Global Mental Health and Neuroethics explores conceptual, ethical and clinical issues that have emerged with the expansion of clinical neuroscience into middle- and low-income countries. Conceptual issues covered include avoiding scientism and skepticism in global mental health, integrating evidence-based and value-based global medicine, and developing a welfarist approach to the practice of global psychiatry. Ethical issues addressed include those raised by developments in neurogenetics, cosmetic psychopharmacology and deep brain stimulation. Perspectives drawing on global mental health and neuroethics are used to explore a number of different clinical disorders and developmental stages, ranging from childhood through to old age. Synthesizes existing work at the intersection of global mental health and neuroethics Presents the work of leading practitioners of global mental health and neuroethics who address clinical issues Looks at clinical decision-making in settings with non-Western values and customs Covers patient empowerment, human rights, cognitive enhancement, and more
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2019-09-20|
|ISBN 10||: 0128167572|
|Pages||: 342 pages|
In recent years there has been increased recognition of the global burden of mental disorders, which in turn has led to the expansion of preventive initiatives at the community and population levels. The application of such public health approaches to mental health raises a number of important ethical questions. The aim of this collection is to address these newly emerging issues, with special attention to the principle of prevention and the distinctive ethical challenges in mental health. The collection brings together an interdisciplinary group of experts in bioethics, mental health, public health, and global health. Compared to other public health initiatives, those directed towards mental health are relatively new and have yet to receive sustained ethical analysis. This is the first edited volume to highlight the distinctive ethical issues surrounding public mental health. The individual chapters contain cutting-edge, original research by an interdisciplinary collection of authors, including experts in bioethics, mental health, public health, and global health.
This international survey defines mental health as a basic human right, and tracks the emergence of mental health prevention and promotion as a global priority. Locating mental illness within a cycle of negative causes and effects affecting human quality of life, the editors identify modern policy barriers to promotion/prevention initiatives, particularly the favoring of the biomedical health model by major stakeholders. The book’s selection of successful programs from diverse countries displays a lifespan approach, emphasizing the centrality of interdisciplinary educational settings in providing primary and secondary prevention and promotion interventions, and the ongoing fight against missing financial investigations, discrimination and stigma. Together, these papers make a forceful argument for rights- based responses to worldwide mental health needs as part of the commitment toward global human rights and long-term development goals. Included in the coverage: · Mental health priorities around the world. · Social determinants of mental health. · Mental health and stigma: aspects of anti-stigma interventions. · Promoting social and emotional wellbeing and responding to mental health problems in schools. · The promotion and delivery of mental health services in primary care settings. · Economic evaluation of mental health promotion and mental illness prevention. Bringing to the fore public health concerns that are too often marginalized, Global Mental Health is necessary reading for health professionals, health and clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, medical sociologists, and policymakers.
Over the last decade, there have been unparalleled advances in our understanding of brain sciences. But with the development of tools that can manipulate brain function, there are pressing ethical implications to this newfound knowledge of how the brain works. In Neuroethics: Anticipating the Future, a distinguished group of contributors tackle current and critical ethical questions and offer forward-looking insights. What new balances should be struck between diagnosis and prediction, or invasive and non-invasive interventions, given the rapid advances in neuroscience? Are new criteria needed for the clinical definition of death for those eligible for organ donation? As data from emerging technologies are made available on public databases, what frameworks will maximize benefits while ensuring privacy of health information? These challenging questions, along with numerous other neuroethical concerns, are discussed in depth. Written by eminent scholars from diverse disciplines including neurology and neuroscience, ethics and law, public health and philosophy, this new volume on neuroethics sets out the many necessary considerations for the future. It is essential reading for the field of neuroethics, neurosciences and psychology, and an invaluable resource for physicians in neurological medicine, academics in humanities and law, and health policy makers.
Addiction is a significant health and social problem and one of the largest preventable causes of disease globally. Neuroscience promises to revolutionise our ability to treat addiction, lead to recognition of addiction as a 'real' disorder in need of medical treatment and thereby reduce stigma and discrimination. However, neuroscience raises numerous social and ethical challenges: • If addicted individuals are suffering from a brain disease that drives them to drug use, should we mandate treatment? • Does addiction impair an individual's ability to consent to research or treatment? • How will neuroscience affect social policies towards drug use? Addiction Neuroethics addresses these challenges by examining ethical implications of emerging neurobiological treatments, including: novel psychopharmacology, neurosurgery, drug vaccines to prevent relapse, and genetic screening to identify individuals who are vulnerable to addiction. Essential reading for academics, clinicians, researchers and policy-makers in the fields of addiction, mental health and public policy.
|Author||: Annemarie Kalis,Derek Strijbos,Leon de Bruin,Gerrit Glas|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2017-07-12|
|ISBN 10||: 2889452298|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Global Mental Health and Psychotherapy: Adapting Psychotherapy for Middle- and Low-Income Countries takes a detailed look at how psychotherapies can be adapted and implemented in low- and middle-income countries, while also illuminating the challenges and how to overcome them. The book addresses the conceptual framework underlying global mental health and psychotherapy, focusing on the importance of task-shifting, a common-elements approach, rigorous supervision, and the scaling up of psychotherapies. Specific psychotherapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy and collaborative care are given in-depth coverage, as is working with special populations, such as children and adolescents, pregnant women, refugees, and the elderly. In addition, treatment strategies for common disorders, such as depression, anxiety and stress, and substance abuse are covered, as are strategies for more severe mental disorders, such as schizophrenia. Provides adapted psychotherapy strategies for low- and middle-income countries Looks at special considerations for particular disorders and populations Covers the treatment of both common and severe mental health problems Focuses on task-shifting, a common-elements approach and scaling of psychotherapies Addresses cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy and schema therapy
The past two decades have seen unparalleled developments in our knowledge of the brain and mind. However, these advances have forced us to confront head-on some significant ethical issues regarding our application of this information in the real world- whether using brain images to establish guilt within a court of law, or developing drugs to enhance cognition. Historically, any consideration of the ethical, legal, and social implications of emerging technologies in science and medicine has lagged behind the discovery of the technology itself. These delays have caused problems in the acceptability and potential applications of biomedical advances and posed significant problems for the scientific community and the public alike - for example in the case of genetic screening and human cloning. The field of Neuroethics aims to proactively anticipate ethical, legal and social issues at the intersection of neuroscience and ethics, raising questions about what the brain tells us about ourselves, whether the information is what people want or ought to know, and how best to communicate it. A landmark in the academic literature, the Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics presents a pioneering review of a topic central to the sciences and humanities. It presents a range of chapters considering key issues, discussion, and debate at the intersection of brain and ethics. The handbook contains more than 50 chapters by leaders from around the world and a broad range of sectors of academia and clinical practice spanning the neurosciences, medical sciences and humanities and law. The book focuses on and provides a platform for dialogue of what neuroscience can do, what we might expect neuroscience will do, and what neuroscience ought to do. The major themes include: consciousness and intention; responsibility and determinism; mind and body; neurotechnology; ageing and dementia; law and public policy; and science, society and international perspectives. Tackling some of the most significant ethical issues that face us now and will continue to do so over the coming decades, The Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics will be an essential resource for the field of neuroethics for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, basic scientists in the neurosciences and psychology, scholars in humanities and law, as well as physicians practising in the areas of primary care in neurological medicine.
Advances in psychiatric research and clinical psychiatry in the last 30 years have given rise to a host of new questions that lie at the intersection of psychiatry, neuroscience, philosophy and law. Such questions include: -Are psychiatric disorders diseases of the brain, caused by dysfunctional neural circuits and neurotransmitters? -What role do genes, neuro-endocrine, neuro-immune interactions and the environment play in the development of these disorders? -How do different explanations of the etiology and pathophysiology of mental illness influence diagnosis, prognosis and decisions about treatment? -Would it be rational for a person with a chronic treatment-resistant disorder to request euthanasia or assisted suicide to end their suffering? -Could psychiatric disorders be predicted and prevented? Psychiatric Neuroethics explores these questions in a comprehensive and systematic way, discussing the medical and philosophical implications of neuroscience and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoc) in the fields of psychiatry and mental health. It examines the extent to which circuit-based criteria can offer a satisfactory explanation of psychiatric disorders and how they compare with the symptom-based criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMV). This book will be of interest to a multidisciplinary audience, including psychiatrists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, philosophers, psychologists and legal theorists.
Neuroscientists are mining nucleic acids, blood, saliva, and brain images in hopes of uncovering biomarkers that could help estimate risk of brain disorders like psychosis and dementia; though the science of bioprediction is young, its prospects are unearthing controversy about how bioprediction should enter hospitals, courtrooms, or state houses. While medicine, law, and policy have established protocols for how presence of disorders should change what we owe each other or who we blame, they have no stock answers for the probabilities that bioprediction offers. The Neuroethics of Biomarkers observes, however, that for many disorders, what we really care about is not their presence per se, but certain risks that they carry. The current reliance of moral and legal structures on a categorical concept of disorder (sick verses well), therefore, obscures difficult questions about what types and magnitudes of probabilities matter. Baum argues that progress in the neuroethics of biomarkers requires the rejection of the binary concept of disorder in favor of a probabilistic one based on biological variation with risk of harm, which Baum names a "Probability Dysfunction." This risk-reorientation clarifies practical ethical issues surrounding the definition of mental disorder in the DSM-5 and the nosology of conditions defined by risk of psychosis and dementia. Baum also challenges the principle that the acceptability of bioprediction should depend primarily on whether it is medically useful by arguing that biomarkers can also be morally useful through enabling moral agency, better assessment of legal responsibility, and fairer distributive justice. The Neuroethics of Biomarkers should be of interest to those within neuroethics, medical ethics, and the philosophy of psychiatry.
The treatment of pain and scientific pursuits to understand the mechanisms underlying pain raise many ethical, legal, and social issues. For the first time, this edited volume brings together content experts in the fields of pain, pediatrics, neuroscience, brain imaging, bioethics, health humanities, and the law to provide insight into the timely topic of pain neuroethics. This landmark volume of the state of the art exploration of pain neuroethics will be a must read for those interested in the ethical issues in pain research, treatment, and management. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Represents the first release in the Developments in Neuroethics and Bioethics series The content includes representatives from a diversity of disciplines
Decolonizing Global Mental Health is a book that maps a strange irony. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Movement for Global Mental Health are calling to ‘scale up’ access to psychological and psychiatric treatments globally, particularly within the global South. Simultaneously, in the global North, psychiatry and its often chemical treatments are coming under increased criticism (from both those who take the medication and those in the position to prescribe it). The book argues that it is imperative to explore what counts as evidence within Global Mental Health, and seeks to de-familiarize current ‘Western’ conceptions of psychology and psychiatry using postcolonial theory. It leads us to wonder whether we should call for equality in global access to psychiatry, whether everyone should have the right to a psychotropic citizenship and whether mental health can, or should, be global. As such, it is ideal reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as researchers in the fields of critical psychology and psychiatry, social and health psychology, cultural studies, public health and social work.
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2020-04-12|
|ISBN 10||: 0128161825|
|Pages||: 298 pages|
Ethical Dimensions of Commercial and DIY Neurotechnologies Volume Three, the latest release in the Developments in Neuroethics and Bioethics series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on timely topics surrounding neuroethics and bioethics. Each chapter is written by an international board of authors. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Developments in Neuroethics and Bioethics series Includes the latest information on the ethics of commercial and DIY neurotechnologies
Neuroethics : an overview -- Better brains -- Brain, self, and authenticity -- Brain reading -- Neuroscience and justice -- Brains and persons.
A survey of the emerging field of neuroethics that calls for a multidisciplinary, pragmatic approach for tackling key issues and improving patient care. Today the measurable health burden of neurological and mental health disorders matches or even surpasses any other cluster of health conditions. At the same time, the clinical applications of recent advances in neuroscience are hardly straightforward. In Pragmatic Neuroethics, Eric Racine argues that the emerging field of neuroethics offers a way to integrate such specialties as neurology, psychiatry, and neurosurgery with the humanities and social sciences, neuroscience research, and related healthcare professions, with the goal of tackling key ethical challenges and improving patient care. Racine provides a survey of the often diverging perspectives within neuroethics, offers a theoretical framework supported by empirical data, and discusses the neuroethical implications of such issues as media coverage of neuroscience innovation and the importance of public concerns and lay opinion; nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals for performance enhancement; and the discord between intuitive notions about consciousness and behavior and the scientific understanding of them. Racine proposes a pragmatic neuroethics that combines pluralistic approaches, bottom-up research perspectives, and a focus on practical issues (in contrast to other more theoretical and single-discipline approaches to the field). [He discusses ethical issues related to powerful neuroscience insights into the mechanisms underlying moral reasoning, cooperative behavior, and such emotional processes as empathy.] In addition, he outlines a pragmatic framework for neuroethics, based on the philosophy of emergentism, which identifies conditions for the meaningful contribution of neuroscience to ethics, and sketches new directions and strategies for meeting future challenges for neuroscience and society. Basic Bioethics series
|Author||: Thomas D. Parsons|
|Publisher||: Cambridge University Press|
|Release Date||: 2019-11-30|
|ISBN 10||: 1108428789|
|Pages||: 400 pages|
Explores the ethical issues of cyberpsychology research and praxes, which arise in algorithmically paired people and technologies.
Revisioning Psychiatry brings together new perspectives on the causes and treatment of mental health problems. The contributors emphasize the importance of understanding experience and explore how the brain, the person, and the social world interact to give rise to mental health problems as well as resilience and recovery.
Research increasingly suggests that addiction has a genetic and neurobiological basis, but efforts to translate research into effective clinical treatments and social policy needs to be informed by careful ethical analyses of the personal and social implications. Scientists and policy makers alike must consider possible unintended negative consequences of neuroscience research so that the promise of reducing the burden and incidence of addiction can be fully realized and new advances translated into clinically meaningful and effective treatments. This volume brings together leading addiction researchers and practitioners with neuroethicists and social scientists to specifically discuss the ethical, philosophical, legal and social implications of neuroscience research of addiction, as well as its translation into effective, economical and appropriate policy and treatments. Chapters explore the history of ideas about addiction, the neuroscience of drug use and addiction, prevention and treatment of addiction, the moral implications of addiction neuroscience, legal issues and human rights, research ethics, and public policy. Features outstanding and truly international scholarship, with chapters written by leading experts in neuroscience, addiction medicine, psychology and more Informs psychologists of related research in neuroscience and vice versa, giving researchers easy one-stop access to knowledge outside their area of specialty
Based on the study of neuroscientific developments and innovations, examined from different angles, this Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of the international neuroethical debate, and offers unprecedented insights into the impact of neuroscientific research, diagnosis, and therapy. Neuroethics – as a multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary endeavor – examines the implications of the neurosciences for human beings in general and for their self-understanding and their social interactions in particular. The range of approaches adopted in neuroethics and thus in this handbook includes but is not limited to historical, anthropological, ethical, philosophical, theological, sociological and legal approaches. The Handbook deals with a plethora of topics, divided into in three parts: the first part contains discussions of theories of neuroethics and how neuroscience impacts on our understanding of personal identity, free will, and other philosophical concepts. The second part is dedicated to issues involved in current and future clinical applications of neurosciences, such as brain stimulation, brain imaging, prosthetics, addiction, and psychiatric ethics. The final part deals with neuroethics and society and includes chapters on neurolaw, neurotheology, neuromarketing, and enhancement.
People with mental disorders often suffer the worst conditions of life - a problem exacerbated by social stigma. In practice, the international community still tends to prioritise human rights in a manner that largely ignores mental health, which in turn remains in the shadow of physical-health programs. This book is the first comprehensive survey of the mental health/human rights relationship. It examines the relationships and histories of mental health and human rights, and their interconnections with law, culture, ethnicity, class, economics, biology, and stigma. It investigates the responsibilities of states in securing the rights of those with mental disabilities, the predicaments of specific vulnerable groups, and the challenge of promoting and protecting mental health in general.