High-Risk Pollutants in Wastewater presents the basic knowledge regarding the diversity, concentrations, and health and environmental impacts of HRPs in municipal wastewater. The book summarizes information on the types (e.g. heavy metals, toxic organics and pathogens) and toxicities of HRPs in wastewater. In addition, it describes ecological and health hazards arising from the living things’ direct/indirect contacts with the HRPs during their full lifecycles (generation, disposal, discharge and reuse) in wastewater or water environments. Sections cover the concepts of appropriate technology for HRP hazard/risk assessment and wastewater treatment/reuse and the issues of strategy and policy for increasing risk control coverage. Finally, the book focuses on the resolution of water quality monitoring, wastewater treatment and disposal problems in both developed and developing countries. Presents information on HRPs and their risk assessment and control technologies Provides basic knowledge regarding the diversity, concentrations, and health and environmental impacts of HRPs in municipal wastewater Summarizes information on the types (e.g. heavy metals, toxic organics and pathogens) and toxicities of HRPs in wastewater
|Author||: Ferhan Çeçen,Ulaş Tezel|
|Publisher||: IWA Publishing|
|Release Date||: 2017-11-15|
|ISBN 10||: 178040770X|
|Pages||: 350 pages|
Hazardous pollutants are a growing concern in treatment engineering. In the past, biological treatment was mainly used for the removal of bulk organic matter and the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorous. However, relatively recently the issue of hazardous pollutants, which are present at very low concentrations in wastewaters and waters but are very harmful to both ecosystems and humans, is becoming increasingly important. Today, treatment of hazardous pollutants in the water environment becomes a challenge as the water quality standards become stricter. Hazardous Pollutants in Biological Treatment Systems focuses entirely on hazardous pollutants in biological treatment and gives an elaborate insight into their fate and effects during biological treatment of wastewater and water. Currently, in commercial and industrial products and processes, thousands of chemicals are used that reach water. Many of those chemicals are carcinogens, mutagens, endocrine disruptors and toxicants. Therefore, water containing hazardous pollutants should be treated before discharged to the environment or consumed by humans. This book first addresses the characteristics, occurrence and origin of hazardous organic and inorganic pollutants. Then, it concentrates on the fate and effects of these pollutants in biological wastewater and drinking water treatment units. It also provides details about analysis of hazardous pollutants, experimental methodologies, computational tools used to assist experiments, evaluation of experimental data and examination of microbial ecology by molecular microbiology and genetic tools. Hazardous Pollutants in Biological Treatment Systems is an essential resource to the researcher or the practitioner who is already involved with hazardous pollutants and biological processes or intending to do so. The text will also be useful for professionals working in the field of water and wastewater treatment.
As concerns increase over the scarcity of water resources and the role of anthropogenic activities, water quality is evermore important. Activities ranging from agriculture to mining have had a bearing on the quality of water that they impact. Several studies assessing such impacts have been conducted at local and global scales over the years. This book, consisting of contributions by authors in various water-related fields, delves into some approaches that are used to understand and/or to improve water quality, and these include assessment of water chemistry, biomonitoring, modelling and water treatment. This book will be useful to environmental scientists, water professionals, researchers, academics and students.
|Author||: Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad,Meththika Vithanage,Atya Kapley|
|Release Date||: 2019-04-04|
|ISBN 10||: 0128165901|
|Pages||: 506 pages|
Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products Waste Management and Treatment Technology: Emerging Contaminants and Micro Pollutants provides the tools and techniques for identifying these contaminates and applying the most effective technology for their remediation, recovery and treatment. The consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has grown significantly over the last 35 years, thus increasing their potential risk to the environment. As PPCPs are very difficult to detect and remove using conventional wastewater treatment methods, this book provides solutions to a growing problem. Includes sampling, analytical and characterization methods and technology for detecting PPCPs in the environment Provides advanced treatment and disposal technologies for the removal of PPCPs from wastewater, surface water, landfills and septic systems Examines the pathways of PPCPs into the environment
|Author||: Mohammed K. Zaidi|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2007-05-23|
|ISBN 10||: 1402060270|
|Pages||: 446 pages|
This volume features the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Wastewater Reuse - Risk Assessment, Decision-Making and Environmental Security", held in Istanbul, Turkey, in October 2006. It contains 45 papers that cover the current situation of water management in the world and especially the Middle-east and Mediterranean regions, addressing some of the most difficult international conflicts.
|Author||: Elvis Fosso-Kankeu|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2019-05-21|
|ISBN 10||: 1119577055|
|Pages||: 504 pages|
Over the past few decades the boom in the industrial sector has contributed to the release in the environment of pollutants that have no regulatory status and which may have significant impact on the health of animals and humans. These pollutants also refer as “emerging pollutants” are mostly aromatic compounds which derive from excretion of pharmaceutical, industrial effluents and municipal discharge. Some form of pollutions have also evolved, including the proliferation of acid mine drainage from oxidation or weathering of obsolete and unmanaged excavations around the world; this results mostly in the dispersion of inorganic pollutants in the environment at level surpassing the treatment capacity of conventional techniques. It is recurrent these days to find water treatment plants which no longer produce water that fits the purpose of domestic consumption based on newly established guidelines. This situation has prompted water authorities and researchers to develop tools for proper prediction and control of the dispersion of pollutants in the environment to ensure that appropriate measures are taken to prevent the occurrence of outbreaks due to sudden load of these pollutants in the water system. The chapters in this book cover a wide range of nano and bio-based techniques that have been designed for the real time detection of emerging contaminants in environmental water sources, geochemical models that are continuously improved for the prediction of inorganic contaminants migration from the mine solid wastes into ground and surface waters. Remediation strategies are also discussed and include effective techniques based on nanotechnology, advanced membrane filtration, oxidative and bio- degradation processes using various types of nanocatalysts, biocatalysts or supporting polymer matrices which are under advanced investigations for their implementation at large scale for the removal of recalcitrant pollutants from polluted water. This book is divided is two sections, the first section covers the occurrence of emerging pollutants in environmental water while the second section covers state of the art research on the removal of emerging pollutants from water using sustainable technologies. A total of 13 chapters addressing various topics related to the two sections are essentially based on recent development in the respective field which could have a significant impact on the enhancement of the performance of wastewater treatment plants around the world and especially in developing countries where access to clean and safe water remains a daily challenge
|Author||: Maria C. Hernandez Soriano|
|Publisher||: BoD – Books on Demand|
|Release Date||: 2014-03-26|
|ISBN 10||: 953511235X|
|Pages||: 920 pages|
Soil is an irreplaceable resource that sustains life on the planet, challenged by food and energy demands of an increasing population. Therefore, soil contamination constitutes a critical issue to be addressed if we are to secure the life quality of present and future generations. Integrated efforts from researchers and policy makers are required to develop sound risk assessment procedures, remediation strategies and sustainable soil management policies. Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination provides a wide depiction of current research in soil contamination and risk assessment, encompassing reviews and case studies on soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants. The book introduces several innovative approaches for soil remediation and risk assessment, including advances in phytoremediation and implementation of metabolomics in soil sciences.
In many countries wastewater treatment systems are hardly functioning or have a very low coverage, resulting in very poor quality water being used for irrigation and the cultivation of consumable produce. This can create significant risks to public health, particularly in expanding urban areas. Wastewater Irrigation and Health approaches this serious problem from a practical and realistic perspective, addressing the issues of health risk assessment and reduction in developing country settings. The book therefore complements other books on the topic of wastewater which tend to target high-end treatment options or merely report that wastewater irrigation is a common phenomenon. The editors of Wastewater Irrigation and Health move the focus onto quantifying risk in order to reduce it. It presents the state-of-the-art on low-cost options for health risk reduction in line with the multiple barrier approach of the 2006 guidelines published by the World Health Organization. The authorship includes a mix of agronomists and engineers who have been working closely with social scientists and health experts, from Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and Australia. The chapters highlight experiences across the developing world with case studies from different parts of sub-Saharan Africa (Ghana, Dakar, Mauritania, South Africa), Asia (India, Pakistan, Vietnam, Bangladesh), Mexico and MENA (Jordan, Tunisia). The book thus clearly establishes a connection between agriculture and sanitation, which is often the missing link in the current discussion on resource recovery.
|Author||: Ajay Kumar Mishra,Hossain Md Anawar,Nadjib Drouiche|
|Release Date||: 2019-11-01|
|ISBN 10||: 0128146745|
|Pages||: 378 pages|
Emerging and Nanomaterial Contaminants in Wastewater: Advanced Treatment Technologies describes the state-of-the-art of remediation technologies, such as those involving nanotechnology, filtration devices (e.g. membranes), strategies involving adsorption and precipitation processes, development of new sorbents, nanosorbents, biosorbents, green technology, bio-electrokinetics, degradation of pollutants, advanced oxidative process, oxidative electrochemical and photocatalytic processes, catalytic degradation, and emerging hybrid technologies, such as photocatalyst membrane photoreactors using TiO2. Scientists and researchers in academia and industry will benefit from this comprehensive resource on the fundamental science behind the mechanisms at which wastewater sources can be purified from emerging contaminants. Provides a fundamental understanding of emerging contaminants to help readers select appropriate remediation technologies Discusses, in detail, new and advanced green technologies that remove emerging contaminants from wastewater Shows how to ensure water quality and save public health by protecting water resources from contaminants
|Author||: P. G. Chengappa,Nareppa Nagaraj,Ramesh Kanwar|
|Publisher||: I. K. International Pvt Ltd|
|Release Date||: 2007-01-01|
|ISBN 10||: 818986629X|
|Pages||: 830 pages|
Of late, farming community in India has been facing new challenges of food and nutrition security, human health and structural adjustment to comply with WTO stipulations on the one hand and sustainable environment on the other. The overuse of fertilizers and chemicals, and depleting water resources are essentially threatening the sustainability of Indian agriculture. The slow growth of agriculture sector mainly due to stagnation in productivity growth is a grave concern for policy-makers and development planners. The key challenge to India's agriculture in the 21st century in the wake of open global economy lies in designing, developing and managing agricultural systems that enable farmers to be efficient, equitable and sustainable in the bio-physical and socio-cultural environments. This book has deliberated on the key issues of sustainable agriculture in the context of emerging technologies, policies and institutions by promoting efficiency, equity and better management of natural resources. In the process, thoughts and experience of world-class leaders in agricultural education, research, extension, policy, agri-business and development in addressing the challenges confronting farmers have been documented
|Author||: Robina Farooq,Zaki Ahmad|
|Publisher||: BoD – Books on Demand|
|Release Date||: 2017-03-29|
|ISBN 10||: 9535130455|
|Pages||: 256 pages|
Biological treatment of wastewater is a low-cost solution for remediation of wastewater. This book focuses on the bioremediation of wastewater, its management, monitoring, role of biofilms on wastewater treatment and energy recovery. It emphasizes on organic, inorganic and micropollutants entering into the environment after conventional wastewater treatment facilities of industrial, agricultural and domestic wastewaters. The occurrence of persistent pollutants poses deleterious effects on human and environmental health. Simple solution for recovery of energy as well as water during biological treatment of wastewater is a viable option. This book provides necessary knowledge and experimental studies on emerging bioremediation processes for reducing water, air and soil pollution.
|Author||: Shubhaneel Neogi|
|Publisher||: GRIN Verlag|
|Release Date||: 2020-07-07|
|ISBN 10||: 3346197972|
|Pages||: 168 pages|
Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2020 in the subject Biology - Miscellaneous, grade: A, National Institute Of Technology Durgapur (National Institute of Technology Durgapur), course: PhD in Biotechnology, language: English, abstract: The present research work was undertaken for the biological treatment of starch industry wastewater for pollution control. Starch industry effluent generates a large volume of wastewater with strong acidity and enormous carbon and nitrogen pollutants. In the present study, the development of low pH methanogens and anammox microorganisms were given special attention. Low pH methanogenic reactor and anammox reactor were fabricated for the biological treatment of corn starch industry effluent. In the first part of the work, low pH tolerant methanogens were isolated from peat bog of leaf debris. It showed the presence of Gram-negative, non-spore forming, and cocci with creamish black colour colonies. The leaf debris inoculum was taken for optimum COD removal under anaerobic conditions. Identification and isolation of anammox group of bacteria were performed using enrichment and 16S rRNA amplicon analysis. The objective of the study was to remove ammonia under the anaerobic condition from starch industry effluent. The media optimization using carbon and nitrogen source was undertaken which is required for anammox enrichment. The physical growth factors like temperature and pH were optimized. The optimized temperature and pH were 39 0C and 7.2 respectively. Some restrictive growth factors like salinity and antibiotic concentration were also studied which were found insignificant in our study. Finally, the overall process was scaled up in the laboratory reactor. The reactor study revealed that in the anaerobic reactor 1.16 kg COD/kg VSS/d was removed producing 42-46% methane as output gas. The anammox reactor was able to reduce 82% nitrogen load from starch industry effluent at the rate of 1.5 kg/m3/d after 568 days of initiation.
|Author||: Peter A. Kulakow,Valentina V. Pidlisnyuk|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2009-11-03|
|ISBN 10||: 9048135915|
|Pages||: 198 pages|
As government and community leaders, private companies, citizens, and applied scientists search for low-cost methods to cleanup environmental pollution, phytotechnologies can contribute to the solution by utilizing natural processes to reduce environmental risk. Phytotechnologies use vegetation to manage environmental contaminants in soil, surface water, and groundwater based on site-specific design considerations that can save 50 to 75 percent of the capital and operating costs compared to conventional remediation and containment technologies. Successful phytotechnology applications are based on scientific knowledge of plant physiology, chemical contaminants, climate, and soil conditions. This book presents current research findings that address soil and water contamination with obsolete pesticides, radionuclides and other inorganic and organic contaminants. This book documents international sharing of information by scientists and stakeholders seeking to use the best available information: to disseminate existing knowledge on phytotechnologies and exchange experience of field-scale applications for cleanup of industrial, agricultural, and wastewater contamination, to assess existing knowledge and identify research needs and directions for future work especially in regard to environmental management in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and to promote collaboration between different countries in preparing applications for environmental remediation and restoration.
|Author||: Dilip Dutta|
|Publisher||: World Scientific|
|Release Date||: 2014-03-10|
|ISBN 10||: 9814556904|
|Pages||: 296 pages|
Using case studies of both China and India, this book reinforces the fact that the processes of economic growth and development are dynamic and organic in the sense that structural and institutional elements are not only interrelated, but also constantly changing in their patterns of interactions — more so during the transitional period of both countries. Inclusiveness or its lack in some specific socio-economic sector/context, geographical region/state or economy as a whole is critically analysed, using recent data on both the countries from different sources. Contents:Structuralism and Institutionalism in Development Economics/Studies:Convergence of Structuralism and Institutionalism in Development Economics and Studies — Revisited (Dilip Dutta)Structural and Institutional Analysis of Contemporary China's Growth and Development:Shifting the Discourse on China's Growth and Development: It is the Quality Not the Speed of Growth That Matters (Limin Wang)Major Factors Behind Regional Disparity of Economic Growth in China During 1996–2010 (Dilip Dutta and Yibai Yang)Inclusive Growth and SME Finance in China (Wei Li and Hans Hendrischke)Service Sector's Growth in China: The Role of ICT, Non-ICT and Human Capitals (Dilip Dutta and Guan Long Ren)Structural and Institutional Analysis of Contemporary India's Growth and Development:Compressed Capitalism and the Challenges for Inclusive Development in India (Anthony P D'Costa)Socio-Economic Dynamics of the ICT Industry's Regional Growth in India (Dilip Dutta and Supriyo De)Women's Employment as a Barometer of ‘Inclusive Growth’: How Well is India Doing? (Elizabeth Hill)Initiatives for Inclusive Growth at the State level: Challenges for Andhra Pradesh (Meera Lal) Readership: Students, academics, economists, business analysts, policy makers, and general public interested in Chinese and Indian economies. Keywords:Inclusive Growth;Economic Development;Structuralism;Institutionalism;Socio-Economic Dynamics;China's Growth and Development;Regional Growth in IndiaKey Features:Highlights the relevance of two newer methodologies of neostructuralism and new institutionalism for socio-economic analysis of contemporary China and IndiaAnalyzes the nature of economic growth and developmentin China since the early 1980s and India since the early 1990sFocuses on a number of China's and India'ssocio-economic and political issues including speed and quality of growth, regional disparity, women's employment, structure of national and global capitalismEvaluates role of human capital, finance, information and communication technologyExamines inclusiveness or its lack in the context of economic growth and development in both China and India
Phenolic compounds as a large class of metabolites found in plants have attracted attention since long time ago due to their properties and the hope that they will show beneficial health effects when taken as dietary supplements. This book presents the state of the art of some of the natural sources of phenolic compounds, for example, medicinal plants, grapes or blue maize, as well as the modern methods of extraction, quantification, and identification, and there is a special section discussing the treatment, removal, and degradation of phenols, an important issue in those phenols derived from the pharmaceutical or petrochemical industries.
|Author||: Howard David Tait|
|Release Date||: 1984|
|Pages||: 364 pages|
Wastewater Treatment by Reverse Osmosis Process provides a one-stop-shop for reverse osmosis (RO), outlining its scope and limitations for the removal of organic compounds from wastewater. This book covers the state-of-the-art on RO processes and describes ten RO process models of different features and complexities. It also covers the advanced model-based techniques for RO process operations, including various rigorous methods for process modelling, simulation, and optimization at the lowest energy cost, as well as advanced tools such as genetic algorithms for achieving the same. • Highlights different types of physico–chemical and biological wastewater treatment methods including hybrid systems • Provides an overview of membrane processes, focuses on different types of membrane processes for water treatment and explains characteristics of membrane modules • Introduces the importance and challenges of process modelling for simulation, design, and optimization and offers examples across various industries •Describes the concept of different types of genetic algorithms for process optimisation and provides the state-of-the art of the GA method in terms of its application in water desalination and wastewater treatment •Emphasizes economic aspects of RO processes for wastewater treatment With its focus on the challenges posed by an increasing demand for fresh water and the urgent need to recycle wastewater at minimum cost, this work is an invaluable resource for engineers and scientists working within the field of wastewater treatment.
Inorganic Pollutants in Water provides a clear understanding of inorganic pollutants and the challenges they cause in aquatic environments. The book explores the point of source, how they enter water, the effects they have, and their eventual detection and removal. Through a series of case studies, the authors explore the success of the detection and removal techniques they have developed. Users will find this to be a single platform of information on inorganic pollutants that is ideal for researchers, engineers and technologists working in the fields of environmental science, environmental engineering and chemical engineering/ sustainability. Through this text, the authors introduce new researchers to the problem of inorganic contaminants in water, while also presenting the current state-of-the-art in terms of research and technologies to tackle this problem.