|Author||: Anup Pradhan,Nheta Willie,Junior Mabiza,Charles Mbohwa,Benedikt Buchspies|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2019-04|
|ISBN 10||: 9780128159118|
|Pages||: 320 pages|
Recent Advances in Platinum based Fuel Cell Technology discusses past, present and future research works on platinum as it applies to fuel cells. It examines the global trends of platinum mining, processing and its application, with case studies from the Southern African region. Processing techniques and application of nanotechnology are also explored. The book offers a brief discussion on different types of fuel cell and a detailed description of platinum-based fuel cell technology. It includes the cutting edge technological advances driving the interest on these technologies. Environmental and socio-economic impacts of the production chain of fuel cell technology are evaluated using life cycle assessment, and criticality assessment of platinum group metals focusing on all aspects of its sustainability is also presented. Offers a comprehensive overview of the platinum value chain in relation to its application in energy technologies, including fuel cells and electrolyzers Presents trends and cutting-edge technologies Examines different perspectives, such as technologies of mining, processing, sustainability aspects and criticality for the use of platinum in fuel cells
|Author||: National Research Council,Committee on Earth Resources,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,National Materials Advisory Board,Committee on Technologies for the Mining Industries|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2002-03-14|
|ISBN 10||: 9780309169837|
|Pages||: 102 pages|
The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the U. S. Department of Energy commissioned the National Research Council (NRC) to undertake a study on required technologies for the Mining Industries of the Future Program to complement information provided to the program by the National Mining Association. Subsequently, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health also became a sponsor of this study, and the Statement of Task was expanded to include health and safety. The overall objectives of this study are: (a) to review available information on the U.S. mining industry; (b) to identify critical research and development needs related to the exploration, mining, and processing of coal, minerals, and metals; and (c) to examine the federal contribution to research and development in mining processes.
This report examines the role of rare earth metals and other materials in the clean energy economy. It was prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) based on data collected and research performed during 2010. In the report, DoE describes plans to: (1) develop its first integrated research agenda addressing critical materials, building on three technical workshops convened by the DoE during November and December 2010; (2) strengthen its capacity for information-gathering on this topic; and (3) work closely with international partners, including Japan and Europe, to reduce vulnerability to supply disruptions and address critical material needs. Charts and tables. This is a print on demand report.
|Author||: Frank Crundwell,Michael Moats,Venkoba Ramachandran,Timothy Robinson,W. G. Davenport|
|Release Date||: 2011-07-18|
|ISBN 10||: 0080968104|
|Pages||: 622 pages|
This book describes and explains the methods by which three related ores and recyclables are made into high purity metals and chemicals, for materials processing. It focuses on present day processes and future developments rather than historical processes. Nickel, cobalt and platinum group metals are key elements for materials processing. They occur together in one book because they (i) map together on the periodic table (ii) occur together in many ores and (iii) are natural partners for further materials processing and materials manufacturing. They all are, for example, important catalysts – with platinum group metals being especially important for reducing car and truck emissions. Stainless steels and CoNiFe airplane engine super alloys are examples of practical usage. The product emphasises a sequential, building-block approach to the subject gained through the author’s previous writings (particularly Extractive Metallurgy of Copper in four editions) and extensive experience. Due to the multiple metals involved and because each metal originates in several types of ore – e.g. tropical ores and arctic ores this necessitates a multi-contributor work drawing from multiple networks and both engineering and science. Synthesizes detailed review of the fundamental chemistry and physics of extractive metallurgy with practical lessons from industrial consultancies at the leading international plants Discusses Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals for the first time in one book Reviews extraction of multiple metals from the same tropical or arctic ore Industrial, international and multidisciplinary focus on current standards of production supports best practice use of industrial resources
In this book, experts engage in an extended dialogue arguing for a comprehensive view of sustainability. They emphasize the constraints imposed by the relationships among the components, for example, how the need for clean, easily accessible water intersects with the need for the energy required to provide it. This book urges a transformation in the way we view sustainability, a transformation that is necessary if we are to plan responsibly for a more sustainable world.--[book jacket].
|Author||: Robert U. Ayres,Leslie W. Ayres,Ingrid Råde|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2013-03-14|
|ISBN 10||: 9401733791|
|Pages||: 265 pages|
Achieving the goals and objectives of sustainable development requires better information about the consequences of proposed actions. Partial information accounts for many failed efforts in the past. The financial implications for the proponent of the projects have often been more thoroughly analyzed than the implications for other actors. The impacts on biological diversity, or on the social fabric of local communities, have often been ignored. Decisi- makers may also focus more on the short-term consequences instead of long- term impacts, creating negative unintended consequences. It is clear that better decision-making processes are needed. Making better decisions requires identifying, obtaining, synthesizing and acting on larger and more diverse data sets, including information that has previously been overlooked in development decisions. The good news is that better processes are being developed and are becoming available. If the goal is to reach decisions that are broadly understood and accepted, affected communities need to be consulted. Early public participation in defining problems is a prerequisite to effective decision-making. There is no universal formula or checklist of information applicable to every proposed project. The scope of information required should not be determined from the start by small cadres of experts. It is unlikely that any individual or small group processes all of the expertise to achieve the kind of profound int- disciplinary synthesis that is needed.
As the importance and dependence of specific mineral commodities increase, so does concern about their supply. The United States is currently 100 percent reliant on foreign sources for 20 mineral commodities and imports the majority of its supply of more than 50 mineral commodities. Mineral commodities that have important uses and face potential supply disruption are critical to American economic and national security. However, a mineral commodity's importance and the nature of its supply chain can change with time; a mineral commodity that may not have been considered critical 25 years ago may be critical today, and one considered critical today may not be so in the future. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced this volume to describe a select group of mineral commodities currently critical to our economy and security. For each mineral commodity covered, the authors provide a comprehensive look at (1) the commodity's use; (2) the geology and global distribution of the mineral deposit types that account for the present and possible future supply of the commodity; (3) the current status of production, reserves, and resources in the United States and globally; and (4) environmental considerations related to the commodity's production from different types of mineral deposits. The volume describes U.S. critical mineral resources in a global context, for no country can be self-sufficient for all its mineral commodity needs, and the United States will always rely on global mineral commodity supply chains. This volume provides the scientific understanding of critical mineral resources required for informed decisionmaking by those responsible for ensuring that the United States has a secure and sustainable supply of mineral commodities.
|Author||: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on Developing a Research Agenda for Utilization of Gaseous Carbon Waste Streams|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2019-02-22|
|ISBN 10||: 0309483360|
|Pages||: 256 pages|
In the quest to mitigate the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere, researchers and policymakers have increasingly turned their attention to techniques for capturing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, either from the locations where they are emitted or directly from the atmosphere. Once captured, these gases can be stored or put to use. While both carbon storage and carbon utilization have costs, utilization offers the opportunity to recover some of the cost and even generate economic value. While current carbon utilization projects operate at a relatively small scale, some estimates suggest the market for waste carbon-derived products could grow to hundreds of billions of dollars within a few decades, utilizing several thousand teragrams of waste carbon gases per year. Gaseous Carbon Waste Streams Utilization: Status and Research Needs assesses research and development needs relevant to understanding and improving the commercial viability of waste carbon utilization technologies and defines a research agenda to address key challenges. The report is intended to help inform decision making surrounding the development and deployment of waste carbon utilization technologies under a variety of circumstances, whether motivated by a goal to improve processes for making carbon-based products, to generate revenue, or to achieve environmental goals.
A comparison of how societal actors in different geographical, political and cultural contexts understand agents and drivers of sustainability transformations.
This open access book presents detailed pathways to achieve 100% renewable energy by 2050, globally and across ten geographical regions. Based on state-of-the-art scenario modelling, it provides the vital missing link between renewable energy targets and the measures needed to achieve them. Bringing together the latest research in climate science, renewable energy technology, employment and resource impacts, the book breaks new ground by covering all the elements essential to achieving the ambitious climate mitigation targets set out in the Paris Climate Agreement. For example, sectoral implementation pathways, with special emphasis on differences between developed and developing countries and regional conditions, provide tools to implement the scenarios globally and domestically. Non-energy greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios define a sustainable pathway for land-use change and the agricultural sector. Furthermore, results of the impact of the scenarios on employment and mineral and resource requirements provide vital insight on economic and resource management implications. The book clearly demonstrates that the goals of the Paris Agreement are achievable and feasible with current technology and are beneficial in economic and employment terms. It is essential reading for anyone with responsibility for implementing renewable energy or climate targets internationally or domestically, including climate policy negotiators, policy-makers at all levels of government, businesses with renewable energy commitments, researchers and the renewable energy industry.
Bringing together a broad range of topics on resource recovery this book provides a valuable resource for those working in green chemistry and waste management.
A manifesto for a radically different philosophy and practice of manufacture and environmentalism "Reduce, reuse, recycle" urge environmentalists; in other words, do more with less in order to minimize damage. But as this provocative, visionary book argues, this approach perpetuates a one-way, "cradle to grave" manufacturing model that dates to the Industrial Revolution and casts off as much as 90 percent of the materials it uses as waste, much of it toxic. Why not challenge the notion that human industry must inevitably damage the natural world? In fact, why not take nature itself as our model? A tree produces thousands of blossoms in order to create another tree, yet we do not consider its abundance wasteful but safe, beautiful, and highly effective; hence, "waste equals food" is the first principle the book sets forth. Products might be designed so that, after their useful life, they provide nourishment for something new-either as "biological nutrients" that safely re-enter the environment or as "technical nutrients" that circulate within closed-loop industrial cycles, without being "downcycled" into low-grade uses (as most "recyclables" now are). Elaborating their principles from experience (re)designing everything from carpeting to corporate campuses, William McDonough and Michael Braungart make an exciting and viable case for change.
This volume compiles topics from the REWAS 2013 symposium at the TMS Annual Meeting, focusing on different aspects of sustainability. It discusses how to realize sustainability in such areas as transportation, the built environment, electrical and electronic equipment and infrastructure, energy production, and water systems. Enabling sustainability topics include the use of metals and materials processing, recycling and recovery, as well as process design and modeling. The book focuses on understanding sustainability through life cycle management and analysis, systems modeling and design, and education and consumer awareness.
This edited volume presents new data and insights from the most internationally respected PGE experts, representing a variety of disciplines ranging from chemistry, geochemistry, biology, environmental science to toxicology and environmental health. It builds upon three previous co-edited books published by Springer, Zereini and Alt (Eds.) (1999, 2000 and 2006), incorporating the most recent advances on the topic. The book covers the following topical areas related to PGE: sources and applications, analytical methods, environmental fate, bioavailability and chemical behaviour, use of bioindicators and human exposures and health risk potential. Highly interdisciplinary in orientation, this book is a comprehensive guide to academics, students and professionals working in a number of different scientific fields, who are interested in topics related to platinum metal emissions in the environment.
|Author||: Nicoline Wrisberg,Helias A. Udo de Haes,Ursula Triebswetter,Peter Eder,R. Clift|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2012-12-06|
|ISBN 10||: 9401004560|
|Pages||: 275 pages|
The aim of this book is to link demand and supply of environmental information in the field of Life Cycle Management. The book is based on the results of the CHAINET concerted action financed by EU-DGXII for the work period 1998-2000, and is intended to build bridges between the different scientific communities in the field of Life Cycle Management. A structured approach is followed, meaning that both demand and supply of environmental information are characterised, after which the two are linked.
Mankind is using a greater variety of metals in greaterquantities than ever before. As a result there is increasing globalconcern over the long-term availability of secure and adequatesupplies of the metals needed by society. Critical metals, whichare those of growing economic importance that might be susceptibleto future scarcity, are a particular worry. For many of thesewe have little information on how they are concentrated in theEarth’s crust, how to extract them from their ores, and howto use, recycle and dispose of them effectively and safely. Published with the British Geological Survey, the CriticalMetals Handbook brings together a wealth of knowledge oncritical metals and provides a foundation for improving the futuresecurity and sustainability of critical metal supplies. Written byinternational experts, it provides a unique source of authoritativeinformation on diverse aspects of the critical metals, includinggeology, deposits, processing, applications, recycling,environmental issues and markets. It is aimed at a broadnon-specialist audience, including professionals and academicsworking in the exploration and mining sectors, in mining financeand investment, and in mineral processing and manufacturing. Itwill also be a valuable reference for policy makers concerned withresource management, land-use planning, eco-efficiency, recyclingand related fields.