Genetic Toxicology Testing: A Laboratory Manual presents a practical guide to genetic toxicology testing of chemicals in a GLP environment. The most commonly used assays are described, from laboratory and test design to results analysis. In a methodical manner, individual test methods are described step-by-step, along with equipment, suggested suppliers, recipes for reagents, and evaluation criteria. An invaluable resource in the lab, this book will help to troubleshoot any assay problems you may encounter to optimise quality and efficiency in your genetic toxicology tests. Genetic Toxicology Testing: A Laboratory Manual is an essential reference for those new to the genetic toxicology laboratory, or anyone involved in setting up their own. Offers practical and consistent guidance on the most commonly-performed tests and procedures in a genetic toxicology lab Describes standard genetic toxicology assays, their methodology, reagents, suppliers, and analysis of their results Includes guidance on general approaches: formulation for in vitro assays, study monitoring, and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) Serves as an essential reference for those new to the genetic toxicology laboratory, or anyone involved in setting up their own lab
Genetic Toxicology is a comprehensive book covering the historical perspective of genetic toxicology; basic mechanisms of mutations and chromosomal effects; health consequences of genetic damage, including cancer and inheritable mutations; properties of physical, chemical, and biological mutagens; risk assessment of human exposure to genotoxicants; and the current position of some government regulatory agencies in the United States on the issues of genetic toxicology. The book will be a useful reference for students and researchers in toxicology, genetics, cancer biology, and medicine who are interested in the basic and applied principles of genetic toxicology. It will also benefit industrial toxicologists, products registration specialists, and government regulatory specialists with responsibility for the safety evaluation of industrial and environmental agents.
The field of genetic toxicology has gone through remarkable development in the seven years since the appearance of the first edition of Principles of Genetic Toxicology. One branch of toxicology research, chemical mutagenesis, has been elucidated and expanded as a result of increased effort, testing, and the sharing of data. This expansion has occurred not only in the industrialized countries, but also in countries that are comparatively less advanced in scientific implementation. These developing countries have taken advan tage of the basic practical methods that were so well described in the first edition of this work. It is significant to note how many centers have been established throughout the world and are now studying the basic concepts and applying them to practical problems such as the detection of genetic effects caused by exposure to chemicals. In fact, there are now toxicology training centers in twelve countries. Genetic toxicology, in addition to being investigated as a science unto itself, has been taught to people in the applied fields so that these techniques may be put to use in solving other biological problems. For these reasons, it is most useful to have an update of the basic methods and their development. Dr. Brusick should be congratulated for doing such an excellent job of assembling a text that will be worthwhile to any researcher who is interested in the principles of genetic toxicology. Alexander Hollaender Council for Research Planning in Biological Sciences, Inc. Washington, D. C.
Genetic toxicology is considered to be an important assessment tool as there is genetic impact of artificial chemicals. Insight on Genotoxicity discusses testing, mechanism, prediction, and bioindicator of genotoxicity taking into consideration recent advances in nano-engineered particles. Corollary of DNA dent is also discussed in detail taking into consideration the impact of ICH guidelines on genotoxicity testing, which is important for drug discovery innovation and development. Perspective review of genotoxicity evaluation in phytopharmaceuticals has been mentioned along with the prevention of genotoxicity in brief viewpoint. Salient Features Presents methods, standard protocols, and guidelines for genotoxicity testing Examines the impact of ICH Guidelines on genetic toxicity testing which is a regulatory requirement for drug discovery and development Defines appropriate strategies about advances in in vivo genotoxicity testing which have been listed along with progress and prospects Discusses advancement in the high-throughput approaches for genotoxicity testing Details computational prediction of genotoxicity with consideration of mutagenicity, chromosomal damage caused and strategies for computational prediction in drug development
|Author||: Michael J. Graziano,David Jacobson-Kram|
|Release Date||: 2015-11-02|
|ISBN 10||: 3319220845|
|Pages||: 206 pages|
This book provides an overview of the nonclinical testing strategies that are used to asses and de-risk the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity properties of human pharmaceuticals. It includes a review of relevant ICH guidelines, numerous case studies where follow-up studies were conducted to further investigate positive findings, and practical considerations for the use of alternative and emerging tests. With contributions from recognized experts in the pharmaceutical industry and health authorities, this volume presents a balanced view on the interpretation and application of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity regulatory guidances. Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity Testing of Pharmaceuticals is a valuable resource for scientists, regulators, and consultants that are engaged in the conduct, reporting, and review of nonclinical studies. This book will also help academicians better understand and appreciate the complexity of the regulations and breadth of toxicology research that are necessary to support the development and marketing of new drugs.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicity Testing and Assessment of Environmental Agents|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2007-11-05|
|ISBN 10||: 0309151732|
|Pages||: 216 pages|
Advances in molecular biology and toxicology are paving the way for major improvements in the evaluation of the hazards posed by the large number of chemicals found at low levels in the environment. The National Research Council was asked by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to review the state of the science and create a far-reaching vision for the future of toxicity testing. The book finds that developing, improving, and validating new laboratory tools based on recent scientific advances could significantly improve our ability to understand the hazards and risks posed by chemicals. This new knowledge would lead to much more informed environmental regulations and dramatically reduce the need for animal testing because the new tests would be based on human cells and cell components. Substantial scientific efforts and resources will be required to leverage these new technologies to realize the vision, but the result will be a more efficient, informative and less costly system for assessing the hazards posed by industrial chemicals and pesticides.
The evaluation of potential mutagenic activity is a critical step in the assessment of the safety of both new and pre-existing chemical types. In Genetic Toxicology: Principles and Methods, expert contributors help to satisfy the demand for education in this tremendously important area of study. The volume covers three basic areas: the scientific basis of the discipline, the methodologies of the main test assays, and the application of the methods, all aimed primarily at scientists in the safety departments of the industries working with both natural and synthetic chemicals. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Intuitive and cutting-edge, Genetic Toxicology: Principles and Methods provides crucial support to both laboratory workers in providing quality information on the appropriate application of techniques and to study directors in their assay selection and protocol design in this vital field.
The compilation of this book was prompted by the necessity of a bench volume which could provide the necessary background information on materials, experimental design, pitfalls and dificulties, in order to perform a particular test in an acceptable way with a minimal need for additional expert help. This Second Edition updates this information, providing: - a comprehensive bench guide - methods known to be reliable - a broad spectrum of approaches - tips to avoid pitfalls when using unfamiliar techniques - data from population records - safety aspects of mutagens and carcinogens - basic statistical concepts for experiment design This `on the bench' methodological text provides the necessary information for most of the common assays for genetic damage in use. The book includes methods which have been sufficiently used and tested to make their use reliable, but also presents methods which are not widely used at present, but which might prove most useful in screening for mutagenic effects.
|Author||: Ali S. Faqi|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2012-11-16|
|ISBN 10||: 0123878152|
|Pages||: 885 pages|
A Comprehensive Guide to Toxicology in Preclinical Drug Development is a resource for toxicologists in industry and regulatory settings, as well as directors working in contract resource organizations, who need a thorough understanding of the drug development process. Incorporating real-life case studies and examples, the book is a practical guide that outlines day-to-day activities and experiences in preclinical toxicology. This multi-contributed reference provides a detailed picture of the complex and highly interrelated activities of preclinical toxicology in both small molecules and biologics. The book discusses discovery toxicology and the international guidelines for safety evaluation, and presents traditional and nontraditional toxicology models. Chapters cover development of vaccines, oncology drugs, botanic drugs, monoclonal antibodies, and more, as well as study development and personnel, the role of imaging in preclinical evaluation, and supporting materials for IND applications. By incorporating the latest research in this area and featuring practical scenarios, this reference is a complete and actionable guide to all aspects of preclinical drug testing. Chapters written by world-renowned contributors who are experts in their fields Includes the latest research in preclinical drug testing and international guidelines Covers preclinical toxicology in small molecules and biologics in one single source
|Publisher||: OECD Publishing|
|Release Date||: 2016-07-29|
|ISBN 10||: 9264264825|
|Pages||: 15 pages|
The purpose of the Dominant lethal (DL) test is to investigate whether chemical agents produce mutations resulting from chromosomal aberrations in germ cells.
Concerns about the adverse health effects of chemicals and radiation present in the environment and at workplaces have created the need for better detection systems to assess their potential to cause DNA damage in humans and other organisms across ecosystems. The Micronucleus Assay in Toxicology is the first comprehensive volume concerning the use of micronucleus assays in genetic toxicology. It succinctly explains the mechanisms by which genotoxins cause micronucleus formation and its relation to diseases. Furthermore, it describes the methods which are currently used for the analyses of micronuclei in different types of cells in human in vivo biomonitoring studies, routine in vivo tests with rodents, in vitro studies with human and mammalian cells, environmental monitoring with invertebrates and vertebrates such as molluscs, fish and, also, in plant bioassays. Moreover, this book also focuses on the use of the micronucleus technique in other research areas, including the detection of DNA damage caused by important groups of genotoxic carcinogens (heavy metals, industrial chemicals, cytotoxic drugs, pesticides, ionising radiation, etc.) as well as study designs, statistical analyses, international regulatory guidelines, and the development of automated scoring devices for this assay. This book will serve as both, a reference and a guide to students, and investigators in biomedical, biochemical and pharmaceutical sciences interested in gaining a better understanding of the biology of micronuclei and their application in measuring DNA damage caused by natural or man-made genotoxins.