human interaction with electromagnetic fields

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Human Interaction with Electromagnetic Fields
Author : Dragan Poljak,Mario Cvetkovic
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-06-07
ISBN 10 : 012816624X
Pages : 280 pages

Human Interaction with Electromagnetic Fields: Computational Models in Dosimetry presents some highly rigorous and sophisticated integral equation techniques from computational electromagnetics (CEM), along with practical techniques for the calculation and measurement of internal dosimetry. Theory is accompanied by numerical modeling algorithms and illustrative computational examples that range from academic to full real-world scenarios. Covers both deterministic and stochastic modeling Presents implementations of integral equation approaches, overcoming the limitations of the FDTD approach Presents various biomedical applications

Modeling of Interactions of Electromagnetic Fields with Human Bodies
Author : Krzysztof Caputa
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2002
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages

Interactions of electromagnetic fields with the human body have been a subject of scientific interest and public concern. In recent years, issues in power line field effects and those of wireless telephones have been in the forefront of research. Engineering research compliments biological investigations by quantifying the induced fields in biological bodies due to exposure to external fields. The research presented in this thesis aims at providing reliable tools, and addressing some of the unresolved issues related to interactions with the human body of power line fields and fields produced by handheld wireless telephones. The research comprises two areas, namely development of versatile models of the human body and their visualisation, and verification and application of numerical codes to solve selected problems of interest. The models of the human body, which are based on the magnetic resonance scans of the body, are unique and differ considerably from other models currently available. With the aid of computer software developed, the models can be arranged to different postures, and medical devices can be accurately placed inside them. A previously developed code for modeling interactions of power line fields with biological bodies has been verified by rigorous, quantitative inter-laboratory comparison for two human body models. This code has been employed to model electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the magnetic field with implanted cardiac pacemakers. In this case, the correct placement and representation of the pacemaker leads are critical, as simplified computations have been shown to result in significant errors. In modeling interactions of wireless communication devices, the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD) has become a de facto standard. The previously developed code has been verified by comparison with the analytical solution for a conductive sphere. While previously researchers limited their verifications to principal axes of the sphere, a global (volumetric) fields evaluation allowed for identification of locations of errors due to staircasing, and the singularities responsible for them. In evaluation of safety of cellular telephones and similar devices, the specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over a 1 g (in North America) or 10 g (in Europe) cube is used. A new algorithm has been developed and tested, which allows for automatic and reliable identification of the maximum value with a user-selected inclusion of air (if required). This algorithm and the verified code have been used to model performance of a commercial telephone in the proximity of head, and to model EMI of this phone with a hearing aid placed in the ear canal. The modeling results, which relied on a proper representation of the antenna consisting of two helices and complex shape and structure of the telephone case, have been confirmed by measurements performed in another laboratory. Similarly, the EMI modeling has been in agreement with acoustic measurements (performed elsewhere). The latter comparison has allowed to confirm anticipated mechanism of the EMI.

Electromagnetic Fields and Radiation
Author : Riadh W.Y. Habash
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2001-12-04
ISBN 10 : 9780824706777
Pages : 424 pages

This reference explores the sources, characteristics, bioeffects, and health hazards of extremely low-frequency (ELF) fields and radio frequency radiation (RFR), analyzing current research as well as the latest epidemiological studies to assess potential risks associated with exposure and to develop effective safety guidelines. Compiles reports and investigations from four decades of study on the effect of nonionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation on human health Summarizing modern engineering approaches to control exposure, Electromagnetic Fields and Radiation discusses: EM interaction mechanisms in biological systems Explorations into the impact of EM fields on free radicals, cells, tissues, organs, whole organisms, and the population Regulatory standards in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Asia Pacific Evaluation of incident fields from various EM sources Measurement surveys for various sites including power lines, substations, mobile systems, cellular base stations, broadcast antennas, traffic radar devices, heating equipment, and other sources Dosimetry techniques for the determination of internal EM fields Conclusions reached by the Food and Drug Administration, World Health Organization, and other institutions

Assessment of the Possible Health Effects of Ground Wave Emergency Network
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Board on Radiation Effects Research,Committee on Assessment of the Possible Health Effects of Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN)
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1993-02-01
ISBN 10 : 0309047773
Pages : 182 pages

Written at the request of the U.S. Air Force and Congress, this book evaluates the potential health effects associated with deployment of the Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN), a communications system to be used in case of a high-altitude detonation of a nuclear device. The committee, composed of experts in biophysics, physics, risk assessment, epidemiology, and cancer, examines data from laboratory and epidemiologic studies of effects from electromagnetic fields to determine the likelihood of health effects being caused by the operation of a fully implemented GWEN system.

Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems
Author : James C. Lin
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-04-19
ISBN 10 : 1000218694
Pages : 458 pages

Spanning static fields to terahertz waves, this volume explores the range of consequences electromagnetic fields have on the human body. Topics discussed include essential interactions and field coupling phenomena; electric field interactions in cells, focusing on ultrashort, pulsed high-intensity fields; dosimetry or coupling of ELF fields into biological systems; and the historical developments and recent trends in numerical dosimetry. It also discusses mobile communication devices and the dosimetry of RF radiation into the human body, exposure and dosimetry associated with MRI and spectroscopy, and available data on the interaction of terahertz radiation with biological tissues, cells, organelles, and molecules.

High Frequency Electromagnetic Dosimetry
Author : David A. Sánchez-Hernández
Publisher : Artech House
Release Date : 2009
ISBN 10 : 1596933976
Pages : 260 pages

Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry. The book takes a scientific and rigorous engineering point of view, helping you achieve highly accurate exposure assessments.

Electromagnetic Fields and Circadian Rhythmicity
Author : Moore,Ede,Moore-Ede
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
ISBN 10 : 1468467999
Pages : 210 pages

This book is the first in a new series entitled ''Advances in Circadian Physiology." Our aim in this and subsequent volumes is to document and critically analyze the state of knowledge on biological clocks, circadian rhythms and their applications to human health, safety, performance and productivity. In the past twenty years, scientists have uncovered an elegant system of biological clocks in the brain that govern the daily rhythms of sleep and alertness, hormone levels and temperature and a myriad other aspects of body function. From the first identification of the suprachiasmatic biological clock in the early 1970s, this field of research has exploded in information and implication. These biological clocks, so perfectly attuned to the pace of a bygone era, are the root cause of the human fatigue, error, accidents and reduced productivity precipi tated by the around-the-clock challenges of today's industry and society. Research on these clocks offers the promise of fundamental solutions which can help the human race adjust physiologically to the technology-paced world we have created.

Author : Marcelo Larramendy,Sonia Soloneski
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-07-11
ISBN 10 : 1789234182
Pages : 122 pages

This book is designed to provide an overview of the different genotoxicants and their effects on living organisms, including humans. The contributions made by the specialists in this field of research are gratefully acknowledged. We hope that the information presented in this book will meet the expectations and needs of all those interested in the different aspects of the genotoxicity field. The publication of this book is of great importance to those scientists, pharmacologists, physicians and veterinarians, as well as engineers, teachers, graduate students and administrators of environmental programmes, who make use of these investigations to understand both the basic and applied genotoxic aspects of known and new xenobiotics, and to guide them in their future investigations.

Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis, Sixth Edition
Author : James W. Robinson,Eileen M. Skelly Frame,George M. Frame II
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2004-12-02
ISBN 10 : 9780849306501
Pages : 1079 pages

Completely rewritten, revised, and updated, this Sixth Edition reflects the latest technologies and applications in spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chromatography. It illustrates practices and methods specific to each major chemical analytical technique while showcasing innovations and trends currently impacting the field. Many of the chapters have been individually reviewed by teaching professors and include descriptions of the fundamental principles underlying each technique, demonstrations of the instrumentation, and new problem sets and suggested experiments appropriate to the topic. About the authors... JAMES W. ROBINSON is Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. A Fellow of the Royal Chemical Society, he is the author of over 200 professional papers and book chapters and several books including Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Atomic Spectroscopy. He was Executive Editor of Spectroscopy Letters and the Journal of Environmental Science and Health (both titles, Marcel Dekker, Inc.) and the Handbook of Spectroscopy and the Practical Handbook of Spectroscopy (both titles, CRC Press). He received the B.Sc. (1949), Ph.D. (1952), and D.Sc. (1978) degrees from the University of Birmingham, England. EILEEN M. SKELLY FRAME recently was Clinical Assistant Professor and Visiting Research Professor, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York. Dr. Skelly Frame has extensive practical experience in the use of instrumental analysis to characterize a wide variety of substances, from biological samples and cosmetics to high temperature superconductors, polymers, metals, and alloys. Her industrial career includes supervisory roles at GE Corporate Research and Development, Stauffer Chemical Corporate R&D, and the Research Triangle Institute. She is a member of the American Chemical Society, the Society for Applied Spectroscopy, and the American Society for Testing and Materials. Dr. Skelly Frame received the B.S. degree in chemistry from Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the Ph.D. in analytical chemistry from Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. GEORGE M. FRAME II is Scientific Director, Chemical Biomonitoring Section of the Wadsworth Laboratory, New York State Department of Health, Albany. He has a wide range of experience in the field and has worked at the GE Corporate R&D Center, Pfizer Central Research, the U.S. Coast Guard R&D Center, the Maine Medical Center, and the USAF Biomedical Sciences Corps. He is an American Chemical Society member. Dr. Frame received the B.A. degree in chemistry from Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the Ph.D. degree in analytical chemistry from Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields
Author : Ben Greenebaum,Frank S. Barnes
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-10-03
ISBN 10 : 1351837435
Pages : 440 pages

Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields primarily contains discussions on the physics, engineering, and chemical aspects of electromagnetic (EM) fields at both the molecular level and larger scales, and investigates their interactions with biological systems. The first volume of the bestselling and newly updated Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Third Edition, this book adds material describing recent theoretical developments, as well as new data on material properties and interactions with weak and strong static magnetic fields. Newly separated and expanded chapters describe the external and internal electromagnetic environments of organisms and recent developments in the use of RF fields for imaging. Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields provides an accessible overview of the current understanding on the scientific underpinnings of these interactions, as well as a partial introduction to experiments on the interactions themselves.

Modelling the Human Body Exposure to ELF Electric Fields
Author : Cristina Peratta,Andres Peratta
Publisher : WIT Press
Release Date : 2010
ISBN 10 : 1845644182
Pages : 130 pages

The objective of this book is to describe techniques to investigate the behaviour of electric fields and induced currents in the human body exposed to different scenarios of extremely low frequency (ELF) high voltage - low current electromagnetic fields by means of numerical modelling with improved Boundary Element Methods (BEM).A variety of three dimensional anatomically shaped human body models under different exposure conditions are presented and solved.The mathematical formulation for the case of human exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields departing from Maxwell equations and for the electrical properties of biological tissue is provided.The underpinning ideas of the Boundary Element Method applied to ELF fields in the human body are presented.A literature survey including electrical properties of tissues relevant to low frequency calculations has been compiled and included in one chapter.A novel improved BEM approach is introduced in order to solve this type of problems leading to more accurate results and more efficient calculations.The developed methodology is applied to three different case studies: i- overhead power transmission lines, ii- power substation rooms, and iii- pregnant woman including foetus and evolving scenarios.In all the cases, a sensitivity analysis investigating the influence of varying geometrical and electrical properties of the tissues has been conducted.The results obtained allow to identify situations of high and low exposure in the different parts of the body and to compare with existing exposure guidelines.

Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields
Author : Dragan Poljak
Publisher : Wit Pr/Computational Mechanics
Release Date : 2004
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 183 pages

The field of computational bioelectromagnetics has grown rapidly in the last decades, but until now there has not been a comprehensive text on the many aspects of interaction between human beings and electromagnetic fields. This text fills the gap. Chapter 1 covers some fundamental aspects of possible radiation hazard, while the second chapter deals with calculation and measurement techniques related to the analysis of electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources. Arising almost completely from the author's own research, Chapter 3 is devoted to electromagnetic modelling. The computational approach is based on the equivalent antenna representation of the human body and the Boundary Element (BE)solution of the corresponding integral equations arising from antenna theory. The analysis is carried out in both the frequency and time domain. The fourth chapter is intended to serve as an opener to the thermal modelling of the human body by solving the corresponding bio-heat transfer equation, while Chapter 5 focuses on the known coupling mechanisms between electromagnetic field and the human body. Finally, the author discusses safety standards and limiting exposures of electromagnetic fields through established international guidelines and protection measures.

Biological and Medical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields
Author : Frank S. Barnes,Ben Greenebaum
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-10-03
ISBN 10 : 142000946X
Pages : 476 pages

Biological and Medical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields examines potential health hazards, exposure standards, and medical applications of electromagnetic (EM) fields. The second volume in the bestselling and newly revisedHandbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Third Edition, this book draws from the latest studies on the effects of exposure to electric and magnetic fields. In addition to extensive reviews of physiological effects, the book contains now separate reviews of behavioral and cognitive responses to various exposures. The book also describes an approach to setting standards for exposure limits and explores a few of the beneficial uses of EM fields in medical applications, both diagnostics and in treatment. Biological and Medical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields provides a practical overview of the experiments and methods used to observe ELF and RF fields and the possible useful and hazardous implications of these observations.

Antenna Theory and Design
Author : Warren L. Stutzman,Gary A. Thiele
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-05-22
ISBN 10 : 0470576642
Pages : 848 pages

Stutzman's 3rd edition of Antenna Theory and Design provides a more pedagogical approach with a greater emphasis on computational methods. New features include additional modern material to make the text more exciting and relevant to practicing engineers; new chapters on systems, low-profile elements and base station antennas; organizational changes to improve understanding; more details to selected important topics such as microstrip antennas and arrays; and expanded measurements topic.

Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Third Edition - 2 Volume Set
Author : Charles Polk,Elliot Postow
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 1995-12-21
ISBN 10 : 9780849306419
Pages : 618 pages

The first edition of this book has been recognized as the standard reference on biological effects of electric and magnetic fields from DC to microwaves. But much has changed in this science since the book's original publication in 1986. With contributions from eighteen leading researchers, this latest edition includes authoritative discussions of many new developments and will quickly become the new, must-have resource handbook. Dielectric properties of biological tissue are thoroughly examined, followed by chapters on physical mechanisms and biological effects of static and extremely low frequency magnetic fields. New chapters on topics that were treated very briefly in the first edition now receive extensive treatment. These topics include electric and magnetic fields for bone and soft tissue repair, electroporation, and epidemiology of ELF health effects. The chapter on computer methods for predicting field intensity has been substantially revised to describe new numerical techniques developed within the last few years and includes calculations of power absorbed in the human head from cellular telephones. The chapter discussing experimental results on RF interaction with living matter now contains information on effects of very high power, very short duration pulses. A new appendix on safety standards is based on the latest publications of governmental, as well as quasi-governmental organizations (such as the U.S. Council on Radiation Protection) in the United States, Europe, and Australia. With all its revisions, this updated version of the CRC Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields provides the most comprehensive overview available of this rapidly changing science.

CRC Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields
Author : Charles Polk
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-07-23
ISBN 10 : 1351079468
Pages : 512 pages

The objective of this book is to present in a concise manner what is actually known at the present time about biological effects of time invariant, low frequency and radio frequency (including microwave) electric and magnetic fields. In reviewing the vast amount of experimental data which have been obtained in recent years, the authors tried to select those results that are, in their opinion, of major importance and of lasting value. In discussing mechanisms of interaction of electromagnetic fields with living matter they have tried to differentiate between what is clearly established, what is suggested by available evidence without being convincingly proven, and what is conjecture at the present time.

Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems
Author : James C. Lin
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-04-19
ISBN 10 : 1439860629
Pages : 458 pages

Spanning static fields to terahertz waves, this volume explores the range of consequences electromagnetic fields have on the human body. Topics discussed include essential interactions and field coupling phenomena; electric field interactions in cells, focusing on ultrashort, pulsed high-intensity fields; dosimetry or coupling of ELF fields into biological systems; and the historical developments and recent trends in numerical dosimetry. It also discusses mobile communication devices and the dosimetry of RF radiation into the human body, exposure and dosimetry associated with MRI and spectroscopy, and available data on the interaction of terahertz radiation with biological tissues, cells, organelles, and molecules.

Electromagnetic Fields in Electrical Engineering
Author : Andrzej Krawczyk,S. Wiak
Publisher : IOS Press
Release Date : 2002
ISBN 10 : 9781586032326
Pages : 561 pages

This volume includes contributions on: field theory and advanced computational electromagnetics; electrical machines and transformers; optimization and interactive design; electromagnetics in materials; coupled field and electromagnetic components in mechatronics; induction heating systems; bioelectromagnetics; and electromagnetics in education.

Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis
Author : James W. Robinson,Eileen Skelly Frame,George M. Frame II
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-07-21
ISBN 10 : 1482233746
Pages : 1264 pages

Crucial to research in molecular biology, medicine, geology, food science, materials science, and many other fields, analytical instrumentation is used by many scientists and engineers who are not chemists. Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis, Seventh Edition provides users of analytical instrumentation with an understanding of these instruments, c

Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields
Author : David O. Carpenter,Sinerik Ayrapetyan
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2012-12-02
ISBN 10 : 0080886884
Pages : 357 pages

Recent concerns over the possible hazards of electrical and magnetic fields in the home and workplace are comprehensively addressed within this book. The chapters contain detailed research on the biological effects of electric and magnetic fields, and evidence for and against any interaction of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the biological systems. The relative risk of exposure to EMFs Putative behavioral and neural effects of EMFs EMF effects on cells