Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The Kola Superdeep Borehole is the result of a scientific drilling project of the former USSR. The project attempted to drill as deep as possible into the Earth's crust. Drilling began on 24 May 1970 on the Kola Peninsula, using the Uralmash-4E, and later the Uralmash-15000 series drilling rig. A number of boreholes were drilled by branching from a central hole. The deepest, SG-3, reached 12,261 metres (40,230 ft) in 1989, and remains the deepest hole ever drilled. The longest hole ever drilled is the 12,290 m (40,300 ft) Maersk Oil BD-04A well at Al-Shaheen field in Qatar, but the Maersk hole was primarily horizontal.
The present book is devoted to the study of the deep Earth's interior structure, one of the most important problems of Earth sciences today. The drilling of the Kola superdeep well inaugurated a new stage in the study of the Precambrian continental crust. The well was sunk in the northeastern part of the Baltic Shield, in an area where the Precambrian ore-bearing structures, typical of the ancient platform basements, are in juxtaposition with each other. To the present the well has been drilled to a depth of 12 km, has traversed the full thickness of the Proterozoic complex and a considerable part of the Archean stratum, and is still be ing worked on. This book reviews the principal results of investigations to a depth of 11,600 m; these are described in three sections: geology, geophysics, and drilling. The book begins with a general review of the history, the present state of knowledge, and trends of further investigations in the field of study of the Earth's interior and superdeep drilling. The first section of the book considers the geology of the vicinity of the Kola superdeep well and describes its geological section based on a detailed examination both of the cores and the near-borehole area.
Fifty years ago, no one could explain mountains. Arguments about their origin were spirited, to say the least. Progressive scientists were ridiculed for their ideas. Most geologists thought the Earth was shrinking. Contracting like a hot ball of iron, shrinking and exposing ridges that became mountains. Others were quite sure the planet was expanding. Growth widened sea basins and raised mountains. There was yet another idea, the theory that the world's crust was broken into big plates that jostled around, drifting until they collided and jarred mountains into existence. That idea was invariably dismissed as pseudo-science. Or "utter damned rot" as one prominent scientist said. But the doubtful theory of plate tectonics prevailed. Mountains, earthquakes, ancient ice ages, even veins of gold and fields of oil are now seen as the offspring of moving tectonic plates. Just half a century ago, most geologists sternly rejected the idea of drifting continents. But a few intrepid champions of plate tectonics dared to differ. The Mountain Mystery tells their story.
|Author||: Rolf Emmermann,Jürgen Wohlenberg|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2013-04-17|
|ISBN 10||: 3642745881|
|Pages||: 533 pages|
In October 1986 the German Minister for Research and Technology (Bundesminister fUr Forschung und Technologie), Dr. H. Riesenhuber, officially announced that the super-deep borehole of the Continental Deep Drilling Program of the Federal Republic of Germany (KTB) would be drilled in the Oberpfalz area of Northern Bavaria. The site selection was based on a recommendation from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) made after an evaluation by the Project Management of the technical and financial risks involved. This decision was preceded by a conference held from September 19 to 21, 1986 in Seeheim/Odenwald at which the results of the site studies in the Oberpfalz and the Schwarzwald were presented and thoroughly debated. The models and scientific targets resulting from these investigations formed the basis for a vote by the DFG Senate Commission for Geoscientific Interdisciplinary Research which was taken immediately after the conference. After evaluation of all scientific and technical aspects, the members of the commission voted almost unanimously for the Oberpfalz site. It was, ho",'ever, strongly emphasized that both locations had a wealth of attractive research objectives and that despite clear-cut differences in some major aspects scientifically the two could be regarded as more or less equivalent. Both'locations would be excellent sites for research drilling and would certainly cor.
Timothy Morton argues that ecological awareness in the present Anthropocene era takes the form of a strange loop or Möbius strip, twisted to have only one side. Deckard travels this oedipal path in Blade Runner (1982) when he learns that he might be the enemy he has been ordered to pursue. Ecological awareness takes this shape because ecological phenomena have a loop form that is also fundamental to the structure of how things are. The logistics of agricultural society resulted in global warming and hardwired dangerous ideas about life-forms into the human mind. Dark ecology puts us in an uncanny position of radical self-knowledge, illuminating our place in the biosphere and our belonging to a species in a sense that is far less obvious than we like to think. Morton explores the logical foundations of the ecological crisis, which is suffused with the melancholy and negativity of coexistence yet evolving, as we explore its loop form, into something playful, anarchic, and comedic. His work is a skilled fusion of humanities and scientific scholarship, incorporating the theories and findings of philosophy, anthropology, literature, ecology, biology, and physics. Morton hopes to reestablish our ties to nonhuman beings and to help us rediscover the playfulness and joy that can brighten the dark, strange loop we traverse.
A look at our current understanding of Earth's structure.
They appear in the first pages of the Bible, sons of God who coupled with mere mortals before and after the Flood. They are the fallen angels and their children--the Nephilim--who are also the true builders of the pyramids and other great monuments of ancient history. The Truth Behind Myth In The Nephilim and the Pyramid of the Apocalypse, author Patrick Heron examines ancient texts from Genesis to the Book of Enoch to Revelations to once and for all establish the true identity of this mysterious, lost race of giant beings. Are they angels? Genetic monsters? Are they characters of fable and myth? Are they still among us? Within these pages the answers are finally revealed. Solving The Riddle Of The Pyramids The identity of the Nephilim firmly in hand, Patrick Heron takes his research deeper, using science and an examination of age-old prophecies to discover the true meaning of the pyramids. His astonishing findings address the importance of the pyramid shape and its diabolical aim to supplant the City of God. And last but not least, once the riddle of the pyramids is solved, its significance in helping to navigate the coming Apocalypse is fully illuminated. Patrick Heron was born in Dublin, Ireland in 1952, and has a B.S. and M.A. in Business Studies from Trinity College, Dublin. At the age of 24, he began his Christian walk following an epiphany he experienced while reading the Bible. In 1997, having recently become interested in Bible prophecy concerning the "end times," Patrick published his best-selling book Apocalypse Soon. He currently resides in Dublin with his family and is not associated with any particular church or denomination.
|Author||: Karl Fuchs,Yevgeny A. Kozlovsky,Anatoly I. Krivtsov,Mark D. Zoback|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2012-12-06|
|ISBN 10||: 3642501435|
|Pages||: 436 pages|
The articles in this volume were selected from a series of reports delivered in the So viet Union at Yaroslavl during the International Seminar "Super-deep drilling and deep geophysical research", which was organized and held in August 1988 by the Ministry of Geology of the USSR, jointly with the Inter-Union Commission on the Lithosphere. One of the most important problems of modem geology, is the state and prospects of further development of deep continental structure investigations, was discussed at the seminar with the participation of 245 scientists and specialists from 19 countries. At the plenary and sectional meetings of the seminar, 83 reports were delivered, discussions on the most interesting problems were organized, the exchange of ideas between the leading scientists a round table took place in discussion. The distinctive feature of the present collection of articles is the wide scope of the investigation of the Earth's crust. The reports elucidate such subjects of world impor tance as (1) achievements in implementation of major scientific programs investi gating deep Earth structure and plans for their further materialization; (2) theoretical problems of carrying out geological-geophysical explorations and drilling operations; and (3) new approaches to the study of the Earth's interior. The results of deep inves tigations of individual countries and organizations are considered, and concrete tech nical elaboration, methods of work execution, etc. are discussed.
A profound meditation on climate change and the Anthropocene and an urgent search for the fossils—industrial, chemical, geological—that humans are leaving behind What will the world look like in ten thousand years—or ten million? What kinds of stories will be told about us? In Footprints: In Search of Future Fossils, the award-winning author David Farrier explores the traces we will leave for the very distant future. Modern civilization has created objects and landscapes with the potential to endure through deep time, whether it is plastic polluting the oceans and nuclear waste sealed within the earth or the 30 million miles of roads spanning the planet. Our carbon could linger in the atmosphere for 100,000 years, and the remains of our cities will still exist millions of years from now as a layer in the rock. These future fossils have the potential to reveal much about how we lived in the twenty-first century. Crossing the boundaries of literature, art, and science, Footprints invites us to think about how we will be remembered in the myths and stories of our distant descendants. Traveling from the Baltic Sea to the Great Barrier Reef, and from an ice-core laboratory in Tasmania to Shanghai, one of the world’s biggest cities, Farrier describes a world that is changing rapidly, with consequences beyond the scope of human understanding. As much a message of hope as a warning, Footprints will not only alter how you think about the future; it will change how you see the world today.
"The Making of a Land - Geology of Norway" takes the reader on a journey in geological time, from primordial times to the present day. A fantastic journey from the summits of Norway's spectacular rugged and weather-beaten mountains to the riches concealed in the sedimentary rocks on the continental shelf. This book displays the treasures of Norwegian geology for everyone to see. Norway's geological resources represent the foundation of its welfare state. During several centuries first the mining, and then the oil industries have been economic mainstays, and this will continue in the future. The book presents a description both of Norway and the planet we inhabit and depend on for our survival. It is lavishly illustrated with photographs and maps from all over the country.