Human Interaction with Electromagnetic Fields: Computational Models in Dosimetry presents some highly rigorous and sophisticated integral equation techniques from computational electromagnetics (CEM), along with practical techniques for the calculation and measurement of internal dosimetry. Theory is accompanied by numerical modeling algorithms and illustrative computational examples that range from academic to full real-world scenarios. Covers both deterministic and stochastic modeling Presents implementations of integral equation approaches, overcoming the limitations of the FDTD approach Presents various biomedical applications
This reference explores the sources, characteristics, bioeffects, and health hazards of extremely low-frequency (ELF) fields and radio frequency radiation (RFR), analyzing current research as well as the latest epidemiological studies to assess potential risks associated with exposure and to develop effective safety guidelines. Compiles reports and investigations from four decades of study on the effect of nonionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation on human health Summarizing modern engineering approaches to control exposure, Electromagnetic Fields and Radiation discusses: EM interaction mechanisms in biological systems Explorations into the impact of EM fields on free radicals, cells, tissues, organs, whole organisms, and the population Regulatory standards in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Asia Pacific Evaluation of incident fields from various EM sources Measurement surveys for various sites including power lines, substations, mobile systems, cellular base stations, broadcast antennas, traffic radar devices, heating equipment, and other sources Dosimetry techniques for the determination of internal EM fields Conclusions reached by the Food and Drug Administration, World Health Organization, and other institutions
Spanning static fields to terahertz waves, this volume explores the range of consequences electromagnetic fields have on the human body. Topics discussed include essential interactions and field coupling phenomena; electric field interactions in cells, focusing on ultrashort, pulsed high-intensity fields; dosimetry or coupling of ELF fields into biological systems; and the historical developments and recent trends in numerical dosimetry. It also discusses mobile communication devices and the dosimetry of RF radiation into the human body, exposure and dosimetry associated with MRI and spectroscopy, and available data on the interaction of terahertz radiation with biological tissues, cells, organelles, and molecules.
Everyone, whether they like it or not, is exposed to electromagnetic fields, most of the time, at very low levels. In this case, they are inconsequential, but they can cause adverse health effects when they become intense enough. This topic is complex and sensitive. Covering frequencies from 0 Hz to 300 GHz, Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields provides an overview of this vast topic. After a reminder of the concepts of electromagnetic fields, the author presents some examples of sources of radiation in daily life and in the industrial or medical sectors. The biophysical and biological effects of these fields on the human body are detailed and the exposure limits are recalled. The exposure assessment and the implementation of the appropriate regulation within companies are also covered. Technically and practically, this book is aimed at people with a scientific background, risk prevention actors, health physicians, especially occupational doctors, and equipment designers.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Board on Radiation Effects Research,Committee on Assessment of the Possible Health Effects of Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN)|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 1993-02-01|
|ISBN 10||: 0309047773|
|Pages||: 182 pages|
Written at the request of the U.S. Air Force and Congress, this book evaluates the potential health effects associated with deployment of the Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN), a communications system to be used in case of a high-altitude detonation of a nuclear device. The committee, composed of experts in biophysics, physics, risk assessment, epidemiology, and cancer, examines data from laboratory and epidemiologic studies of effects from electromagnetic fields to determine the likelihood of health effects being caused by the operation of a fully implemented GWEN system.
This book is designed to provide an overview of the different genotoxicants and their effects on living organisms, including humans. The contributions made by the specialists in this field of research are gratefully acknowledged. We hope that the information presented in this book will meet the expectations and needs of all those interested in the different aspects of the genotoxicity field. The publication of this book is of great importance to those scientists, pharmacologists, physicians and veterinarians, as well as engineers, teachers, graduate students and administrators of environmental programmes, who make use of these investigations to understand both the basic and applied genotoxic aspects of known and new xenobiotics, and to guide them in their future investigations.
|Author||: Sutus Rukspollmuang|
|Release Date||: 1979|
|Pages||: 382 pages|
This revised edition provides patient guidance in its clear and organized presentation of problems. It is rich in variety, large in number and provides very careful treatment of relativity. One outstanding feature is the inclusion of simple, standard examples demonstrated in different methods that will allow students to enhance and understand their calculating abilities. There are over 145 worked examples; virtually all of the standard problems are included.
|Author||: Cristina Peratta,Andres Peratta|
|Publisher||: WIT Press|
|Release Date||: 2010|
|ISBN 10||: 1845644182|
|Pages||: 130 pages|
The objective of this book is to describe techniques to investigate the behaviour of electric fields and induced currents in the human body exposed to different scenarios of extremely low frequency (ELF) high voltage - low current electromagnetic fields by means of numerical modelling with improved Boundary Element Methods (BEM).A variety of three dimensional anatomically shaped human body models under different exposure conditions are presented and solved.The mathematical formulation for the case of human exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields departing from Maxwell equations and for the electrical properties of biological tissue is provided.The underpinning ideas of the Boundary Element Method applied to ELF fields in the human body are presented.A literature survey including electrical properties of tissues relevant to low frequency calculations has been compiled and included in one chapter.A novel improved BEM approach is introduced in order to solve this type of problems leading to more accurate results and more efficient calculations.The developed methodology is applied to three different case studies: i- overhead power transmission lines, ii- power substation rooms, and iii- pregnant woman including foetus and evolving scenarios.In all the cases, a sensitivity analysis investigating the influence of varying geometrical and electrical properties of the tissues has been conducted.The results obtained allow to identify situations of high and low exposure in the different parts of the body and to compare with existing exposure guidelines.
|Author||: Farhad Rachidi,Sergey Tkachenko|
|Publisher||: WIT Press|
|Release Date||: 2008|
|ISBN 10||: 1845640632|
|Pages||: 259 pages|
The evaluation of electromagnetic field coupling to transmission lines is an important problem in electromagnetic compatibility. Traditionally, use is made of the TL approximation which applies to uniform transmission lines with electrically small cross-sectional dimensions, where the dominant mode of propagation is TEM. Antenna-mode currents and higher-order modes appearing at higher frequencies are neglected in TL theory. The use of the TL approximation has permitted to solve a large range of problems (e.g. lightning and EMP interaction with power lines). However, the continual increase in operating frequency of products and higher frequency sources of disturbances (such as UWB systems) makes that the TL basic assumptions are no longer acceptable for a certain number of applications. In the last decade or so, the generalization of classical TL theory to take into account high frequency effects has emerged as an important topic of study in electromagnetic compatibility. This effort resulted in the elaboration of the so-called 'generlized' or 'full-wave' TL theory, which incorporates high frequency radiation effects, while keeping the relative simplicity of TL equations. This book is organized in two main parts. Part I presents consolidated knowledge of classical transmission line theory and different field-to-transmission line coupling models. Part II presents different approaches developed to generalize TL Theory.
|Author||: Mohamed Amine Fakhfakh|
|Publisher||: BoD – Books on Demand|
|Release Date||: 2016-10-05|
|ISBN 10||: 9535126369|
|Pages||: 186 pages|
The book presents interesting topics from the area of modeling and simulation of electric vehicles application. The results presented by the authors of the book chapters are very interesting and inspiring. The book will familiarize the readers with the solutions and enable the readers to enlarge them by their own research. It will be useful for students of Electrical Engineering; it helps them solve practical problems.
|Author||: J. A. Dennis,C. R. Muirhead,J. R. Ennis|
|Release Date||: 1992|
|Pages||: 147 pages|
This review consists of three main parts. In the first the general features of electromagnetic fields and their interactions with the human body are described. It is pointed out that some evidence from biological experiments means that it is not a priori possible to conclude that there are no longterm effects on human health from exposure to levels of electric and magnetic fields below the thresholds for electric shock, bum and overheating. The second part deals with the epidemiological evidence for effects on general health and birth outcome. It is considered that the bulk of the evidence suggests that there are no long-term effects on general health from the levels to which people are normally exposed from power frequencies, radiofrequencies or microwaves. As regards birth outcomes, the average female user of visual display units (VDUs) does not seem to be at risk of adverse birth outcome. There is a little evidence suggesting that intensive use is associated with an increase in spontaneous abortion, but this could be a result of higher job stress and postural problems rather than of exposure to the small electromagnetic fields. The third part describes the epidemiological evidence from occupational and residential studies of a possible association between electromagnetic field exposures and cancer. Studies of electrical and electronic workers are suggestive of such a link, but are subject to the confounding factor of occupational class. If the association is real the average excess risk appears to be small.