Local Electricity Markets introduces the fundamental characteristics, needs, and resource constraints shaping the design and implementation of local electricity markets, and addresses proposed local market models and lessons from their limited implementation. The book discusses decision and informatics tools considered important in the implementation of local electricity markets. It features a review of management and trading platforms, including commercially available tools. Aspects of local electricity market infrastructure are identified and discussed, including physical and software infrastructure, regulatory frameworks available for local electricity market development internationally, and barriers and opportunities for local electricity markets in the future. Delineates key components shaping the design and implementation of local energy market structure Provides a coherent view on the enabling infrastructures and technologies that underpin local market expansion Explores the current regulatory environment for local electricity markets drawn from a global panel of contributors Exposes future paths toward widespread implementation of local electricity markets using an empirical review of barriers and opportunities Reviews relevant local electricity market case studies, pilots, and demonstrators already deployed and under implementation
This master thesis has as an objective the development of an electricity market. It is a research project that aims to be the foundation for a bigger and more thorough analysis. It examines the implementation of a local electricity market in a residential network equipped with renewable generation and storage technologies. In the context of this project the electricity market is defined as a real-time market focused on the exchange of active power. This thesis focuses on examining the effects on electricity prices that different pricing and consumption strategies have. In this context the feasibility of the results, from a power flow point, are not examined. The network in question is considered to be connected to the low voltage, alternating current grid and it comprises exclusively of households. It is a perfectly competitive market in the sense that no single player can exercise market power on his own, in order to raise prices. Simulations are conducted in a MATLAB environment to investigate the effects of different pricing and consumption strategies on the clearing prices of the market, as well as to determine the viability of such a market. The viability of the project in the context of this thesis is examined only from a financial aspect. Prices are not chosen arbitrarily but aim to mirror real world costs and more specifically the Levelized Costs of Energy and Storage. It is against these quantities that the resulting prices are compared to conclude about the viability of the project. Furthermore a cartel situation is simulated to investigate possible outcomes. Again in the context of this thesis a cartel is assumed to be a consortium of players colluding for financial gain, a fraction of the market players that offers higher prices and instigate atypical market operation. The results demonstrate the viability of such a market, as well as the effects of the cartel situation. Each scenario is examined separately and then compared against the rest. Finally a cost analysis is conducted in order to show the costs of such a study in the real world.
Regulation & Investments in Energy Markets: Solutions for the Mediterranean presents the status of advancement and maturity of the Mediterranean energy policy, identifying patterns of development as well as lessons learned. Mediterranean countries are facing unprecedented challenges in the energy sector which affect the entire region. Energy policy and regulation is the key to tackling energy efficiency challenges, and providing favorable conditions for engineering infrastructures, investments, and improving security of energy supply. The assumption that the normative model, on which the EC energy policy is based, could be adopted outside EU boundaries has proven to be difficult to implement. This book looks at the Mediterranean regions search for a revised model for regulatory convergence and provides answers to those research questions, allowing the reader to understand the different technical, institutional, and financial frameworks for energy policy. Contains a detailed overview of the specificities and institutional frameworks, giving greater clarity on existing energy practice Provides recommendations and contributions from leading scholars and key players in energy policy research Presents information from a region wide interdisciplinary approach based on specific industry information
|Author||: Pol Olivella Rosell|
|Release Date||: 2020|
|Pages||: 246 pages|
In the context of distributed generation growth, local grids could face operational issues. In that sense, smart grid deployment will give information to local grid operators about grid status at medium and low voltage levels for taking operational decisions on daily basis. This thesis presents local markets as a potential solution to avoid local grid congestions and over-costs. They mainly increase the negotiation power of end-users with distributed energy resources and allow activation of flexibility at local level.First of all, this thesis analyses electric vehicles as a potential challenge for distribution grids and electricity markets in case of uncontrolled charging as it could cause consumption peaks. At the same time, electric vehicles could be part of the solution thanks to their capability of shifting forward their consumption. The first solution presented in this thesis is a building level electric vehicle management algorithm in order to reduce energy cost and consumption peaks.However, local grid operators need a solution to deal with aggregated level problems like high demand or high generation periods. Such kind of problems vary over time and place, and they could be difficult to integrate in regular grid tariffs. Therefore, the present thesis provides two local market designs for these problems. The first local market presented is designed for taking advantage of renewable energy producers before and after the whole-sale day-ahead market without threatening distribution grids and increasing the local social welfare. However, this market implies significant regulatory changes because the local market operator should take sorne of the current local grid operator regulated activities.Therefore, this thesis presents a second market design for managing portfolios of consumers, producers and prosumers, and it could be operated by retailers, balance responsible parties or aggregators for flexibility provision without regulatory issues. The work includes a description of roles, contracts and interactions of such local flexibility market, and three optimization algorithms depending on the application, complexity and portfolio scale. The first algorithm assumes limited information about each site, the second one includes such information but presents potential scalability limitations, and the last algorithm is based on a decomposition method to optimise the aggregator portfolio in a distributed way reducing the computational burden and time.
|Author||: Agence internationale de l'énergie,Peter Fraser,Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,International Energy Agency|
|Publisher||: Paris, France : OECD/IEA|
|Release Date||: 2002|
|Pages||: 125 pages|
Surveys the current situation and market status of distributed generation in selected OECD countries, including the impact of current energy policies.
Bridges the knowledge gap between engineering and economics in a complex and evolving deregulated electricity industry, enabling readers to understand, operate, plan and design a modern power system With an accessible and progressive style written in straight-forward language, this book covers everything an engineer or economist needs to know to understand, operate within, plan and design an effective liberalized electricity industry, thus serving as both a useful teaching text and a valuable reference. The book focuses on principles and theory which are independent of any one market design. It outlines where the theory is not implemented in practice, perhaps due to other over-riding concerns. The book covers the basic modelling of electricity markets, including the impact of uncertainty (an integral part of generation investment decisions and transmission cost-benefit analysis). It draws out the parallels to the Nordpool market (an important point of reference for Europe). Written from the perspective of the policy-maker, the first part provides the introductory background knowledge required. This includes an understanding of basic economics concepts such as supply and demand, monopoly, market power and marginal cost. The second part of the book asks how a set of generation, load, and transmission resources should be efficiently operated, and the third part focuses on the generation investment decision. Part 4 addresses the question of the management of risk and Part 5 discusses the question of market power. Any power system must be operated at all times in a manner which can accommodate the next potential contingency. This demands responses by generators and loads on a very short timeframe. Part 6 of the book addresses the question of dispatch in the very short run, introducing the distinction between preventive and corrective actions and why preventive actions are sometimes required. The seventh part deals with pricing issues that arise under a regionally-priced market, such as the Australian NEM. This section introduces the notion of regions and interconnectors and how to formulate constraints for the correct pricing outcomes (the issue of "constraint orientation"). Part 8 addresses the fundamental and difficult issue of efficient transmission investment, and finally Part 9 covers issues that arise in the retail market. Bridges the gap between engineering and economics in electricity, covering both the economics and engineering knowledge needed to accurately understand, plan and develop the electricity market Comprehensive coverage of all the key topics in the economics of electricity markets Covers the latest research and policy issues as well as description of the fundamental concepts and principles that can be applied across all markets globally Numerous worked examples and end-of-chapter problems Companion website holding solutions to problems set out in the book, also the relevant simulation (GAMS) codes
|Author||: Esther Marie Mengelkamp|
|Release Date||: 2019|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
This book analyzes new electricity pricing models that consider uncertainties in the power market due to the changing behavior of market players and the implementation of renewable distributed generation and responsive loads. In-depth chapters examine the different types of market players including the generation, transmission, and distribution companies, virtual power plants, demand response aggregators, and energy hubs and microgrids. Expert authors propose optimal operational models for short-term performance and scheduling and present readers with solutions for pricing challenges in uncertain environments. This book is useful for engineers, researchers and students involved in integrating demand response programs into smart grids and for electricity market operation and planning. Proposes optimal operation models; Discusses the various players in today's electricity markets; Describes the effects of demand response programs in smart grids.
Introduces readers to micro and local power markets and their use for local initiatives, grid integration, and future applications This book provides the basis for understanding micro power markets, emphasizing its application for local initiatives, the grid integration of renewable-based generation, and facilitating the decarbonization of the future electrical networks. It gives readers a comprehensive overview of the market operation, and highlights the basis of the design of local and micro markets. Micro and Local Power Markets starts by covering the economics and basic principle of power markets, including the fundamentals of the power trading (for both wholesale and local markets). Following a definition of both micro and local (technical and economic aspects) power markets, the book then looks at the organization of such markets. It describes the design of those power markets, isolated from the wholesale markets, and examines the methodologies of the interaction between these power markets and wholesale markets. The book also presents cognitive business models for micro and local power markets, as well as the regulatory issues concerning them. Introduces the basic principle of power markets Defines micro and local power markets Outlines the design of micro and local power markets, including the principles, as well as the trading schemes, flexibility, and services Discusses methodologies of the interaction between micro and local power markets and wholesale markets Presents business models for micro and local power markets Summarizes regulatory issues around micro and local power markets Micro and Local Power Markets is an ideal book for upper undergraduate students in engineering, as well as for early researchers in the energy sector. It is also recommended for any scientist and engineer being introduced to the field of power systems and their organization.
Electricity-contract auctions have been getting increased attention as they have emerged as a successful mechanism to procure new generation capacity and. This book presents a comprehensive overview of international experiences in auction design and implementation.
This thesis presents a system analysis for co-operation in local electricity markets including distributors and customers. The purpose of co-operation is to minimise the system cost of local markets by introducing system measures, such as end-use measures and municipal co-generation plants. Co-operation will strengthen the position of local markets in the national as well as future international electricity markets. With end-use measures local markets will achieve flexibility, additional reserve capacity and ability to avoid sudden large costs for peak loads. Biomass-fired cogeneration plants can become of great importance in an international market. In Sweden there is a simultaneous demand for electricity and district heating, many local markets already include district heating systems and there are major forest areas which can contribute with renewable fuel. The system analysis is partly based on the simulation model (INDSIM) and the linear programming model (MODEST). The simulation model has been further developed (STRATO) to include calculation of system costs. Shadow price analysis has been developed in order to study incentives for system measures. Calculation procedures have been developed that describe cooperation between distributor and customer. Six case studies of a selection of real, existing local markets in Sweden are presented. The studies show the potential economical effects of co-operation measured by system costs and shadow prices. Co-operation has been considered between demand- and supply-side, electricity- and district heating systems and also between different time periods. In a typical local market with 90 000 inhabitants, if end use measures are introduced without cooperation the system cost of the distributor will increase by 14 million SEK for a time period of 25 years. If instead end-use measures are introduced in co-operation, together with a biomass-fired cogeneration plant, the system cost of the local market will be reduced by 444 million SEK. Furthermore, the use of biomass in the local market is increased from 36 to 72 % while the use of oil is decreased from 34 to 1%. Another case study of another local market (50 000 inhabitants) shows that end-use measures will reduce the system cost (excluding investment costs) of an industry by 50 % corresponding to 1.3 million SEK for one year. The end-use measures imply reduced power demand during peak load periods in the local market and increased power demand during non- peak load periods.
This textbook provides a detailed analysis of operation and planning problems faced by virtual power plants participating in different electricity markets. The chapters address in-depth, topics such as: optimization, market power, expansion, and modelling uncertainty in operation and planning problems of virtual power plants. The book provides an up-to-date description of decision-making tools to address challenging questions faced by virtual power plants such as: How can virtual power plants optimize their participation in electricity markets? How can a virtual power plant exercise market power? How can virtual power plants be optimally expanded? How can uncertainty be efficiently modelled in the operation and planning problems of virtual power plants? The book is written in a tutorial style and modular format, and includes many illustrative examples to facilitate comprehension. It is intended for a diverse audience including advanced undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of electric energy systems, operations research, and economics. Practitioners in the energy sector will also benefit from the concepts and techniques presented in this book. In particular, this book: Provides students with the GAMS codes to solve the examples in the book; Provides a basis for the formulation of decision-making problems under uncertainty; Contains a blend of theoretical concepts and practical applications that are developed as working algorithms.