Luminescence Dating in the Natural Sciences covers the exponential number of applications and significant advances in methodology that have come to light since the early 2000s. It addition, it presents other aspects of the topic, including luminescence physics, its solid-state phenomenology, and theoretical and applied dosimetry. This book bridges the divide between users and practitioners of luminescence dating by reaching a large community of users in geology, geomorphology and archaeology. It will appeal to students, faculty members and private industry researchers, providing a brief discussion of the basic principles of luminescence dating. These principles will be further illustrated through case studies that examine both the potential and the limitations of luminescence dating. Covers basic physics and solid-state background principles Features case studies that illuminate both the potential and limitations of luminescence dating Includes instructions for recently developed technical tools, statistical packages, and field and laboratory protocols
The aim of this book is to give readers a broad review of topical worldwide advancements in theoretical and experimental facts, instrumentation and practical applications erudite by luminescent materials and their prospects in dealing with different types of luminescence like photoluminescence, electroluminescence, thermo-luminescence, triboluminescence, bioluminescence design and applications. The additional part of this book deals with the dynamics, rare-earth ions, photon down-/up-converting materials, luminescence dating, lifetime, bioluminescence microscopical perspectives and prospects towards the basic research or for more advanced applications. This book is divided into four main sections: luminescent materials and their associated phenomena; photo-physical properties and their emerging applications; thermoluminescence dating: from theory to applications, and bioluminescence perspectives and prospects. Individual chapters should serve the broad spectrum of common readers of diverse expertise, layman, students and researchers, who may in this book find easily elucidated fundamentals as well as progressive principles of specific subjects associated with these phenomena. This book was created by 14 contributions from experts in different fields of luminescence and technology from over 20 research institutes worldwide.
|Author||: E. M. Scott,Andrey Yu. Alekseev,Ganna Zaitseva|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2006-02-25|
|ISBN 10||: 1402026560|
|Pages||: 334 pages|
This book is a collection of the articles presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW 979859) held in St. Petersburg, from the 15-18 November 2003 in the Hermitage Museum. The title of the workshop was “The impact of the environment on Human Migration in Eurasia”. More than 40 scientists from Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Poland, Germany, Switzerland, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Belgium, Finland, Lithuania and Latvia took part. The themes of the workshop focused on the origin, development, interactions, and migrations of prehistoric and ancient populations, specifically the Scythians, in Eurasia and their relationships with the environment of the time. The discussion of these questions necessitated the participation of specialists from a wide range of academic fields. Beyond any doubt, the environment played an important role in the life of ancient nomadic populations, forming the basis of their economies and influencing various aspects of their mode of life. In this respect, the collaboration of specialists in the Humanities and Science is essential for the solution of scientific questions concerning these peoples. Over the past few years, a large amount of new proxy data related to environmental changes during the Pleistocene and the Holocene and their impact on human life has become available. Our discussion was predominantly limited to environmental changes related to the Holocene. In st this period of about 10000 years, the main focus was on the 1 millennium BC.
Chronology is the backbone of history, and there is a wise saying stating there is no history without a chronology. Earths evolutionary history is built up by geochronology, i.e. time benchmarks upon which the geological history is built up step by step over its total time period of about 4.5 billion years. The first marker in this history is the Jack Hills zircon from Australia dated at about 4.4 GA. The most detailed records come from seasonal changes within annual varves. Stratigraphy provides the basic chronological ordering of layers by layers, units by units, fossil assemblage by assemblage, varves by varves, growth zone by growth zone, etc. The radiometric techniques implied the introduction of absolute age determinations. This book includes a combination of methodological presentations and related case studies, from where we learn about practical problems and achievements. Therefore, the book should be of basic interest both for scientists in their practical in field and laboratory, as well as for general educational purpose.
This volume provides an overview of (1) the physical and chemical foundations of dating methods and (2) the applications of dating methods in the geological sciences, biology, and archaeology, in almost 200 articles from over 200 international authors. It will serve as the most comprehensive treatise on widely accepted dating methods in the earth sciences and related fields. No other volume has a similar scope, in terms of methods and applications and particularly time range. Dating methods are used to determine the timing and rate of various processes, such as sedimentation (terrestrial and marine), tectonics, volcanism, geomorphological change, cooling rates, crystallization, fluid flow, glaciation, climate change and evolution. The volume includes applications in terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings, the burgeoning field of molecular-clock dating and topics in the intersection of earth sciences with forensics. The content covers a broad range of techniques and applications. All major accepted dating techniques are included, as well as all major datable materials.
|Author||: Ioannis Liritzis,Ashok Kumar Singhvi,James K. Feathers,Gunther A. Wagner,Annette Kadereit,Nikolaos Zacharias,Sheng-Hua Li|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2013-07-05|
|ISBN 10||: 3319001701|
|Pages||: 70 pages|
The field of Luminescence Dating has reached a level of maturity. Both research and applications from all fields of archaeological science, from archaeological materials to anthropology and geoarchaeology, now routinely employ luminescence dating. The advent of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques and the potential for exploring a spectrum of grain aliquots enhanced the applicability, accuracy and the precision of luminescence dating. The present contribution reviews the physical basis, mechanisms and methodological aspects of luminescence dating; discusses advances in instrumentations and facilities, improvements in analytical procedures, and statistical treatment of data along with some examples of applications across continents, covering all periods (Middle Palaeolithic to Medieval) and both Old and New World archaeology. They also include interdisciplinary applications that contribute to palaeo-landscape reconstruction.
Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) has become the technique of choice for many areas of radiation dosimetry. The technique is finding widespread application in a variety of radiation dosimetry fields, including personal monitoring, environmental monitoring, retrospective dosimetry (including geological dating and accident dosimetry), space dosimetry, and many more. In this book we have attempted to synthesize the major advances in the field, covering both fundamental understanding and the many applications. The latter serve to demonstrate the success and popularity of OSL as a dosimetry method. The book is designed for researchers and radiation dosimetry practitioners alike. It delves into the detailed theory of the process from the point of view of stimulated relaxation phenomena, describing the energy storage and release processes phenomenologically and developing detailed mathematical descriptions to enable a quantitative understanding of the observed phenomena. The various stimulation modes (continuous wave, pulsed, or linear modulation) are introduced and compared. The properties of the most important synthetic OSL materials beginning with the dominant carbon-doped Al2O3, and moving through discussions of other, less-well studied but nevertheless important, or potentially important, materials. The OSL properties of the two most important natural OSL dosimetry material types, namely quartz and feldspars are discussed in depth. The applications chapters deal with the use of OSL in personal, environmental, medical and UV dosimetry, geological dating and retrospective dosimetry (accident dosimetry and dating). Finally the developments in instrumentation that have occurred over the past decade or more are described. The book will find use in those laboratories within academia, national institutes and the private sector where research and applications in radiation dosimetry using luminescence are being conducted. Potential readers include personnel involved in radiation protection practice and research, hospitals, nuclear power stations, radiation clean-up and remediation, food irradiation and materials processing, security monitoring, geological and archaeological dating, luminescence studies of minerals, etc.
|Author||: Max Engel,Jessica Pilarczyk,Simon Matthias May,Dominik Brill,Ed Garrett|
|Release Date||: 2020-07-25|
|ISBN 10||: 0128156872|
|Pages||: 848 pages|
Geological Records of Tsunamis and Other Extreme Waves provides a systematic compendium with concise chapters on the concept and history of paleotsunami research, sediment types and sediment sources, field methods, sedimentary and geomorphological characteristics, as well as dating and modeling approaches. By contrasting tsunami deposits with those of competing mechanisms in the coastal zone such as storm waves and surges, and by embedding this field of research into the wider context of tsunami science, the book is also relevant to readers interested in paleotempestology, coastal sedimentary environments, or sea-level changes, and coastal hazard management. The effectiveness of paleotsunami records in coastal hazard-mitigation strategies strongly depends on the appropriate selection of research approaches and methods that are tailored to the site-specific environment and age of the deposits. In addition to summarizing the state-of-the-art in tsunami sedimentology, Geological Records of Tsunamis and Other Extreme Waves guides researchers through establishing an appropriate research design and how to develop reliable records of prehistoric events using field-based and laboratory methods, as well as modeling techniques. Features a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in tsunami sedimentology and paleotsunami research Offers advice on the most appropriate mapping, sampling, and analytical approaches for a wide variety of coastal settings and sedimentary environments Provides methodological details for field sampling and the most important proxy analyses
Optically stimulated luminescence has developed into one of the leading optical techniques for the measurement and detection of ionizing radiation. This text covers, in a readable manner, advanced modern applications of the technique, how it can play a useful role in different areas of dosimetry and how to approach the challenges presented when working with optically stimulated luminescence. The six chapters are as follows: Introduction, including a short history of OSL and details of successful applications Theory and Practical Aspects Personal Dosimetry Space Dosimetry Medical Dosimetry Other Applications and Concepts, including retrospective and accident dosimetry, environmental monitoring and UV dosimetry Throughout the book, the underlying theory is discussed on an as-needed basis for a complete understanding of the phenomena, but with an emphasis of the practical applications of the technique. The authors also give background information and relevant key references on each method, inviting the reader to explore deeper into the subject independently. Postgraduates, researchers, and those involved with radiation dosimetry will find this book particularly useful. The material is both relevant and accessible for both specialists and those new to the field, therefore is fundamental to any academic interested in modern advances of the subject.
Since World War II, there has been tremendous success in the development of new methods for dating artifacts; the so-called `radiocarbon revolution' was only the first such discovery. The increasing accuracy of the various new techniques has brought about major changes in archaeological research strategies. This important new text compiles the work of some of today's most innovative archaeologists who summarize progress in their respective techniques over the last 30 years - with an emphasis on developments of the last five - and the status of current research.
Geoarchaeology is the archaeological subfield that focuses on archaeological information retrieval and problem solving utilizing the methods of geological investigation. Archaeological recovery and analysis are already geoarchaeological in the most fundamental sense because buried remains are contained within and removed from an essentially geological context. Yet geoarchaeological research goes beyond this simple relationship and attempts to build collaborative links between specialists in archaeology and the earth sciences to produce new knowledge about past human behavior using the technical information and methods of the geosciences. The principal goals of geoarchaeology lie in understanding the relationships between humans and their environment. These goals include (1) how cultures adjust to their ecosystem through time, (2) what earth science factors were related to the evolutionary emergence of humankind, and (3) which methodological tools involving analysis of sediments and landforms, documentation and explanation of change in buried materials, and measurement of time will allow access to new aspects of the past. This encyclopedia defines terms, introduces problems, describes techniques, and discusses theory and strategy, all in a format designed to make specialized details accessible to the public as well as practitioners. It covers subjects in environmental archaeology, dating, materials analysis, and paleoecology, all of which represent different sources of specialist knowledge that must be shared in order to reconstruct, analyze, and explain the record of the human past. It will not specifically cover sites, civilizations, and ancient cultures, etc., that are better described in other encyclopedias of world archaeology. The Editor Allan S. Gilbert is Professor of Anthropology at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York. He holds a B.A. from Rutgers University, and his M.A., M.Phil., and Ph.D. were earned at Columbia University. His areas of research interest include the Near East (late prehistory and early historic periods) as well as the Middle Atlantic region of the U.S. (historical archaeology). His specializations are in archaeozoology of the Near East and geoarchaeology, especially mineralogy and compositional analysis of pottery and building materials. Publications have covered a range of subjects, including ancient pastoralism, faunal quantification, skeletal microanatomy, brick geochemistry, and two co-edited volumes on the marine geology and geoarchaeology of the Black Sea basin.
|Author||: Bruno David,Ian J. McNiven|
|Publisher||: Oxford Handbooks|
|Release Date||: 2018|
|ISBN 10||: 0190607351|
|Pages||: 1152 pages|
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