual and collective performance. Although the primary audience for this report is the U.S. military, this book will be of interest to researchers of psychometrics, personnel selection and testing, team dynamics, cognitive ability, and measurement methods and technologies. Professionals interested in of the foundational science behind academic testing, job selection, and human resources management will also find this report of interest.
Exploring the development of multidisciplinary methods and tools to support the integration of technology, organization and people, this volume contains papers presented at the 4th Conference on Human Aspects of Advanced Manufacturing and Hybrid Automation, held in Manchester in July 1994.