Global climate change is a natural process that currently appears to be strongly influenced by human activities, which increase atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG), in particular carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Agriculture contributes about 20% of the world's global radiation forcing from CO2, CH4 and N2O, and produces 50% of the CH4 and 70% of the N2O of the human-induced emission. Interest is increasing among land managers, policy makers, GHG emitting entities, and carbon (C) brokers in using agricultural lands to sequester C and reduce GHG emission. Precise information is lacking, however, on how specific management practices in different regions of the world impact soil C sequestration and the mitigation of GHG emission. In 2002, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) developed a coordinated national research effort called GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) to provide information on the soil C status and GHG emission of current agricultural practices, and to develop new management practices to reduce net GHG emission and increase soil C sequestration primarily from soil management. Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases synthesizes the wealth of information generated from the GRACEnet project in over 30 ARS locations throughout the US and in numerous peer-reviewed articles. Although GRACEnet is an ARS project, contributors to this work include a variety of backgrounds and reported findings have important international applications. For example, many parts of the world possess similar ecoregions to the U.S. (e.g., northern Great Plains is similar to the Argentina Pampas and Ukraine Steppe). Such similarities expand the appeal of this exciting new volume to a wide international readership. Frames responses to challenges associated with climate change within the geographical domain of the U.S., while providing a useful model for researchers in the many parts of the world that possess similar ecoregions Covers not only soil C dynamics but also nitrous oxide and methane flux, filling a void in the existing literature Educates scientists and technical service providers conducting greenhouse gas research, industry, and regulators in their agricultural research by addressing the issues of GHG emissions and ways to reduce these emissions Synthesizes the data from top experts in the world into clear recommendations and expectations for improvements in the agricultural management of global warming potential as an aggregate of GHG emissions
The changing climatic scenario has affected crop production in the adverse ways, and the impact of it on agriculture is now emerging as a major priority among crop science researchers. Agriculture in this changing climatic scenario faces multiple diverse challenges due to a wide array of demands. Climate-resilient agriculture is the need of the hour in many parts of the world. Understanding the adverse effects of climatic change on crop growth and development and developing strategies to counter these effects are of paramount importance for a sustainable climate-resilient agriculture. This multiauthored edited book brings out sound climate-resilient agriculture strategies that have a strong basic research foundation. We have attempted to bridge information from various diverse agricultural disciplines, such as soil science, agronomy, plant breeding, and plant protection, which can be used to evolve a need-based technology to combat the climatic change in agriculture.
|Author||: Stephen J. Del Grosso,Lajpat R. Ahuja,William J. Parton|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2020-01-22|
|ISBN 10||: 0891183450|
|Pages||: 336 pages|
Crop, livestock, and forestry productions systems are important sources and sinks of greenhouses gases, but estimates of the magnitude of gas fluxes are more uncertain than those for other economic sectors such as transportation and electricity generation. Recent improvements in process-level un-derstanding, modeling software, and observational data used for model testing have increased the accuracy of model predictions, but substantial uncertainty remains, particularly regarding the potential for different management practices to mitigate emissions. The chapters in this volume demonstrate that both simple methods and complex models have strengths and limitations depending on stake-holder interest, scale of application, and other factors. Future improvement can be facilitated by or-ganizing model input and testing data into web-accessible databases and by making model algorithms more available and transparent.
Soil Management and Climate Change: Effects on Organic Carbon, Nitrogen Dynamics, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions provides a state of the art overview of recent findings and future research challenges regarding physical, chemical and biological processes controlling soil carbon, nitrogen dynamic and greenhouse gas emissions from soils. This book is for students and academics in soil science and environmental science, land managers, public administrators and legislators, and will increase understanding of organic matter preservation in soil and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Given the central role soil plays on the global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, there is an urgent need to increase our common understanding about sources, mechanisms and processes that regulate organic matter mineralization and stabilization, and to identify those management practices and processes which mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, helping increase organic matter stabilization with suitable supplies of available N. Provides the latest findings about soil organic matter stabilization and greenhouse gas emissions Covers the effect of practices and management on soil organic matter stabilization Includes information for readers to select the most suitable management practices to increase soil organic matter stabilization
|Author||: Todd S. Rosenstock,Mariana C. Rufino,Klaus Butterbach-Bahl,Lini Wollenberg,Meryl Richards|
|Release Date||: 2016-08-23|
|ISBN 10||: 3319297945|
|Pages||: 203 pages|
This book provides standards and guidelines for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions and removals in smallholder agricultural systems and comparing options for climate change mitigation based on emission reductions and livelihood trade-offs. Globally, agriculture is directly responsible for about 11% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and induces an additional 17% through land use change, mostly in developing countries. Farms in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are predominately managed by smallholders, with 80% of land holdings smaller than ten hectares. However, little to no information exists on greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potentials in smallholder agriculture. Greenhouse gas measurements in agriculture are expensive, time consuming, and error prone, challenges only exacerbated by the heterogeneity of smallholder systems and landscapes. Concerns over methodological rigor, measurement costs, and the diversity of approaches, coupled with the demand for robust information suggest it is germane for the scientific community to establish standards of measurements for quantifying GHG emissions from smallholder agriculture. Standard guidelines for use by scientists, development organizations will help generate reliable data on emissions baselines and allow rigorous comparisons of mitigation options. The guidelines described in this book, developed by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS) and partners, are intended to inform anyone conducting field measurements of agricultural greenhouse gas sources and sinks, especially to develop IPCC Tier 2 emission factors or to compare mitigation options in smallholder systems.
Soil Management and Greenhouse Effect focuses on proper management of soils and its effects on global change, specifically, the greenhouse effect. It contains up-to-date information on a broad range of important soil management topics, emphasizing the critical role of soil for carbon storage. Sequestration and emission of carbon and other gases are examined in various ecosystems, in both natural and managed environments, to provide a comprehensive overview. This useful reference includes chapters that address policy issues, as well as research and development priorities. The material in this volume is valuable not only to soil scientists but to the entire environmental science community.
Managing Global Warming: An Interface of Technology and Human Issues discusses the causes of global warming, the options available to solve global warming problems, and how each option can be realistically implemented. It is the first book based on scientific content that presents an overall reference on both global warming and its solutions in one volume. Containing authoritative chapters written by scientists and engineers working in the field, each chapter includes the very latest research and references on the potential impact of wind, solar, hydro, geo-engineering and other energy technologies on climate change. With this wide ranging set of topics and solutions, engineers, professors, leaders and policymakers will find this to be a valuable handbook for their research and work. Presents chapters that are accompanied by an easy reference summary Includes up-to-date options and technical solutions for global warming through color imagery Provides up-to-date information as presented by a collection of renowned global experts
Greenhouse gas emissions by the livestock sector could be cut by as much as 30 percent through the wider use of existing best practices and technologies. FAO conducted a detailed analysis of GHG emissions at multiple stages of various livestock supply chains, including the production and transport of animal feed, on-farm energy use, emissions from animal digestion and manure decay, as well as the post-slaughter transport, refrigeration and packaging of animal products. This report represents the most comprehensive estimate made to-date of livestocks contribution to global warming as well as the sectors potential to help tackle the problem. This publication is aimed at professionals in food and agriculture as well as policy makers.
|Author||: Chu T Hoanh,Vladimir Smakhtin,Robyn Johnston|
|Release Date||: 2015-12-15|
|ISBN 10||: 1780643667|
|Pages||: 240 pages|
The book provides an analysis of impacts of climate change on water for agriculture, and the adaptation strategies in water management to deal with these impacts. Chapters include an assessment at global level, with details on impacts in various countries. Adaptation measures including groundwater management, water storage, small and large scale irrigation to support agriculture and aquaculture are presented. Agricultural implications of sea level rise, as a subsequent impact of climate change, are also examined.
|Author||: Lei Guo,Amrith Gunasekara,Laura McConnell|
|Publisher||: OUP USA|
|Release Date||: 2012-04-19|
|ISBN 10||: 9780841226548|
|Pages||: 544 pages|
A valuable source of information for researchers and environmental practitioners, providing the most up-to-date information on greenhouse gas emissions from field crops and livestock animals
Greenhouse Gases Balance of Bioenergy Systems covers every stage of a bioenergy system, from establishment to energy delivery, presenting a comprehensive, multidisciplinary overview of all the relevant issues and environmental risks. It also provides an understanding of how these can be practically managed to deliver sustainable greenhouse gas reductions. Its expert chapter authors present readers to the methods used to determine the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy systems, the data required and the significance of the results obtained. It also provides in-depth discussion of key issues and uncertainties, such as soil, agriculture, forestry, fuel conversion and emissions formation. Finally, international case studies examine typical GHG reduction levels for different systems and highlight best practices for bioenergy GHG mitigation. For bringing together into one volume information from several different fields that was up until now scattered throughout many different sources, this book is ideal for researchers, graduate students and professionals coming into the bioenergy field, no matter their previous background. It will be particularly useful for bioenergy researchers seeking to calculate greenhouse gas balances for systems they are studying. I will also be an important resource for policy makers and energy analysts. Uses a multidisciplinary approach to synthesize the diverse information that is required to competently execute GHG balances for bioenergy systems Presents an in-depth understanding of the science underpinning key issues and uncertainty in GHG assessments of bioenergy systems Includes case studies that examine ways to maximize the GHG reductions delivered by different bioenergy systems
|Author||: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations|
|Publisher||: Food & Agriculture Org.|
|Release Date||: 2019-11-27|
|ISBN 10||: 9251319855|
|Pages||: 40 pages|
Livestock provide valuable nutritional benefits as well as supporting livelihoods and the resilience of families and communities. Demand for animal products continues to grow in response to rising population and increasing wealth, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In spite of productivity gains, greenhouse gas emissions from livestock are also increasing. Successful action on climate change through practical action in livestock agrifood systems is an urgent priority, but must not come at the expense of other sustainability objectives, particularly those relating hunger and poverty. Hence there is a need to balance the benefits of animal-source foods and livestock keeping for nutrition, health and livelihoods, with the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to tackle the climate crisis, which also threatens food security. The following five practical actions can be widely implemented for measurable and rapid impacts on livestock emissions: 1) boosting efficiency of livestock production and resource use; 2) Intensifying recycling efforts and minimizing losses for a circular bioeconomy; 3) capitalizing on nature-based solutions to ramp up carbon offsets; 4) striving for healthy, sustainable diets and accounting for protein alternatives; and 5) developing policy measures to drive change. This brief describes how these can be implemented in integrative and sustainable ways, taking account the diversity of livestock systems and enhancing synergies and managing tradeoffs with other sustainable development objectives. FAO can help by providing developing tools, methodologies and protocols for measuring emissions, and supporting the development and analysis of technical and policy options towards sustainable, low-carbon livestock.