Hydrogen Safety for Energy Applications: Engineering Design, Risk Assessment, and Codes and Standards presents different aspects of the contemporary knowledge regarding hazard, risk and safety connected with hydrogen systems. In the initial part of the book, the hydrogen fundamentals and the main hydrogen technologies are described and discussed. It then explores scientific aspects of the possible sources and consequences of accidental events that can occur when hydrogen is used, including in its vehicular applications. Risk assessment, as well as the safety measures/safety barriers applicable in such situations, are considered. A short survey concerning legal aspects is presented in the last part. Provides factual material, such as models, correlations, tables, nomograms and formulas, that can be used to perform evaluations and propose mitigation measures to diminish risk probability in hydrogen energy systems Presents reference data and detailed descriptions and guidelines of the contemporary risk assessment methodologies Covers accident phenomena and consequences of accidents specific to hydrogen systems in a widely applicable way for the wide variety of hydrogen activities
Hydrogen Infrastructure for Energy Applications: Production, Storage, Distribution and Safety examines methodologies, new models and innovative strategies for the optimization and optimal control of the hydrogen logistic chain, with particular focus on a network of integrated facilities, sources of production, storage systems, infrastructures and the delivery process to the end users through hydrogen refueling stations. The book discusses the main motivations and criteria behind the adoption of hydrogen as an energy carrier or future fuel alternative. It presents current research in hydrogen production processes, especially from renewable energy sources, as well as storage and distribution. The book also reviews methods to model hydrogen demand uncertainties and challenges for the design of the future hydrogen supply chain. The authors go on to explore the network planning of hydrogen infrastructures, the safety and risk issues in hydrogen logistics and their future expectations. Energy engineering professionals, researchers and graduate students will find this a helpful resource to understand the methodologies used to assess the feasibility for developing hydrogen supply chains, hydrogen infrastructure and safety practices. Energy analysts and government agents can benefit from the book's detailed discussion of hydrogen energy applicability. Describes in detail the current state of the available approaches for the planning and modeling of the hydrogen infrastructure Discusses safety issues related to hydrogen in different components of its logistic chain and the methodological approach to evaluate risks that results from hydrogen accidents, including a mathematical model to assess the hazard and consequences of an accident scenario of hydrogen in pipelines Proposes a decision support system for hydrogen energy exploitation, focusing on some specific planning aspects, such as selection of locations with high hydrogen production, based mainly on the use of solar and wind energies Presents a short-term scenario of hydrogen distribution for automotive use, with a concrete, detailed, operative plan for a network of refueling service stations for the hydrogen economy
Hydrogen Safety highlights physiological, physical, and chemical hazards associated with hydrogen production, storage, distribution, and use systems. It also examines potential accident scenarios that could occur with hydrogen use under certain conditions. The number of potential applications for hydrogen continues to grow—from cooling power station generators to widespread commercial use in hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles and other fuel-cell applications. However, this volatile substance poses unique challenges, including easy leakage, low ignition energy, a wide range of combustible fuel-air mixtures, buoyancy, and its ability to embrittle metals that are required to ensure safe operation. Focused on providing a balanced view of hydrogen safety—one that integrates principles from physical sciences, engineering, management, and social sciences—this book is organized to address questions associated with the hazards of hydrogen and the ensuing risk associated with its industrial and public use. What are the properties of hydrogen that can render it a hazardous substance? How have these hazards historically resulted in undesired incidents? How might these hazards arise in the storage of hydrogen and with its use in vehicular transportation? The authors address issues of inherently safer design, safety management systems, and safety culture. They highlight hydrogen storage facilities —which pose greater hazards because of the increased quantities stored and handled—and the dangers of using hydrogen as a fuel for transport. Presented experiments are included to verify computer simulations with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of both gaseous and liquefied hydrogen. The book also provides an overview of the European Commission (EC) Network of Excellence for Hydrogen Safety (HySafe) and presents various case studies associated with hydrogen and constructional materials. It concludes with a brief look at future research requirements and current legal requirements for hydrogen safety.
The overall goal of the HySEA project is to conduct pre-normative research on vented hydrogen deflagrations with an aim to provide recommendations for European and international standards on hydrogen explosion venting mitigation systems, and to develop and validate engineering models (EMs), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element (FE) methods that can be verified and validated against data from experiments performed in containers and smaller enclosures with industry-representative obstacles.
Compendium of Hydrogen Energy Volume 4: Hydrogen Use, Safety and the Hydrogen Economy focuses on the uses of hydrogen. As many experts believe the hydrogen economy will, at some point, replace the fossil fuel economy as the primary source of the world’s energy, this book investigates the uses of this energy, from transport, to stationary and portable applications, with final sections discussing the difficulties and possibilities of the widespread adoption of the hydrogen economy. Written by both leading academics in the fields of sustainable energy and experts from the world of industry Part of a very comprehensive compendium which across four volumes looks at the entirety of the hydrogen energy economy Covers a wide array of hydrogen uses, and details safety tactics, hydrogen applications in transport, and the hydrogen economy as a whole
The fields covered by the hydrogen energy topic have grown rapidly, and now it has become clearly multidisciplinary. In addition to production, hydrogen purification and especially storage are key challenges that could limit the use of hydrogen fuel. In this book, the purification of hydrogen with membrane technology and its storage in "solid" form using new hydrides and carbon materials are addressed. Other novelties of this volume include the power conditioning of water electrolyzers, the integration in the electric grid of renewable hydrogen systems and the future role of microreactors and micro-process engineering in hydrogen technology as well as the potential of computational fluid dynamics to hydrogen equipment design and the assessment of safety issues. Finally, and being aware that transportation will likely constitute the first commercial application of hydrogen fuel, two chapters are devoted to the recent advances in hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines for transport vehicles. Hydrogen from water and biomass considered Holistic approach to the topic of renewable hydrogen production Power conditioning of water electrolyzers and integration of renewable hydrogen energy systems considered Subjects not included in previous books on hydrogen energy Micro process technology considered Subject not included in previous books on hydrogen energy Applications of CFD considered Subject not included in previous books on hydrogen energy Fundamental aspects will not be discussed in detail consciously as they are suitably addressed in previous books Emphasis on technological advancements Chapters written by recognized experts Up-to date approach to the subjects and relevant bibliographic references
|Author||: Paulo Emilio Miranda|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2018-11-12|
|ISBN 10||: 0128142529|
|Pages||: 438 pages|
Science and Engineering of Hydrogen-Based Energy Technologies explores the generation of energy using hydrogen and hydrogen-rich fuels in fuel cells from the perspective of its integration into renewable energy systems using the most sound and current scientific knowledge. The book first examines the evolution of energy utilization and the role expected to be played by hydrogen energy technologies in the world’s energy mix, not just for energy generation, but also for carbon capture, storage and utilization. It provides a general overview of the most common and promising types of fuel cells, such as PEMFCs, SOFCs and direct alcohol fuel cells. The co-production of chemical and electrolysis cells, as well as the available and future materials for fuel cells production are discussed. It then delves into the production of hydrogen from biomass, including waste materials, and from excess electricity produced by other renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro and geothermal. The main technological approaches to hydrogen storage are presented, along with several possible hydrogen energy engineering applications. Science and Engineering of Hydrogen-Based Energy Technologies’s unique approach to hydrogen energy systems makes it useful for energy engineering researchers, professionals and graduate students in this field. Policy makers, energy planning and management professionals, and energy analysts can also benefit from the comprehensive overview that it provides. Presents engineering fundamentals, commercially deployed technologies, up-and-coming developments and applications through a systemic approach Explores the integration of hydrogen technologies in renewable energy systems, including solar, wind, bioenergy and ocean energy Covers engineering standards, guidelines and regulations, as well as policy and social aspects for large-scale deployment of these technologies
Hydrogen Power: An Introduction to Hydrogen Energy and its Applications explains how hydrogen is produced, used, and handled and shows that the use of chemical hydrogen power has enormous advantages as an energy storage, transport, and use medium. Organized into seven chapters, this book first describes the chemical and physical properties of hydrogen. Subsequent chapters elucidate the current industrial uses of hydrogen, methods of producing hydrogen, and hydrogen transportation and storage. Hydrogen safety and environmental considerations are also addressed.
How hydrogen—nonpolluting and easy to produce—could become the fuel of the future.
|Author||: Thomas Hübert,Lois Boon-Brett,William Buttner|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2018-10-09|
|ISBN 10||: 1466596554|
|Pages||: 387 pages|
Understand, Select, and Design Sensors for Hydrogen-Based Applications The use of hydrogen generated from renewable energy sources is expected to become an essential component of a low-carbon, environmentally friendly energy supply, spurring the worldwide development of hydrogen technologies. Sensors for Safety and Process Control in Hydrogen Technologies provides practical, expert-driven information on modern sensors for hydrogen and other gases as well as physical parameters essential for safety and process control in hydrogen technologies. It illustrates how sensing technologies can ensure the safe and efficient implementation of the emerging global hydrogen market. The book explains the various facets of sensor technologies, including practical aspects relevant in hydrogen technologies. It presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the theory (physical and chemical principles), design, and implementations of sensors in hydrogen technologies. The authors also offer guidance on the development of new sensors based on the analysis of the capabilities and limitations of existing sensors with respect to current performance requirements. Suitable for both technical and non-technical personnel, the book provides a balance between detailed descriptions and simple explanations. It gives invaluable insight into the role sensors play as key enabling devices for both control and safety in established and emerging hydrogen technologies.
Aline Leon ́ In the last years, public attention was increasingly shifted by the media and world governmentsto the conceptsof saving energy,reducingpollution,protectingthe - vironment, and developing long-term energy supply solutions. In parallel, research funding relating to alternative fuels and energy carriers is increasing on both - tional and international levels. Why has future energy supply become such a matter of concern? The reasons are the problems created by the world’s current energy supply s- tem which is mainly based on fossil fuels. In fact, the energystored in hydrocarb- based solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels was, is, and will be widely consumed for internal combustion engine-based transportation, for electricity and heat generation in residential and industrial sectors, and for the production of fertilizers in agric- ture, as it is convenient, abundant, and cheap. However, such a widespread use of fossil fuels by a constantly growing world population (from 2. 3 billion in 1939 to 6. 5 billion in 2006) gives rise to the two problems of oil supply and environmental degradation. The problemrelated to oil supply is caused by the fact that fossil fuels are not - newable primary energy sources: This means that since the rst barrel of petroleum has been pumped out from the ground, we have been exhausting a heritage given by nature.