Introduction to Geological Maps and Structures describes the basic methods to interpret and attain a better understanding of geological maps. The book describes the nature and preparation of geological maps, and then covers topics such as solid and drift maps, geological boundaries, sections, and the use of symbols. The book explains sedimentary rocks, outcrop patterns, and the topographic representation of geological structures. The text also addresses the geometry of folds and folding when pre-existing surfaces are distorted into zigzag patterns. The author explains in detail the morphology of folded layers and the mechanism involved in folding. He goes on to interpret the formation of outcrop patterns, as well as the structure of a cylindrical and cylindroidal fold patterns. The author also describes the different structures that result from the brittle fractures present in rocks that undergo massive stress. Of interest is the presentation of how fissures and mineral veins are formed and deposited. The author then discusses earth movements resulting in angular unconformities known as stratigraphic break. These breaks in the stratigraphic record, such as diastems, non-sequences, paraconformities, or disconformities, can be interpreted as the intervals of geological time. The book then explains the nature of tectonic maps, which involves features arising from the continental crust, and how these maps are different from geological maps that show the outcrop of lithostratigraphic units. Geologists, cartographers, meteorologists, seismologists, land use developers, and students of the earth sciences will find this book valuable.
Care is taken to define terms rigorously and in a way that is in keeping with current professional usage. Photographs of structures in the field are included to emphasize the similarities between structures at outcrop scale and on the scale of a map. This book is designed to be read without tutorial help alongside fieldwork. Worked examples are given to assist with the solution of the exercises. The maps used in exercises have been chosen to provide all of the realism of a survey map without the huge amount of data often present, so a student can develop skills without becoming overwhelmed or confused. In particular emphasis is placed throughout on developing the skill of three-dimensional visualisation so important to the geologist.
Detailed mapping and analysis of the structural features of rocks enable the 3D geometry of their structures to be reconstructed. The resulting evidence of the stresses and movement patterns which rocks have undergone indicates the processes by which they were formed, and allows evaluation of past deformations of the earth’s crust. Written to show how one actually describes, measures and records rock structures such as folds and faults with the emphasis on accuracy, detail and on-going interpretation throughout, this handbook gives students and enthusiasts the practical information and guidance which allows their fieldwork to become vastly more rewarding. "...the author is to be congratulated on producing such an excellent text. The whole range of mapping techniques that an undergraduate student will require are described and the book will still be immense help to post-graduates setting out on their research work. The book represents extremely good value and is thoroughly recommended." —C.R.L. Friend, Mineralogical Magazine
|Author||: Derek Powell|
|Publisher||: Addison-Wesley Longman Limited|
|Release Date||: 1992|
|Pages||: 176 pages|
In the same way that topographic, road, and rail maps provide us with information concerning the nature of the land surface and the location of man-made features. Geological maps contain data which allows an understanding of the distribution of rocks that make up the crust of the Earth and the orientation of structures they contain. Unlike ordinary maps however, geological maps include information which allows us to assess not only the location of particular rocks and the areas they cover, but also their underground extent and their geological history.
|Author||: George M Bennison,Paul A Olver,Keith A Moseley|
|Release Date||: 2013-11-26|
|ISBN 10||: 1444149601|
|Pages||: 184 pages|
An Introduction to Geological Structures and Maps is a concise and accessible textbook providing simple structural terminology and map problems which introduce geological structures. It is a perfect introduction to mapping for students of geology, engineering geology and civil engineering. Each topic is explained and illustrated by figures, and exercises follow on successive maps. If students are unable to complete an exercise, they can read on to obtain more specific instructions on how theory may be used to solve the problem. An appendix at the end of the book provides the solutions. This new, eighth edition contains simplified introductory matter to make the subject as easy to grasp as possible. Colour photographs illustrating geological structures bring the subject to life and a new map from the British Geological Survey illustrates a real area. There is more on outcrop patterns, which will help students to think in 3D, and on structures and the relationship of topography to geological structure. Cliff sections have been added to reinforce the concept of apparent dip. The section on planetary geology has been more closely tied to igneous geology to aid understanding of the connection between the two. Finally, a new map on economic geology has been added for the benefit of engineering students. A geological glossary helps students to understand and memorise key terms and a new, colourful, text design enlivens the appearance of this popular book.
The book includes new material, in particular examples of 3-D models and techniques for using kinematic models to predict fault and ramp-anticline geometry. The book is geared toward the professional user concerned about the accuracy of an interpretation and the speed with which it can be obtained from incomplete data. Numerous analytical solutions are given that can be easily implemented with a pocket calculator or a spreadsheet.
Map Interpretation for Structural Geologists exemplifies various topics, from deciphering topography using contour patterns to interpreting folds, faults, unconformities and dykes. By solving several types of maps, this book gives readers the confidence to solve difficult geologic questions related to map interpretation in the classroom and in the field. Interpreting geological and structural maps is an inseparable part of learning structural geology in the undergraduate curriculum and postgraduate development. Features approximately 30 full-color geological or structural maps and their solutions, from basic to the most complex Includes content appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students and professional geoscientists alike Presents a self-learning guide and teaching manual with minimum instruction required
Designed to be carried in the field, this pocket-sized how-to book is a practical guide to basic techniques in mapping geological structures. In addition to including the latest computerised developments, the author provides succinct information on drawing cross-sections and preparing and presenting 'fair copy' maps and geological diagrams. Contains a brief chapter on the essentials of report writing and discusses how to keep adequate field notebooks. A checklist of equipment needed in the field can be found in the appendices. Quote from 3rd edition "provides a wealth of good advice on how to measure, record and write reports of geological field observations" The Naturalist
Understanding Geology through Maps guides young professional geologists and students alike in understanding and interpreting the world’s dynamic and varying geological landscapes through the liberal use of visual aids including figures, maps, and diagrams. This highly visual reference introduces the skills of interpreting a geological map and relating it to the morphology of the most important types of geological structure. Thoroughly revised, and with more international examples, it is ideal for use by students with a minimum of tutorial supervision. Maps of geological structures provide all of the realism of a survey map without the huge amount of data often present, so readers can develop or hone their skills without becoming overwhelmed or confused. In particular, emphasis is placed throughout on developing the skill of three-dimensional visualization so important to geologists. Authored by a master geologist with more than 40 years of experience in research and instruction Features more than 130 figures, diagrams, and illustrations—many in full color—to highlight major themes and aid in the retention of key concepts Leads to a broad understanding of Earth’s geology through the use of real and theoretical map Exercises conclude each chapter, making it an ideal tool for self-guided and quick study
Introduction to Geological Maps and Structures deals with the preparation of geological maps using topographic contours such as hills, valleys, rock outcrop patterns, faults, veins, rivers, lakes, cliffs, and coasts. A geological formation is a three-dimensional body with a particular shape. Two factors determine the accuracy of boundaries on a geological map: 1) boundaries can only be drawn where there is a sharp contact between adjacent formations; and 2) the ability to follow geological boundaries in the field depends on the degree of exposure, from which the solid rocks tend to be hidden under a cover of soil and superficial deposits. If economic interests are involved, geological maps are very detailed: subsurface information obtained from bore holes and mine workings can be added to surface mapping. The book also describes the construction of a tectonic map, usually drawn on a larger scale, which shows the outcrop of lithostratigraphic units also in very large scales. The book notes that no systematic methodology has yet been developed for the construction of tectonic maps. The book is suitable for geologists, students, or scientists involved in hydrology, meteorology and with general earth sciences.
A knowledge of structural geology is fundamental to understanding the processes by which the earth's crust has evolved. It is a subject of fundamental importance to students of geology, experienced field geologists and academic researchers as well as to petroleum and mining engineers. In contrast to many structural textbooks which dwell upon geometrical descriptions of geological structures, this book emphasises mechanical principles and the way in which they can be used to understand how and why a wide range of geological structures develop. Structures on all scales are considered but the emphasis of the book is on those that can be seen on the scale of hand specimen or outcrop. Drawing on their considerable teaching experience the authors present a coherent and lucid analysis of geological structures which will be welcomed by a wide variety of earth scientists.
|Author||: Daniel J. Tearpock,Richard E. Bischke|
|Publisher||: Pearson Education|
|Release Date||: 2002-08-16|
|ISBN 10||: 0132441683|
|Pages||: 864 pages|
Applied Subsurface Geological Mapping, With Structural Methods, 2nd Edition is the practical, up-to-the-minute guide to the use of subsurface interpretation, mapping, and structural techniques in the search for oil and gas resources. Two of the industry's leading consultants present systematic coverage of the field's key principles and newest advances, offering guidance that is valuable for both exploration and development activities, as well as for "detailed" projects in maturely developed areas. Fully updated and expanded, this edition combines extensive information from the published literature with significant material never before published. The authors introduce superior techniques for every major petroleum-related tectonic setting in the world. Coverage includes: A systematic, ten-step philosophy for subsurface interpretation and mapping The latest computer-based contouring concepts and applications Advanced manual and computer-based log correlation Integration of geophysical data into subsurface interpretations and mapping Cross-section construction: structural, stratigraphic, and problem-solving Interpretation and generation of valid fault, structure, and isochore maps New coverage of 3D seismic interpretation, from project setup through documentation Compressional and extensional structures: balancing and interpretation In-depth new coverage of strike-slip faulting and related structures Growth and correlation consistency techniques: expansion indices, Multiple Bischke Plot Analysis, vertical separation versus depth, and more Numerous field examples from around the world Whatever your role in the adventure of finding and developing oil or gas resources–as a geologist, geophysicist, engineer, technologist, manager or investor–the tools presented in this book can make you significantly more effective in your daily technical or decision-oriented activities.
A concise text that leads students in easy stages from the simplest ideas on geological structures right through to more advanced geological mapping technique. This considerably enlarged seventh edition aims to make the book even more user friendly and bring it into line with present trends in map syllabuses. This edition includes photographs that will significantly add to the understanding of geological structures already illustrated by text figures and block diagrams in the appendix.
This combination of text and lab book presents an entirely different approach to structural geology. Designed for undergraduate laboratory classes, it provides a step-by-step guide for solving geometric problems arising from structural field observations. The book discusses both traditional methods and cutting-edge approaches, with emphasis given to graphical methods and visualization techniques that support students in tackling challenging two- and three-dimensional problems. Numerous exercises encourage practice in using the techniques, and demonstrate how field observations can be converted into useful information about geological structures and the processes responsible for creating them. This updated fourth edition incorporates new material on stress, deformation, strain and flow, and the underlying mathematics of the subject. With stereonet plots and solutions to the exercises available online at www.cambridge.org/ragan, this book is a key resource for undergraduates, advanced students and researchers wanting to improve their practical skills in structural geology.
Despite the modern dominance of computer graphics programs and digital cameras, the ability todraw geological structures manually remains a necessity in academic geology and beyond. Drawings serve for quick and simple documentation in the field or at the microscope. They can be applied as a language of their own as well as be adapted to suit specific requirements. Moreover, geological drawing improves observational ability and contributes to the understanding of geological structures and structure-forming processes. Geological drawing is assisted scientific thinking. Drawing Geological Structures provides undergraduate as well as graduate and practicing geologists with a thorough, step-by-step practical guide to the art of geological drawing. Beginning with the basics, the book covers thin sections, sample sections, samples and geological stereograms. The chapters provide examples of how drawings evolve and are complemented by exercises, allowing the reader to practice their drawing prior to going out into the field or working at the microscope. Users of this unique guide will develop their knowledge and technical vocabulary whilst also improving their drawing skills.
"Physical Geology is a comprehensive introductory text on the physical aspects of geology, including rocks and minerals, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, glaciation, groundwater, streams, coasts, mass wasting, climate change, planetary geology and much more. It has a strong emphasis on examples from western Canada, especially British Columbia, and also includes a chapter devoted to the geological history of western Canada. The book is a collaboration of faculty from Earth Science departments at Universities and Colleges across British Columbia and elsewhere"--BCcampus website.