The monographic book addresses the basics of the charge carrier photoemission from one solid to another - the internal photoemission, (IPE) - and different spectroscopic applications of this phenomenon to solid state heterojunctions. This is the first book in the field of IPE, which complements the conventional external photoemission spectroscopy by analysing interfaces separated from the sample surface by a layer of a different solid or liquid. IPE is providing the most straightforward and, therefore, reliable information regarding the energy spectrum of electron states at interfaces. At the same time, the method provides the unique capability of analysing the heterostructures relevant to the modern micro- and nano-electronic devices as well as new materials involved in their design and fabrication. In addition to the discussion of fundamental physical and technical aspects of IPE spectroscopic applications, several “hot topics are addressed. These include development of new insulating materials for advances Si MOS technology (both high-k gate insulators and low-k dielectrics for interconnect insulation), metal gate materials, development of heterostructures based on high-mobility semiconductors, etc. Thanks to a considerable activity in this field over the last few years, the recent results concerning band structure of most important interfaces involving novel materials can now be documented. - First complete description of the internal photoemission phenomena - A practical guide to internal photoemission measurements - Describes reliable energy barrier determination procedures - Surveys trap spectroscopy methods applicable to thin insulating layers - Provides an overview of the most recent results on band structure of high-permittivity insulating materials and their interfaces - Contains a complete collection of reference data on interface band alignment for wide-bandgap insulating materials in contact with metals and semiconductors
The second edition of Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy thoroughly updates this vital, practical guide to internal photoemission (IPE) phenomena and measurements. The book's discussion of fundamental physical and technical aspects of IPE spectroscopic applications is supplemented by an extended overview of recent experimental results in swiftly advancing research fields. These include the development of insulating materials for advanced SiMOS technology, metal gate materials, development of heterostructures based on high-mobility semiconductors, and more. Recent results concerning the band structure of important interfaces in novel materials are covered as well. Internal photoemission involves the physics of charge carrier photoemission from one solid to another, and different spectroscopic applications of this phenomenon to solid state heterojunctions. This technique complements conventional external photoemission spectroscopy by analyzing interfaces separated from the sample surface by a layer of a different solid or liquid. Internal photoemission provides the most straightforward, reliable information regarding the energy spectrum of electron states at interfaces. At the same time, the method enables the analysis of heterostructures relevant to modern micro- and nano-electronic devices as well as new materials involved in their design and fabrication. First complete model description of the internal photoemission phenomena Overview of the most reliable energy barrier determination procedures and trap characterization methods Overview of the most recent results on band structure of high-permittivity insulating materials and their interfaces with semiconductors and metals
This book provides the first complete and up-to-date summary of the state of the art in HAXPES and motivates readers to harness its powerful capabilities in their own research. The chapters are written by experts. They include historical work, modern instrumentation, theory and applications. This book spans from physics to chemistry and materials science and engineering. In consideration of the rapid development of the technique, several chapters include highlights illustrating future opportunities as well.
The author, S. Hüfner, presents an authoritative and up-to-date introduction to the field by comprehensively treating the electronic structures of atoms, molecules, solids, and surfaces. Brief descriptions are given of inverse photoemission, spin-polarized photoemission and photoelectron diffraction. Experimental aspects are considered throughout the third edition book and the results are carefully interpreted in terms of the theory. A wealth of measured data is presented in tabulator form for easy use by experimentalists. The reader will learn about the basic technique of photoemission spectroscopy and obtain the necessary background for work based on this book.
This book introduces readers interested in the field of X-rayPhotoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to the practical concepts in thisfield. The book first introduces the reader to the language andconcepts used in this field and then demonstrates how theseconcepts are applied. Including how the spectra are produced,factors that can influence the spectra (all initial and final stateeffects are discussed), how to derive speciation, volume analysedand how one controls this (includes depth profiling), andquantification along with background substraction and curve fittingmethodologies. This is presented in a concise yet comprehensive manner and eachsection is prepared such that they can be read independently ofeach other, and all equations are presented using the most commonlyused units. Greater emphasis has been placed on spectralunderstanding/interpretation. For completeness sake, a descriptionof commonly used instrumentation is also presented. Finally, somecomplementary surface analytical techniques and associated conceptsare reviewed for comparative purposes in stand-alone appendixsections.
|Author||: Juan A Colón Santana|
|Publisher||: Morgan & Claypool Publishers|
|Release Date||: 2016-01-01|
|ISBN 10||: 1627053077|
|Pages||: 109 pages|
Photoemission (also known as photoelectron) spectroscopy refers to the process in which an electron is removed from a specimen after the atomic absorption of a photon. The first evidence of this phenomenon dates back to 1887 but it was not until 1905 that Einstein offered an explanation of this effect, which is now referred to as ""the photoelectric effect"". Quantitative Core Level Photoelectron Spectroscopy: A Primer tackles the pragmatic aspects of the photoemission process with the aim of introducing the reader to the concepts and instrumentation that emerge from an experimental approach. The basic elements implemented for the technique are discussed and the geometry of the instrumentation is explained. The book covers each of the features that have been observed in the X-ray photoemission spectra and provides the tools necessary for their understanding and correct identification. Charging effects are covered in the penultimate chapter with the final chapter bringing closure to the basic uses of the X-ray photoemission process, as well as guiding the reader through some of the most popular applications used in current research.
|Author||: Yale Strausser|
|Release Date||: 1995|
|Pages||: 199 pages|
The book will have two major sections, one on Si based systems and the other on compound semiconductor systems. Although there are many materials common to both technologies, the applications, processing, and problems seen, are different enough to warrant this separation. In the silicon section there will be a chapter on semiconducting layers, such as epi SI, SOI layers, Si Ge films, etc., discussing the techniques used in problem-solving in these films. In the area of conducting films there will be chapters of doped poly Si, silicides and polycides, Al- and/or Cu-cased films, W-based films and one on barrier materials. Each of these systems is sufficiently different to benefit from a different author and a separate discussion of the types of problems encountered. This section will then be completed by a chapter or dielectric films. Even though there are a number of different applications for dielectrics, i.e. passivation films, intermetal dielectrics, gate oxides, field oxides, ad
Photoelectron Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Ultraviolet Photoelectronspectroscopy in the Gas Phase, Second Edition Photoelectron Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Ultraviolet PhotoelectronSpectroscopy in the Gas Phase, Second Edition aims to give practical approach on the subject of photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as provide knowledge on the interpretation of the photoelectron spectrum. The book covers topics such as the principles and literature of photoelectron microscopy; the main features and analysis of photoelectron spectra; ionization techniques; and energies from the photoelectron spectra. Also covered in the book are topics suc as photoelectron band structure and the applications of photoelectron spectroscopy in chemistry. The text is recommended for students and practitioners of chemistry who would like to be familiarized with the concepts of photoelectron spectroscopy and its importance in the field.