magnetic skyrmions and their applications

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Magnetic Skyrmions and Their Applications
Author : Giovanni Finocchio,Christos Panagopoulos
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2021-06-01
ISBN 10 : 012820933X
Pages : 350 pages
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Magnetic skyrmions are particle-like objects described by localized solutions of non-linear partial differential equations. Up until a few decades ago, it was believed that magnetic skyrmions only existed in condensed matter as short-term excitations that would quickly collapse into linear singularities. The contrary was proven theoretically in 1989 and evidentially in 2009. It is now known that skyrmions can exist as long-living metastable configurations in low-symmetry condensed matter systems with broken mirror symmetry, increasing the potential applications possible. Magnetic Skyrmions and their Applications delves into the fundamental principles and most recent research and developments surrounding these unique magnetic particles. Despite achievements in the synthesis of systems stabilizing chiral magnetic skyrmions and the variety of experimental investigations and numerical calculations, there have not been many summaries of the fundamental physical principles governing magnetic skyrmions or integrating those concepts with methods of detection, characterization and potential applications. Magnetic Skyrmions and their Applications delivers a coherent, state-of-the-art discussion on the current knowledge and potential applications of magnetic skyrmions in magnetic materials and device applications. First the book reviews key concepts such as topology, magnetism and materials for magnetic skyrmions. Then, charactization methods, physical mechanisms, and emerging applications are discussed. Covers background knowledge and details the basic principles of magnetic skyrmions, including materials, characterization, statics and dynamics Reviews materials for skyrmion stabilization including bulk materials and interface-dominated multilayer materials Describes both well-known and unconventional applications of magnetic skyrmions, such as memristors and reservoir computing

Skyrmions
Author : J. Ping Liu,Zhidong Zhang,Guoping Zhao
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-12-08
ISBN 10 : 1315284154
Pages : 482 pages
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"The book reviews all the aspects of recent developments in research on skyrmions, from the presentation of the observation and characterization techniques to the description of physical properties and expected applications. It will be of great use for all scientists working in this field." – Albert Fert, 2007 Nobel Laureate in Physics (from the Foreword) A skyrmion is a tiny region of reversed magnetization – quasiparticles since they are not present except in a magnetic state, and also give rise to physics that cannot be described by Maxwell’s equations. These particles are fascinating subjects for theoretical and experimental studies. Moreover, as a new type of magnetic domain structure with special topological structures, skyrmions feature outstanding magnetic and transport properties and may well have applications in data storage and other advanced spintronic devices, as readers will see in this book. Chapters address the relationships between physical properties of condensed matter, such as the AB effect, Berry phase effect, quantum Hall effect, and topological insulators. Overall, it provides a timely introduction to the fundamental aspects and possible applications of magnetic skyrmions to an interdisciplinary audience from condensed matter physics, chemistry, and materials science.

Thermal Stability of Metastable Magnetic Skyrmions
Author : Louise Desplat
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 3030660265
Pages : 329 pages
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Skyrmions in Magnetic Materials
Author : Shinichiro Seki,Masahito Mochizuki
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-11-19
ISBN 10 : 3319246518
Pages : 69 pages
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This brief reviews current research on magnetic skyrmions, with emphasis on formation mechanisms, observation techniques, and materials design strategies. The response of skyrmions, both static and dynamical, to various electromagnetic fields is also covered in detail. Recent progress in magnetic imaging techniques has enabled the observation of skyrmions in real space, as well as the analysis of their ordering manner and the details of their internal structure. In metallic systems, conduction electrons moving through the skyrmion spin texture gain a nontrivial quantum Berry phase, which provides topological force to the underlying spin texture and enables the current-induced manipulation of magnetic skyrmions. On the other hand, skyrmions in an insulator can induce electric polarization through relativistic spin-orbit interaction, paving the way for the control of skyrmions by an external electric field without loss of Joule heating. Because of its nanometric scale, particle nature, and electric controllability, skyrmions are considered as potential candidates for new information carriers in the next generation of spintronics devices.

Skyrmions in Magnetic Materials
Author : Shinichiro Seki,Masahito Mochizuki
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-11-19
ISBN 10 : 3319246518
Pages : 69 pages
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This brief reviews current research on magnetic skyrmions, with emphasis on formation mechanisms, observation techniques, and materials design strategies. The response of skyrmions, both static and dynamical, to various electromagnetic fields is also covered in detail. Recent progress in magnetic imaging techniques has enabled the observation of skyrmions in real space, as well as the analysis of their ordering manner and the details of their internal structure. In metallic systems, conduction electrons moving through the skyrmion spin texture gain a nontrivial quantum Berry phase, which provides topological force to the underlying spin texture and enables the current-induced manipulation of magnetic skyrmions. On the other hand, skyrmions in an insulator can induce electric polarization through relativistic spin-orbit interaction, paving the way for the control of skyrmions by an external electric field without loss of Joule heating. Because of its nanometric scale, particle nature, and electric controllability, skyrmions are considered as potential candidates for new information carriers in the next generation of spintronics devices.

Springer Handbook of Microscopy
Author : Peter W. Hawkes,John C.H. Spence
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2019-11-02
ISBN 10 : 3030000699
Pages : 1543 pages
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This book features reviews by leading experts on the methods and applications of modern forms of microscopy. The recent awards of Nobel Prizes awarded for super-resolution optical microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy have demonstrated the rich scientific opportunities for research in novel microscopies. Earlier Nobel Prizes for electron microscopy (the instrument itself and applications to biology), scanning probe microscopy and holography are a reminder of the central role of microscopy in modern science, from the study of nanostructures in materials science, physics and chemistry to structural biology. Separate chapters are devoted to confocal, fluorescent and related novel optical microscopies, coherent diffractive imaging, scanning probe microscopy, transmission electron microscopy in all its modes from aberration corrected and analytical to in-situ and time-resolved, low energy electron microscopy, photoelectron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy in biology, and also ion microscopy. In addition to serving as an essential reference for researchers and teachers in the fields such as materials science, condensed matter physics, solid-state chemistry, structural biology and the molecular sciences generally, the Springer Handbook of Microscopy is a unified, coherent and pedagogically attractive text for advanced students who need an authoritative yet accessible guide to the science and practice of microscopy.

Atomic- and Nanoscale Magnetism
Author : Roland Wiesendanger
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-11-02
ISBN 10 : 3319995588
Pages : 390 pages
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of the fascinating recent developments in atomic- and nanoscale magnetism, including the physics of individual magnetic adatoms and single spins, the synthesis of molecular magnets for spintronic applications, and the magnetic properties of small clusters as well as non-collinear spin textures, such as spin spirals and magnetic skyrmions in ultrathin films and nanostructures. Starting from the level of atomic-scale magnetic interactions, the book addresses the emergence of many-body states in quantum magnetism and complex spin states resulting from the competition of such interactions, both experimentally and theoretically. It also introduces novel microscopic and spectroscopic techniques to reveal the exciting physics of magnetic adatom arrays and nanostructures at ultimate spatial and temporal resolution and demonstrates their applications using various insightful examples. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students interested in recent developments of one of the most fascinating fields of condensed matter physics.

Magnetic Nano- and Microwires
Author : Manuel Vázquez
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2015-05-27
ISBN 10 : 0081001819
Pages : 870 pages
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Magnetic nanowires and microwires are key tools in the development of enhanced devices for information technology (memory and data processing) and sensing. Offering the combined characteristics of high density, high speed, and non-volatility, they facilitate reliable control of the motion of magnetic domain walls; a key requirement for the development of novel classes of logic and storage devices. Part One introduces the design and synthesis of magnetic nanowires and microwires, reviewing the growth and processing of nanowires and nanowire heterostructures using such methods as sol-gel and electrodeposition combinations, focused-electron/ion-beam-induced deposition, chemical vapour transport, quenching and drawing and magnetic interactions. Magnetic and transport properties, alongside domain walls, in nano- and microwires are then explored in Part Two, before Part Three goes on to explore a wide range of applications for magnetic nano- and microwire devices, including memory, microwave and electrochemical applications, in addition to thermal spin polarization and configuration, magnetocalorific effects and Bloch point dynamics. Detailed coverage of multiple key techniques for the growth and processing of nanowires and microwires Reviews the principles and difficulties involved in applying magnetic nano- and microwires to a wide range of applications Combines the expertise of specialists from around the globe to give a broad overview of current and future trends

Minimal Radius of Magnetic Skyrmions: Statics and Dynamics
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2016
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Abstract: In a broad range of applied magnetic fields and material parameters isolated magnetic skyrmions condense into skyrmion lattices. While the geometry of isolated skyrmions and their lattice counterparts strongly depend on field and Dzyaloshinski–Moriya interaction, this issue has not been adequately addressed in previous studies. Meanwhile, this information is extremely important for applications, because the skyrmion size and the interskyrmion distance have to be tuned for skyrmion based memory and logic devices. In this investigation we elucidate the size and density-dependent phase diagram showing traditional phases in field versus material parameters space by means of Monte-Carlo simulations on a discrete lattice. The obtained diagram permits us to establish that, in contrast to the continuum limit, skyrmions on a discrete lattice cannot be smaller than some critical size and have a very specific shape. These minimal skyrmions correspond to the micromagnetic configuration at the energy barrier between the ferromagnetic and the skyrmionic states. Furthermore, we use atomistic Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert simulations to study dynamics of the skyrmion annihilation. It is shown that this procees consists of two stages: the continuous skyrmion contraction and its discontinuous annihilation. The detailed analysis of this dynamical process is given.

Topology in Magnetism
Author : Jiadong Zang,Vincent Cros,Axel Hoffmann
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-09-24
ISBN 10 : 3319973347
Pages : 416 pages
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This book presents both experimental and theoretical aspects of topology in magnetism. It first discusses how the topology in real space is relevant for a variety of magnetic spin structures, including domain walls, vortices, skyrmions, and dynamic excitations, and then focuses on the phenomena that are driven by distinct topology in reciprocal momentum space, such as anomalous and spin Hall effects, topological insulators, and Weyl semimetals. Lastly, it examines how topology influences dynamic phenomena and excitations (such as spin waves, magnons, localized dynamic solitons, and Majorana fermions). The book also shows how these developments promise to lead the transformative revolution of information technology.

Nanomagnetism
Author : Claude Fermon,Marcel Van de Voorde
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2017-03-17
ISBN 10 : 3527699066
Pages : 346 pages
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This first book to focus on the applications of nanomagnetism presents those already realized while also suggesting bold ideas for further breakthroughs. The first part is devoted to the concept of spin electronics and its use for data storage and magnetic sensing, while the second part concentrates on magnetic nanoparticles and their use in industrial environment, biological and medical applications. The third, more prospective part goes on to describe emerging applications related to spin current creation and manipulation, dynamics, spin waves and binary logic based on nano-scale magnetism. With its unique choice of topics and authors, this will appeal to academic as well as corporate researchers in a wide range of disciplines from physics via materials science to engineering, chemistry and life science.

Toward Magnetic Skyrmion Manipulation
Author : Sebastian Alejandro Diaz Santiago
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2017
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 167 pages
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Magnetic skyrmions are nanometer-scale spin textures that enjoy topologically-protected stability and exhibit particle-like behavior. Their rich phenomenology has ignited a growing research interest. These features and their novel transport properties have also made them attractive candidates as information carriers in future high-density magnetic-storage and logic devices, as well as integral components of other spintronic applications. Achieving a high degree of control and manipulation of skyrmions is of immense importance to applications and involves understanding fundamental aspects of the dynamics of twisted spin textures with topological charge at the nanoscale. In chapter five, we have considered zero temperature quantum nucleation of a single skyrmion in magnetic ultrathin films with interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). While a uniform field stabilizes the ferromagnet, an opposing local magnetic field, generated by the tip of a local probe, drives the skyrmion nucleation. Using spin path integrals and a collective coordinate approximation, the tunneling rate from the ferromagnetic to the single skyrmion state is computed as a function of the tip's magnetization and height above the sample surface. Based on the relation between DMI coupling and skyrmion helicity, the latter must be included as an extra degree of freedom in chiral magnets with a spatially inhomogeneous DMI. In chapter six, an effective description of skyrmion dynamics for an arbitrary inhomogeneous DMI coupling is obtained. The resulting generalized Thiele's equation is a dynamical system for the center of mass position and helicity of the skyrmion. We fully characterize the effective dynamics of a single skyrmion in a particular case of engineered DMI coupling: half-planes with opposite-sign DMI. In chapter seven, a particle-based model was used to simulate current-driven magnetic skyrmions interacting with random quenched disorder. We show that the Magnus force combined with the random pinning produces an isotropic effective shaking temperature. Spectral analysis of the velocity noise fluctuations can be used to identify dynamical phase transitions and to extract information about the different dynamic phases. In chapter eight, avalanches of flux-driven magnetic skyrmions in systems with random quenched disorder were also simulated using a particle-based model. The distribution of the avalanche sizes and durations, the associated critical exponents, and the average avalanche shape, were studied for different pinning regimes and Magnus force strengths.