|Author||: Zeljko Knez|
|Release Date||: 2021-03-15|
|ISBN 10||: 9780128142295|
|Pages||: 210 pages|
Industrial Scale Application of Subcritical and Supercritical Fluids for Design of Products fills the gap between fundamentals and industrial implantation of various high-pressure process technologies. The book covers the design, start-up and maintenance of real industrial plants, also providing readers with insights on their construction and operational essentials. It is ideal for chemical engineers who operate high pressure units and different researchers who create supercritical fluid technology to solve problems surrounding product fractionation, product formulation, synthesis in SCF, and product development using supercritical fluids technologies. There are some books that describe high pressure technologies and research in the area of sub- and supercritical fluids, but this book presents fundamental data on thermodynamics and mass transfer, topics that are absolutely essential for the design of industrial plants. Includes thermodynamic and mass transfer data necessary for industrial plant design Explains the mechanisms of reactions in a supercritical fluid environment Lists numerous industrial processes for the production of many consumers products, like pharmaceuticals, food, etc.
|Author||: Peter York,Uday B. Kompella,Boris Y. Shekunov|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2004-03-23|
|ISBN 10||: 1135538174|
|Pages||: 632 pages|
Interconnecting the fundamentals of supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies, their current and anticipated utility in drug delivery, and process engineering advances from related methodological domains and pharmaceutical applications, this volume unlocks the potential of supercritical fluids to further the development of improved pharmaceutical prod
Food process engineering, a branch of both food science and chemical engineering, has evolved over the years since its inception and still is a rapidly changing discipline. While traditionally the main objective of food process engineering was preservation and stabilization, the focus today has shifted to enhance health aspects, flavour and taste, nutrition, sustainable production, food security and also to ensure more diversity for the increasing demand of consumers. The food industry is becoming increasingly competitive and dynamic, and strives to develop high quality, freshly prepared food products. To achieve this objective, food manufacturers are today presented with a growing array of new technologies that have the potential to improve, or replace, conventional processing technologies, to deliver higher quality and better consumer targeted food products, which meet many, if not all, of the demands of the modern consumer. These new, or innovative, technologies are in various stages of development, including some still at the R&D stage, and others that have been commercialised as alternatives to conventional processing technologies. Food process engineering comprises a series of unit operations traditionally applied in the food industry. One major component of these operations relates to the application of heat, directly or indirectly, to provide foods free from pathogenic microorganisms, but also to enhance or intensify other processes, such as extraction, separation or modification of components. The last three decades have also witnessed the advent and adaptation of several operations, processes, and techniques aimed at producing high quality foods, with minimum alteration of sensory and nutritive properties. Some of these innovative technologies have significantly reduced the thermal component in food processing, offering alternative nonthermal methods. Food Processing Technologies: A Comprehensive Review covers the latest advances in innovative and nonthermal processing, such as high pressure, pulsed electric fields, radiofrequency, high intensity pulsed light, ultrasound, irradiation and new hurdle technology. Each section will have an introductory article covering the basic principles and applications of each technology, and in-depth articles covering the currently available equipment (and/or the current state of development), food quality and safety, application to various sectors, food laws and regulations, consumer acceptance, advancements and future scope. It will also contain case studies and examples to illustrate state-of-the-art applications. Each section will serve as an excellent reference to food industry professionals involved in the processing of a wide range of food categories, e.g., meat, seafood, beverage, dairy, eggs, fruits and vegetable products, spices, herbs among others.
In order to successfully compete as a sustainable energy source, the value of biomass must be maximized through the production of valuable co-products in the biorefinery. Specialty chemicals and other biobased products can be extracted from biomass prior to or after the conversion process, thus increasing the overall profitability and sustainability of the biorefinery. Biorefinery Co-Products highlights various co-products that are present in biomass prior to and after processing, describes strategies for their extraction , and presents examples of bioenergy feedstocks that contain high value products. Topics covered include: Bioactive compounds from woody biomass Phytochemicals from sugar cane, citrus waste and algae Valuable products from corn and other oil seed crops Proteins from forages Enhancing the value of existing biomass processing streams Aimed at academic researchers, professionals and specialists in the bioenergy industry, Biorefinery Co-Products is an essential text for all scientists and engineers working on the efficient separation, purification and manufacture of value-added biorefinery co-products. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs
|Author||: Vladimir Anikeev,Maohong Fan I|
|Release Date||: 2013-12-21|
|ISBN 10||: 0444626972|
|Pages||: 284 pages|
Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection
Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.
Explore the Pros and Cons of Food Analysis InstrumentsThe identification, speciation, and determination of components, additives, and contaminants in raw materials and products will always be a critical task in food processing and manufacturing. With contributions from leading scientists, many of whom actually developed or refined each technique or
Because of their unique properties and relatively low environmental impact, supercritical fluids have proven highly useful in the extraction and separation of organic compounds, in particle production, as reaction media, and for the destruction of toxic waste. In Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols, experienced practitioners present detailed accounts of a wide variety of techniques using supercritical fluids. These range from the supercritical fluid extraction methods for numerous compounds to the ninhydrin staining of fingerprints on checks and banknotes, and from the detection of impurities in pharmaceuticals to a wide variety of applications throughout environmental and food science, and across analytical, clinical, and medicinal chemistry. Detailed step-by-step instructions enable users to apply these essential techniques successfully the first time, and include modifications that permit their effective adaptation to novel experimental or process conditions. For each application, additional discussions provide needed background information, lists of materials and apparatus, and advice about common pitfalls and how to avoid them. Versatile and comprehensive, Supercritical Methods and Protocols offers both novice and experienced investigators and laboratory analysts powerful tools that will enable successful biological and bioprocess analyses and optimizations today.
|Author||: Iyad Karamé,Janah Shaya,Hassan Srour|
|Publisher||: BoD – Books on Demand|
|Release Date||: 2018-08-16|
|ISBN 10||: 178923574X|
|Pages||: 266 pages|
Fossil fuels still need to meet the growing demand of global economic development, yet they are often considered as one of the main sources of the CO2 release in the atmosphere. CO2, which is the primary greenhouse gas (GHG), is periodically exchanged among the land surface, ocean, and atmosphere where various creatures absorb and produce it daily. However, the balanced processes of producing and consuming the CO2 by nature are unfortunately faced by the anthropogenic release of CO2. Decreasing the emissions of these greenhouse gases is becoming more urgent. Therefore, carbon sequestration and storage (CSS) of CO2, its utilization in oil recovery, as well as its conversion into fuels and chemicals emerge as active options and potential strategies to mitigate CO2 emissions and climate change, energy crises, and challenges in the storage of energy.
In recent years carbon dioxide has played an increasingly important role in biomass processing. This book presents the state-of-the-art of a range of diverse approaches for the use of carbon dioxide in biomass valorisation. The book explores cutting-edge research and important advances in green high-pressure technologies. It gives an overview of the most relevant and promising applications of high-pressure CO2-based technologies in biomass processing from the perspective of the biorefinery concept. Demonstrating the interdisciplinary aspects of high-pressure technologies from biology, chemistry and biochemical engineering areas, this book brings researchers and industrialists up to date with the latest advances in this field, including novel technologies for energy; biochemicals and materials production; and green chemical engineering processes.
Extraction processes are essential steps in numerous industrial applications from perfume over pharmaceutical to fine chemical industry. Nowadays, there are three key aspects in industrial extraction processes: economy and quality, as well as environmental considerations. This book presents a complete picture of current knowledge on green extraction in terms of innovative processes, original methods, alternative solvents and safe products, and provides the necessary theoretical background as well as industrial application examples and environmental impacts. Each chapter is written by experts in the field and the strong focus on green chemistry throughout the book makes this book a unique reference source. This book is intended to be a first step towards a future cooperation in a new extraction of natural products, built to improve both fundamental and green parameters of the techniques and to increase the amount of extracts obtained from renewable resources with a minimum consumption of energy and solvents, and the maximum safety for operators and the environment.
Supercritical Fluid Extraction is a technique in which CO2 is used under extremely high pressure to separate solution (e.g., removing caffeine from coffee). Separations is basic to all process industries and supercritical fluid extraction is a specific type which is receiving a high level of attention. The book will combine basic fundamentals with industrial applications. The second edition has been expanded and updated and includes new chapters on chromatography and food processing. "...this is an excellent book which is both instructive and amusing to read. Its true value is neatly summarised in one of the closing sentences: 'We have supplied you with the guidelines and criteria which you can now apply when considering supercritical fluids for your own needs.'' - Chemistry in Britain, February 1995
|Author||: Syed S. H. Rizvi|
|Release Date||: 2010-10-28|
|ISBN 10||: 0857090755|
|Pages||: 694 pages|
Separation, extraction and concentration are essential processes in the preparation of key food ingredients. They play a vital role in the quality optimization of common foods and beverages and there is also increasing interest in their use for the production of high-value compounds, such as bioactive peptides from milk and whey, and the recovery of co-products from food processing wastes. Part one describes the latest advances in separation, extraction and concentration techniques, including supercritical fluid extraction, process chromatography and membrane technologies. It also reviews emerging techniques of particular interest, such as pervaporation and pressurised liquid extraction. Part two then focuses on advances in separation technologies and their applications in various sectors of the food, beverage and nutraceutical industries. Areas covered include dairy and egg processing, oilseed extraction, and brewing. This section discusses the characteristics of different foods and fluids, how food constituents are affected by separation processes and how separation processes can be designed and operated to optimize end product quality. With its team of experienced international contributors, Separation, extraction and concentration processes in the food, beverage and nutraceutical industries is an important reference source for professionals concerned with the development and optimisation of these processes. Describes the latest advances in separation, extraction and concentration techniques and their applications in various sectors of the food, beverage and nutraceutical industries Reviews emerging techniques of particular interest, such as pervaporation and pressurised liquid extraction Explores the characteristics of different foods and fluids and how food constituents are affected by separation processes
|Author||: M.B. King,T.R. Bott|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2012-12-06|
|ISBN 10||: 9401121389|
|Pages||: 325 pages|
The aim of this book is to present the current state of the art of extracting natural products with near-critical solvents and to view the possibilities of further extensions of the technique. Relevant background theory is given but does not dominate the book. Carbon dioxide is the near-critical solvent used in most recent applications and inevitably receives prominence. In addition to general descriptions and reviews, the book contains three chapters by indus trial practitioners who describe in detail the operation of their processes and discuss the market for their products. Sections on the design of the pressure vessels and pumps required in these processes and on the acquisition of the data required for design are included. The costing of the processes is also discussed. There is good scope for combining a near-critical extraction step with other process steps in which the properties of near-critical solvents are utilised, for example as a reaction or crystallisation medium and a chapter is devoted to these important aspects. It is hoped that the work will be found to contain a great deal of specific information of use to those already familiar with this field. However the style of presentation and content is such that it will also be useful as an introduction. In particular it will be helpful to those wondering if this form of separation method has anything to offer for them, whether they are engineers, chemists or managers in industry, or in academic or research institutions.
|Author||: A. Bertucco,G. Vetter|
|Release Date||: 2001-10-15|
|ISBN 10||: 9780080533940|
|Pages||: 684 pages|
Clear evidence of increasing demands in the processing industry prompted the editors and authors to publish a new book about High Pressure Process Technology: Fundamentals and Applications. This book presents the latest knowledge regarding the high pressure processing aspects combined with that about the modeling, the design and the operation of safe and reliable high pressure plants and equipment. This treatment and selection of the subjects is stimulating and unique. Consisting of nine chapters, each subdivided into several sections, the book addresses the high pressure aspects, providing well selected correlated information connected with a comprehensive overview together with a large number of references. The main body of the first eight chapters refers to subjects like high pressure in general, the thermodynamics and kinetics of the fluids involved, the design of high pressure equipment, the modeling and design of reactors, separation and fractionation units, the safety aspects, the control and economics. In the extended last chapter, examples of promising high pressure applications are explained, such as chemical and enzymatic reactions in supercritical solvents, hydrogenation under supercritical conditions, supercritical water oxidation, polymerization with metallocene catalysts, supercritical extraction, fractionation and precipitation, supercritical pharma processing, ultra-high pressure sterilization and supercritical dry-cleaning.
Green Food Processing Techniques: Preservation, Transformation and Extraction advances the ethics and practical objectives of "Green Food Processing" by offering a critical mass of research on a series of methodological and technological tools in innovative food processing techniques, along with their role in promoting the sustainable food industry. These techniques (such as microwave, ultrasound, pulse electric field, instant controlled pressure drop, supercritical fluid processing, extrusion...) lie on the frontier of food processing, food chemistry, and food microbiology, and are thus presented with tools to make preservation, transformation and extraction greener. The Food Industry constantly needs to reshape and innovate itself in order to achieve the social, financial and environmental demands of the 21st century. Green Food Processing can respond to these challenges by enhancing shelf life and the nutritional quality of food products, while at the same time reducing energy use and unit operations for processing, eliminating wastes and byproducts, reducing water use in harvesting, washing and processing, and using naturally derived ingredients. Introduces the strategic concept of Green Food Processing to meet the challenges of the future of the food industry Presents innovative techniques for green food processing that can be used in academia, and in industry in R&D and processing Brings a multidisciplinary approach, with significant contributions from eminent scientists who are actively working on Green Food Processing techniques