|Author||: Stuart Goodman,Michiaki Takagi,Jiri Gallo|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2021-11-15|
|ISBN 10||: 9780128217542|
|Pages||: 366 pages|
Macrophages Biology and Tissue Inflammation in Health and Disease, outlines the important role of macrophages, keys cells in the innate immune system, as regulators and orchestrators of inflammation and repair in health and disease. It contains chapters by leading authors on the basic and translational aspects of macrophage biology, in maintaining tissue homeostatis and dealing with internal and external biological threats. Outlines the important role of macrophages, key cells in the innatue immune system, as regulators and orchestrators of inflammation and repair in health and disease Contains chapters by leading authors on the basic and translational aspects of macrophage biology, in maintaining tissue homeostasis Deals with internal and external treats
|Author||: Subhra K. Biswas,Alberto Mantovani|
|Release Date||: 2014-11-12|
|ISBN 10||: 1493913115|
|Pages||: 615 pages|
Macrophages are a key component of the innate immune system and play an integral role in host defense and homeostasis. On one hand, these cells contribute to host defence by triggering inflammation, displaying microbicidal/tumoricidal properties, regulating the activation of adaptive immunity and promoting resolution of inflammation. On the other hand, they contribute to essential trophic functions such as neural patterning, bone morphogenesis and ductal branching in mammary glands. Thus, macrophages are extremely versatile cells that can respond efficiently to tissue micro environmental cues by polarizing to distinct phenotypes, depending on the functions they need to perform. Indeed, functional diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of these cells. Macrophages may also play a detrimental role. An overwhelming body of literature has indicated their crucial role in pathogenesis. The list includes sepsis, cancer, metabolic syndrome, immunodeficiency, auto-immune disease-virtually impacting every major pathology that we know. These observations have suggested macrophages and their related molecules as potential targets in therapeutic applications. Available evidence proclaims macrophages as a key player in homeostasis, host defense and disease. Crucial developments in the past few years call for a re-evaluation and update of our understanding of macrophages. The present book is an endeavour that attempts provide state-of-the art knowledge of these cells in health and disease.
|Author||: Charles Dudley Mills,Laurel L Lenz,Klaus Ley|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2015-03-23|
|ISBN 10||: 288919499X|
|Pages||: 280 pages|
Macrophages have unique and diverse functions necessary for survival. And, in humans (and other species), they are the most abundant leukocytes in tissues. The Innate functions of macrophages that are best known are their unusual ability to either “Kill” or “Repair”. Since killing is a destructive process and repair is a constructive process, it was stupefying how one cell could exhibit these 2 polar – opposite functions. However, in the late 1980’s, it was shown that macrophages have a unique ability to enzymatically metabolize Arginine to Nitric Oxide (NO, a gaseous non – specific killer molecule) or to Ornithine (a precursor of polyamines and collagen for repair). The dual Arginine metabolic capacity of macrophages provided a functional explanation for their ability to kill or repair. Macrophages predominantly producing NO are called M1 and those producing Ornithine are called M2. M1 and M2 – dominant responses occur in lower vertebrates, and in T cell deficient vertebrates being directly driven by Damage and Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMP and PAMP). Thus, M1 and M2 are Innate responses that protect the host without Adaptive Immunity. In turn, M1/M2 is supplanting previous models in which T cells were necessary to “activate” or “alternatively activate” macrophages (the Th1/Th2 paradigm). M1 and M2 macrophages were named such because of the additional key findings that these macrophages stimulate Th1 and Th2 – like responses, respectively. So, in addition to their unique ability to kill or repair, macrophages also govern Adaptive Immunity. All of the foregoing would be less important if M1 or M2 – dominant responses were not observed in disease. But, they are. The best example to date is the predominance of M2 macrophages in human tumors where they act like wound repair macrophages and actively promote growth. More generally, humans have become M2 – dominant because sanitation, antibiotics and vaccines have lessened M1 responses. And, M2 dominance seems the cause of ever - increasing allergies in developed countries. Obesity represents a new and different circumstance. Surfeit energy (e.g., lipoproteins) causes monocytes to become M1 dominant in the vessel walls causing plaques. Because M1 or M2 dominant responses are clearly causative in many modern diseases, there is great potential in developing the means to selectively stimulate (or inhibit) either M1 or M2 responses to kill or repair, or to stimulate Th1 or Th2 responses, depending on the circumstance. The contributions here are meant to describe diseases of M1 or M2 dominance, and promising new methodologies to modulate the fungible metabolic machinery of macrophages for better health.
Explore the premier text for immunology at the advanced undergraduate, graduate, and medical school levels. Beginning students appreciate the bookÕs clear writing and informative illustrations, while advanced students and working immunologists value its comprehensive scope and depth. This edition is thoroughly revised and up to date with significant developments in the field, especially on the topic of innate immunity.
This timely and most comprehensive reference available on the topic covers all the different aspects vital in the fight against the global obesity epidemic. Following a look at adipose tissue development and morphology, the authors go on to examine its metabolic and endocrine functions and its role in disease. The final section deals with comparative and evolutionary aspects of the tissue. The result is an essential resource for cell and molecular biologists, physiologists, biochemists, pharmacologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical industry.
|Author||: Claudio Mauro,Christian Frezza|
|Release Date||: 2015-07-13|
|ISBN 10||: 2889196224|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Obesity and its co-morbidities, including atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and diabetes, are a world-wide epidemic. Inflammatory immune responses in metabolic tissues have emerged as a universal feature of these metabolic disorders. While initial work highlighted the contribution of macrophages to tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, recent studies demonstrate that cells of the adaptive immune compartment, including T and B lymphocytes and dendritic cells also participate in obesity-induced pathogenesis of these conditions. However, the molecular and cellular pathways by which the innate and adaptive branches of immunity control tissue and systemic metabolism remain poorly understood. To engage in growth and activation, cells need to increase their biomass and replicate their genome. This process presents a substantial bioenergetic challenge: growing and activated cells must increase ATP production and acquire or synthesize raw materials, including lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. To do so, they actively reprogram their intracellular metabolism from catabolic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and other anabolic pathways. This metabolic reprogramming is under the control of specific signal transduction pathways whose underlying molecular mechanisms and relevance to physiology and disease are subject of considerable current interest and under intense study. Recent reports have elucidated the physiological role of metabolic reprogramming in macrophage and T cell activation and differentiation, B- and dendritic cell biology, as well as in the crosstalk of immune cells with endothelial and stem cells. It is also becoming increasingly evident that alterations of metabolic pathways play a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders. Due to the scientific distance between immunologists and experts in metabolism (e.g., clinicians and biochemists), however, there has been limited cross-talk between these communities. This collection of articles aims at promoting such cross-talk and accelerating discoveries in the emerging field of immunometabolism.
The structure, functions, and interactions of myeloid cells have long been the focus of research and therapeutics development. Yet, much more remains to be discovered about the complex web of relationships that makes up the immune systems of animals. Scientists today are applying genome-wide analyses, single-cell methods, gene editing, and modern imaging techniques to reveal new subclasses of differentiated myeloid cells, new receptors and cytokines, and important interactions among immune cells. In Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease: A Synthesis, Editor Siamon Gordon has assembled an international team of esteemed scientists to provide their perspectives of myeloid cells during innate and adaptive immunity. The book begins by presenting the foundational research of Paul Ehrlich, Elie Metchnikoff, and Donald Metcalf. The following chapters discuss evolution and the life cycles of myeloid cells; specific types of differentiated myeloid cells, including macrophage differentiation; and antigen processing and presentation. The rest of the book is organized by broad topics in immunology, including the recruitment of myeloid and other immune cells following microbial infection the role of myeloid cells in the inflammation process and the repair of damaged tissue the vast arsenal of myeloid cell secretory molecules, including metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor, histamine, and perforin receptors and downstream signaling pathways that are activated following ligand-receptor binding roles of myeloid cells during microbial and parasite infections contributions of myeloid cells in atherosclerosis myeloid-derived suppressor cells in tumor development and cancer Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease: A Synthesis will benefit graduate students and researchers in immunology, hematology, microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease, pathology, and pharmacology. Established scientists and physicians in these and related fields will enjoy the book's rich history of myeloid cell research and suggestions for future research directions and potential therapies.
This book provides readers with an up-to-date and comprehensive view on the resolution of inflammation and on new developments in this area, including pro-resolution mediators, apoptosis, macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells, possible novel drug developments.
|Author||: Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino,Céline Cougoule,Etienne Meunier,Yoann Rombouts,Christel Vérollet,Luciana Balboa|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2019-10-04|
|ISBN 10||: 2889630579|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
The Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS) of vertebrates is composed of monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Together, they form part of the first line of immune defense against a variety of pathogens (bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses), and thus play an important role in maintaining organism homeostasis. The mode of transmission, type of replication and mechanism of disease-causing differ significantly for each pathogen, eliciting a unique immune response in the host. Within this context, the MPS acts as both the sentinel and tailor of the immune system. As sentinels, MPS cells are found in blood and within tissues throughout the body to patrol against pathogenic insult. The strategy to detect 'microbial non-self' relies on MPS to recognize conserved microbial products known as 'pathogen-associated molecular pattern' (PAMPs). PAMPs recognition represents a checkpoint in the response to pathogens and relies on conserved 'pattern recognition receptors' (PRRs). Upon PRR engagement, MPS mount a cell-autonomous attack that includes the internalization and compartmentalization of intracellular pathogens into toxic compartments that promote destruction. In parallel, MPS cells launch an inflammatory response composed of a cellular arm and soluble factors to control extracellular pathogens. In cases when innate immunity fails to eliminate the invading microbe, MPS serves as a tailor to generate adaptive immunity for pathogen eradication and generation of "memory" cells, thus ensuring enhanced protection against re-infection. Indeed, MPS cell functions comprise the capture, process, migration and delivery of antigenic information to lymphoid organs, where type-1 immunity is tailored against intracellular microbes and type-2 immunity against extracellular pathogens. However, this potent adaptive immunity is also a double-edge sword that can cause aberrant inflammatory disorders, like autoimmunity or chronic inflammation. For this reason, MPS also tailors tolerance immunity against unwanted inflammation. Successful clearance of the microbe results in its destruction and proper collection of debris, resolution of inflammation and tissue healing for which MPS is essential. Reciprocally, as part of the evolutionary process taking place in all organisms, microbes evolved strategies to circumvent the actions bestowed by MPS cells. Multiple pathogens modulate the differentiation, maturation and activation programs of the MPS, as an efficient strategy to avoid a dedicated immune response. Among the most common evasion strategies are the subversion of phagocytosis, inhibition of PRR-mediated immunity, resistance to intracellular killing by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, restriction of phagosome maturation, modulation of cellular metabolism and nutrient acquisition, regulation of cell death and autophagy, and modulation of pro-inflammatory responses and hijacking of tolerance mechanisms, among others. The tenet of this eBook is that a better understanding of MPS in infection will yield insights for development of therapeutics to enhance antimicrobial processes or dampen detrimental inflammation for the host's benefit. We believe that contributions to this topic will serve as a platform for discussion and debate about relevant issues and themes in this field. Our aim is to bring expert junior and senior scientists to address recent progress, highlight critical knowledge gaps, foment scientific exchange, and establish conceptual frameworks for future MPS investigation in the context of infectious disease.
Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease: Emerging Roles of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Immune Support provides a comprehensive description of the various pathways by which the vertebrate immune system works, the signals that trigger immune response and how fnew and novel nutraceuticals and functional foods, can be used to contain inflammation and also to boost immunity and immune health. Inflammation is a tool to fight pathogens and the vertebrate immune system has a very complex network of cells to achieve this. However inflammation that goes awry is also the leding cause of several diseases ranging from cardiovascular diseases to diabetes. This book covers the entire gamut from the various cellular players in the inflammation-immune response to its ramifications in terms of protection against pathogens as well as in onset of metabolic, aging and auto-immune related diseases. Finally, the balancing role of dietary nutrients between host defence and immune support is also showcased. The first three scetions explain the various components of the immune system and their modes of activation. The fourth section deals with the ramifications of a robust and execessive inflammatory response. The fifth section is focused on the association between nutrition and immunity and how deficiencies in certain nutrients may affect immunocompetence. The sixth section chapters represent a vision of paradigm shifts within the field and discusses possible future directions. This bool will be a valuable reference for researchers studying immune health either in academia, or in the nutraceutical or functional food industries. Product developers in nutraceutical, supplement, functional food, and health food companies will also appreciate the information presented here. Conceptualizes the key features in natural products which can boost immune function and immune health Explains the intricate mechanistic aspects and balance behind immune health Presents the pathophysiology of several diseases associated with immune system disruption
Myelomonocytes are the multipotent cells in the stage of blood cell differentiation, which mainly comprise blood monocytes, tissue macrophages and subset of dendritic cells. Actually, their position and ability of judgement of the health of tissue or organ environment are the key initiators of tissue-specific immune response in a local and global fashion. Interestingly, the morpho-functional aspects of this group of cells vary to a wide range with their positional diversity. Their ability to communicate or represent the tissue microenvironment to the peripheral immune system and efficiency to engage the system to effector activation hold the key for a successful immune endeavour. The present volume shows some glimpses of such an extensive area of current immunology research.