Due to the emphasis on replacing halogenated flame retardantswith alternate technologies, this handbook contains in one placeall of the current commercial non-halogenated flame retardanttechnologies, as well as experimental systems nearcommercialization. This book focuses on non-halogenated flame retardants in aholistic but practical manner. It starts with an overview ofthe regulations and customer perceptions driving non-halogenatedflame retardant selection over older halogenatedtechnologies. It then moves into separate chapters coveringthe known major classes of non-halogenated flame retardants. These chapters are written by known experts in those specificchemistries who are also industrial experts in how to apply thattechnology to polymers for fire safety needs. The handbookconcludes with some of the newer technologies in place that areeither niche performers or may be commercial in the nearfuture. Future trends in flame retardancy are alsodiscussed. The Non-Halogenated Flame Retardant Handbook book takes apractical approach to addressing the narrow subject ofnon-halogenated flame retardancy. This includes more emphasison flame retardant selection for specific plastics, practicalconsiderations in flame retardant material design, and what thestrengths and limits of these various technologies are. Previous flame retardant material science books have coverednon-halogenated flame retardants, but they focus more on how theywork rather than how to use them.
Handbook of Flame Retardants contains an extensive evaluation of the existing literature, products and patents related to flame retardance. As a perfect complement to The Databook of Flame Retardants, this book explains the roles, selection, mechanisms of action, use in different polymers and products, and health and environmental issues of over 350 different products. Chapters highlight the fundamentals of material burning and the associated stages of heat, flame and smoke, properties and mechanisms, and preventive, delaying and extinguishing attributes of 27 chemical groups of flame retardants. Examples of synergistic and antagonistic actions of various additives are discussed next, along with testing methods. The book concludes with chapters providing guidance on optimal selection of flame retardants for various polymers and information on the toxicity of flame retardants and their effects on the environment. Evaluates the existing literature, products and patents related to flame retardance Covers the fundamentals of material burning and associated stages of heat, flame and smoke Outlines and evaluates the properties of 27 chemical groups of flame retardants Provides examples of synergistic and antagonistic actions of various additives Looks at methods of testing flame retardants and quantifies their effect on products
Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the field, from basic properties and mechanisms of action for flame retardants to emerging methods, materials, and industrial applications. With over 120 black and white images, Hu and Wang cover the latest in the development of novel polymer nanocomposites such as graphene, CNTs, LDHs, POSS, and techniques such as layer-by-layer assembly. These expert authors also include discussions on the important flame-retardant systems based on phosphorus, silicon, and boron. In doing so, they highlight the use of flame-retardants in varying industries, for example, construction, textiles, and aviation. This comprehensive handbook is an essential read for students and academics of physics with a particular interest in flame-retardant materials. It would also be recommended for professionals within the materials science and engineering fields.
Given its importance to consumer safety, fire resistant textiles are one of the fastest growing sectors in industrial textiles. Handbook of fire resistant textiles provides a comprehensive review of the considerable advances that have occurred in the field of fire resistant textiles in recent years. It draws together scientific and technical expertise from around the world to produce an important source of current knowledge on fire resistant textiles and their use for protection in hostile environments. Part one provides an overview of fire resistant textiles. Chapters discuss burning and combustion mechanisms of textile fibers, chemical modification of natural and synthetic fibers to improve flame retardancy, multi-component flame resistant coating techniques for textiles, care and maintenance of fire resistant textiles, along with the safety, health and environmental aspects of flame retardants. Part two covers different types of fire resistant fibers and fabrics, including flame retardant cotton, wool, ceramic fibers and blends, composites and nonwovens. Part three reviews standards, regulations, and characterization of fire resistant textiles. Part four includes case studies of major applications of fire resistant textiles. The Handbook of fire resistant textiles is an invaluable resource for a broad spectrum of professionals in the textiles and apparel industries, including textile and garment manufacturers, engineers, researchers, designers, developers and buyers. Provides a comprehensive review of the considerable advances that have occurred in the field of fire resistant textiles in recent years Discusses burning and combustion mechanisms of textile fibers and chemical modification of natural and synthetic fibers to improve flame retardancy Covers different types of fire resistant fibers and fabrics, including flame retardant cotton, wool, ceramic fibers and blends, composites and nonwovens
Brominated flame retardants are one of the last classes of halogenated compounds that are still being produced worldwide and used in large quantities in many applications. They are used in plastics, textiles, electronic circuitry, and other materials to prevent fires. This volume covers the state-of-the-art of the analysis, fate and behaviour of brominated flame retardants. Experts in the field provide an overview of the compounds’ physico-chemical properties and uses, their occurrence in the environment and biota, advanced chemical analytical methods, degradation studies, toxicological effects and human exposure. This book is a valuable and comprehensive source of information for environmental scientists interested in brominated flame retardant issues, and for authorities and producers.
Polymer Green Flame Retardants covers key issues regarding the response of polymers during fire, the mechanisms of their flame retardation, the regulations imposed on their use, and the health hazards arising from their combustion. Presenting the latest research developments, the book focuses in particular on nanocomposites, believed to be the most promising approach for producing physically superior materials with low flammability and ecological impact. The fire properties of nanocomposites of various matrixes and fillers are discussed, the toxicological characteristics of these materials are analyzed, addressing also their environmental sustainability. Edited by distinguished scientists, including an array of international industry and academia experts, this book will appeal to chemical, mechanical, environmental, material and process engineers, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines, and generally to researchers developing commercially attractive and environmentally friendly fire-proof products. Provides recent findings on the manufacture of environmentally sustainable flame retardant polymeric materials Covers legislation and regulations concerning flame retarded polymeric material use Includes tables containing the fire properties of the most common polymeric materials
|Author||: Charles A. Wilkie,Alexander B. Morgan|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2009-12-10|
|ISBN 10||: 9781420084009|
|Pages||: 853 pages|
When dealing with challenges such as providing fire protection while considering cost, mechanical and thermal performance and simultaneously addressing increasing regulations that deal with composition of matter and life cycle issues, there are no quick, one-size-fits-all answers. Packed with comprehensive coverage, scientific approach, step-by-step directions, and a distillation of technical knowledge, the first edition of Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials broke new ground. It supplied a one-stop resource for the development of new fire safe materials. The editors have expanded the second edition to echo the multidisciplinary approach inherent in current flame retardancy technology and put it in a revised, more user-friendly format. More than just an update of previously covered topics, this edition discusses: additional fire retardant chemistry developments in regulations and standards new flame retardant approaches fire safety engineering modeling and fire growth phenomena The book introduces flame retardants polymer-by-polymer, supplemented by a brief overview of mode of action and interaction, and all the other ancillary issues involved in this applied field of materials science. The book delineates what, why, and how to do it, covering the fundamentals of polymer burning/combustion and how to apply these systems and chemistries to specific materials classes. It also provides suggested formulations, discusses why certain materials are preferred for particular uses or applications, and offers a starting point from which to develop fire-safe materials.
This updated edition provides an overview of flame retardants that are in commercial use, were recently used, or are in development. The book is organized polymer-by-polymer and provides a guide to advantages, limitations, and patented and patent-free formulations, with insight into favorable and unfavorable combinations. The targeted readership is the plastics or textile finish compounder and the plastic additives R&D worker, as well as market development and sales. This edition contains, besides a compendium of current flame retardants, updated information relevant to performance testing, mode of action, and safety and regulatory aspects. Industrial or academic researchers will find useful a discussion of unsolved problems with possible new approaches. Both authors have extended, productive experience in both basic and applied research on a wide range of flame retardancy topics.
Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites takes a comprehensive look at polymer nanocomposites for flame retardancy applications and includes nanocomposite fundamentals (theory, design, synthesis, characterization) as well as polymer flammability fundamentals with emphasis on how nanocomposites affect flammability. The book has practical examples from literature, patents, and existing commercial products. Readers can design new work based upon the material in the book or use it as a handy reference for interpreting existing work and results.
|Release Date||: 1988|
|Pages||: 349 pages|
|Author||: Charles A. Harper|
|Publisher||: McGraw Hill Professional|
|Release Date||: 2003-09-20|
|ISBN 10||: 0071433309|
|Pages||: 800 pages|
The first handbook devoted to the coverage of materials in the field of fire engineering. Fire Protection Building Materials Handbook walks you through the challenging maze of choosing form the hundreds of commercially available materials used in buildings today and tells you which burn and /or are weakened during exposure to fire. It is the burning characteristics of materials, which usually allow fires to begin and propagate, and the degradation of materials that cause the most damage. Providing expert guidance every step of the way, Fire Protection Building Materials Handbook helps the architect, designers and fire protection engineers to design and maintain safer buildings while complying with international codes.
|Author||: Li Jianjun,Ou Yuxiang|
|Publisher||: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG|
|Release Date||: 2019-08-19|
|ISBN 10||: 3110386488|
|Pages||: 288 pages|
Flame retardant materials are of vital importance in guaranteeing personal security. Especially the demand for non-toxic, low smoking, polymerized flame retardants increases and new materials enter the market. The authors present the fundamental theory of polymer combustion, compare different flame retardants, describe smoke suppression mechanisms, and explain analyzing techniques for new materials.