|Author||: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on Genetically Engineered Crops: Past Experience and Future Prospects|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2017-01-28|
|ISBN 10||: 0309437385|
|Pages||: 606 pages|
Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the technology is not reaching its potential to improve human health and the environment because of stringent regulations and reduced public funding to develop products offering more benefits to society. While the debate about these and other questions related to the genetic engineering techniques of the first 20 years goes on, emerging genetic-engineering technologies are adding new complexities to the conversation. Genetically Engineered Crops builds on previous related Academies reports published between 1987 and 2010 by undertaking a retrospective examination of the purported positive and adverse effects of GE crops and to anticipate what emerging genetic-engineering technologies hold for the future. This report indicates where there are uncertainties about the economic, agronomic, health, safety, or other impacts of GE crops and food, and makes recommendations to fill gaps in safety assessments, increase regulatory clarity, and improve innovations in and access to GE technology.
|Author||: Kelly A. Clancy|
|Release Date||: 2016-11-02|
|ISBN 10||: 3319339842|
|Pages||: 173 pages|
This book examines the puzzle of why genetically modified organisms continue to be controversial despite scientific evidence declaring them safe for humans and the environment. What explains the sustained levels of resistance? Clancy analyzes the trans-Atlantic controversy by comparing opposition to GMOs in the United Kingdom, Germany, Poland, Spain, and the United States, examining the way in which science is politicized on both sides of the debate. Ultimately, the author argues that the lack of labeling GMO products in the United States allows opponents to create far-fetched images of GMOs that work their ways in to the minds of the public. The way forward out of this seemingly intractable debate is to allow GMOs, once tested, to enter the market without penalty—and then to label them.
|Author||: Elise Golan,Fred Kuchler,United Economic Research Service (Ers)|
|Release Date||: 2015-02-16|
|ISBN 10||: 9781298044181|
|Pages||: 52 pages|
This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
Biosafety and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are amongst the most complex of biodiversity issues: from species conservation, to sustainable livelihoods, to socio-cultural policy. The greatest GMO-related need shared by all decision-makers - governmental, civil society, and industrial - is for unbiased background information and a framework for evaluating new evidence. This detailed, background analysis aims to enable IUCN and its Members determine how they should "advance leadership, research, analysis and dissemination of knowledge regarding the potential ecological impact of the release of genetically modified organisms into the environment, focusing especially on biodiversity, socio-economic impact and food security".
|Author||: Chris A. Wozniak,Alan McHughen|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2012-08-29|
|ISBN 10||: 9400721552|
|Pages||: 396 pages|
Written in a practical, didactic format designed to deliver point-of-care information to practitioners of cardiology as well as assist non-cardiologists with the efficient management of cardiac disease, this highly illustrated manual is an essential reference.
PART I Molecular Biology 1. Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering Definition, History and Scope 2. Chemistry of the Cell: 1. Micromolecules (Sugars, Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Nucleotides and Lipids) Sugars (Carbohydrates) 3. Chemistry of the Cell . 2. Macromolecules (Nucleic Acids; Proteins and Polysaccharides) Covalent and Weak Non-covalent Bonds 4. Chemistry of the Gene: Synthesis, Modification and Repair of DNA DNA Replication: General Features 5. Organisation of Genetic Material 1. Packaging of DNA as Nucleosomes in Eukaryotes Techniques Leading to Nucleosome Discovery 6. Organization of Genetic Material 2. Repetitive and Unique DNA Sequences 7. Organization of Genetic Material: 3. Split Genes, Overlapping Genes, Pseudogenes and Cryptic Genes Split Genes or .Interrupted Genes 8. Multigene Families in Eukaryotes 9. Organization of Mitochondrial and Chloroplast Genomes 10. The Genetic Code 11. Protein Synthesis Apparatus Ribosome, Transfer RNA and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases Ribosome 12. Expression of Gene . Protein Synthesis 1. Transcription in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes 13. Expression of Gene: Protein Synthesis: 2. RNA Processing (RNA Splicing, RNA Editing and Ribozymes) Polyadenylation of mRNA in Prokaryotes Addition of Cap (m7G) and Tail (Poly A) for mRNA in Eukaryotes 14. Expression of Gene: Protein Synthesis: 3. Synthesis and Transport of Proteins (Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes) Formation of Aminoacyl tRNA 15. Regulation of Gene Expression: 1. Operon Circuits in Bacteria and Other Prokaryotes 16. Regulation of Gene Expression . 2. Circuits for Lytic Cycle and Lysogeny in Bacteriophages 17. Regulation of Gene Expression 3. A Variety of Mechanisms in Eukaryotes (Including Cell Receptors and Cell Signalling) PART II Genetic Engineering 18. Recombinant DNA and Gene Cloning 1. Cloning and Expression Vectors 19. Recombinant DNA and Gene Cloning 2. Chimeric DNA, Molecular Probes and Gene Libraries 20. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Gene Amplification 21. Isolation, Sequencing and Synthesis of Genes 22. Proteins: Separation, Purification and Identification 23. Immunotechnology 1. B-Cells, Antibodies, Interferons and Vaccines 24. Immunotechnology 2. T-Cell Receptors and MHC Restriction 25. Immunotechnology 3. Hybridoma and Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) Hybridoma Technology and the Production of Monoclonal Antibodies 26. Transfection Methods and Transgenic Animals 27. Animal and Human Genomics: Molecular Maps and Genome Sequences Molecular Markers 28. Biotechnology in Medicine: l.Vaccines, Diagnostics and Forensics Animal and Human Health Care 29. Biotechnology in Medicine 2. Gene Therapy Human Diseases Targeted for Gene Therapy Vectors and Other Delivery Systems for Gene Therapy 30. Biotechnology in Medicine: 3. Pharmacogenetics / Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine Phannacogenetics and Personalized 31. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture' Production and Uses of Haploids 32. Gene Transfer Methods in Plants 33. Transgenic Plants . Genetically Modified (GM) Crops and Floricultural Plants 34. Plant Genomics: 35. Genetically Engineered Microbes (GEMs) and Microbial Genomics References
|Author||: Jorge Fernandez-Cornejo|
|Publisher||: DIANE Publishing|
|Release Date||: 2009-05|
|ISBN 10||: 143791103X|
|Pages||: 30 pages|
Ten years after the first generation of genetically engineered (GE) varieties became commercially available, adoption of these varieties by U.S. farmers is widespread for major crops. Despite the benefits, however, environmental and consumer concerns may have limited acceptance of GE crops, especially in Europe. This report focuses on GE crops and their adoption in the U.S. over the past 10 years. It finds that: (1) the pace of R&D activity by producers of GE seed has been rapid; (2) farmers have adopted some GE varieties widely and at a rapid rate and benefited from such adoption; and (3) the level of consumer concerns about foods that contain GE ingred. varies by country, with European consumers being most concerned. Illustrations.
A variable climate, political instability, and other constraints have limited agricultural development in African countries south of the Sahara. Genetically modified (GM) crops are one tool for enhancing agricultural productivity and food security despite such constraints. Genetically Modified Crops in Africa: Economic and Policy Lessons from Countries South of the Sahara investigates how this tool might be effectively used by evaluating the benefits, costs, and risks for African countries of adopting GM crops. The authors gather together studies on GM crops economic effects and impact on trade, how consumers view such crops, and other issues. They find that GM crops have had, on average, a positive economic effect in the nations where they were used and identify future steps for enhancing GM crop adoptions positive effects. Promising policy initiatives include making biosafety regulations that do not make GM crop development prohibitively expensive, fostering intraregional trade in GM crops, and providing more and better information about GM crops to consumers who might currently be skeptical of them. These and other findings in Genetically Modified Crops in Africa indicate ways biotechnology can contribute to economic development in Africa south of the Sahara.
Seventy-five percent of processed foods on supermarket shelves—from soda to soup, crackers to condiments—contain genetically engineered ingredients. The long-term effects of these foods on human health and ecology are still unknown, and public concern has been steadily intensifying. This new book from the Council for Responsible Genetics gathers the best, most thought-provoking essays by the leading scientists, science writers, and public health advocates. Collectively, they address such questions as: Are GM foods safe and healthy for us? Will GM food really solve world hunger? Who really controls the power structure of food production? Are GM foods ecologically safe and sustainable? Why is it so difficult to get GM foods labeled in the US? What kinds of regulations and policies should be instituted? How is seed biodiversity, of lack thereof, affecting developing countries? Should animals be genetically modified for food? How are other countries handling GM crops? Ultimately, this definitive book encourages us to think about the social, environmental, and moral ramifications of where this particular branch of biotechnology is taking us, and what we should do about it.
The global food crisis is a stark reminder of the fragility of the global food system. The Global Food Crisis: Governance Challenges and Opportunities captures the debate about how to go forward and examines the implications of the crisis for food security in the world’s poorest countries, both for the global environment and for the global rules and institutions that govern food and agriculture. In this volume, policy-makers and scholars assess the causes and consequences of the most recent food price volatility and examine the associated governance challenges and opportunities, including short-term emergency responses, the ecological dimensions of the crisis, and the longer-term goal of building sustainable global food systems. The recommendations include vastly increasing public investment in small-farm agriculture; reforming global food aid and food research institutions; establishing fairer international agricultural trade rules; promoting sustainable agricultural methods; placing agriculture higher on the post-Kyoto climate change agenda; revamping biofuel policies; and enhancing international agricultural policy-making. Co-published with the Centre for International Governance Innovation
This volume brings together fresh insights from top agricultural economists in the areas of consumer attitudes, environmental impacts, policy and regulation, trade, investment, food security, and development, in an attempt to provide a new perspective on the most pressing policy questions facing GM technology.
|Author||: Kung-Chung Liu|
|Publisher||: Springer Nature|
|ISBN 10||: 981138102X|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
This book addresses the issues and methods involved in governing risks posed by genetically modified (GM) agriculture. It examines the evolution of policies intended to ensure the safety of GM crops and food products in the United States and Europe and the regulatory approaches and other social controls employed to protect human health, the environment, conventional farming and foods, and the interests and rights of consumers. Discussion encompasses the cultural, political and economic forces that shape the design and application of the methods of risk governance, as well as other contextual features such as the influence of multinational companies seeking acceptance of their GM ventures. This discussion also examines the influence of the dynamic public discourse fostered by progressive concepts of risk governance and the approaches taken to meet its demands for transparency, public participation and appropriate consideration of public perceptions and values despite conflicting views of experts.
Increasingly, consumers desire information about the health, safety, environmental and socioeconomic characteristics of food products. These traits often cannot be detected by sight, smell or taste. Therefore, consumers must use food labels to select products that meet their needs and preferences. The growing consumer and industry interest in food labels presents challenges for governments, which must ensure that the product information is accurate, truthful and not misleading to consumers. Governments must decide whether provision of information should be mandatory or voluntary. With the increase in global trade in food, there is a need to harmonize food labels so that product information is understood and relevant to foreign markets. Innovations in food labelling provides information about the principles and requirements of food labelling and reviews the latest trends in this important area. Following an introduction on the evolution of food labelling, further chapters cover the Codex Alimentarius and food labelling, international trade agreements, nutrition labelling, allergies and food labels and environmental and social labels, among other topics. An essential reference for food regulatory agencies, food law experts and professionals in the food industry responsible for labelling as well as consumer and environmental associations with an interest in labelling. Provides important information about the principles and requirements of food labelling and reviews the trends in this area Documents label evolution and considers standards and legal issues, as well as protection of the environment and sustainable food production Features labels for a variety of different markets, including organic foods, and addresses social issues such as association of food quality with location
Organic agriculture and the law is the title of the latest legislative study in print. The study identifies and explains the different legal issues related to organic production. A comparative analysis is presented and recommendations are made for consideration in the design of national organic agriculture legislation.
|Author||: Stuart J. Smyth,Peter W.B. Phillips,David Castle|
|Publisher||: Edward Elgar Publishing|
|Release Date||: 2014-03-28|
|ISBN 10||: 0857938355|
|Pages||: 880 pages|
This book is a compendium of knowledge, experience and insight on agriculture, biotechnology and development. Beginning with an account of GM crop adoptions and attitudes towards them, the book assesses numerous crucial processes, concluding with detai
In Thwarting Consumer Choice, Gary E. Marchant, Guy A. Cardineau, and Thomas P. Redick contend that mandatory GM labeling laws actually harm consumers by pushing genetically modified foods off the market.
|Author||: Cora Dankers,Pascal Liu,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Raw Materials, Tropical and Horticultural Products Service|
|Publisher||: Food & Agriculture Org.|
|Release Date||: 2003|
|ISBN 10||: 9789251050682|
|Pages||: 103 pages|
Workplace safety and environmental sustainability can be promoted by agreed standards, certification and labelling. This publication contains 22 case studies on the impact of standards and certification programmes for cash crops in developing countries, including organic agriculture, fair-trade labelling, "Social Accountability 8000", the Rainforest Alliance Sustainable Agriculture Programme, the Ethical Trading Initiative, ISO-14001 and EurepGap. It examines the origins, scope and certification systems of these initiatives, as well as stakeholder involvement, the standard-setting process, verification methods, the relationship with the World Trade Organization agreements and the potential role of governments.
"This textbook provides an innovative, internationally oriented approach to the teaching of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and business ethics. Drawing on case studies involving companies and countries around the world, the textbook explores the social, ethical, and business dynamics underlying CSR in such areas as global warming, genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food production, free trade and fair trade, anti-sweatshop and living-wage movements, organic foods and textiles, ethical marketing practices and codes, corporate speech and lobbying, and social enterprise. The book is designed to encourage students and instructors to challenge their own assumptions and prejudices by stimulating a class debate based on each case study"--Provided by publisher.