fuel cell electric vehicles

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Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles
Author : Mehrdad Ehsani,Yimin Gao,Ali Emadi
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2017-12-19
ISBN 10 : 1420054007
Pages : 557 pages

Air pollution, global warming, and the steady decrease in petroleum resources continue to stimulate interest in the development of safe, clean, and highly efficient transportation. Building on the foundation of the bestselling first edition, Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Fundamentals, Theory, and Design, Second Edition updates and expands its detailed coverage of the vehicle technologies that offer the most promising solutions to these issues affecting the automotive industry. Proven as a useful in-depth resource and comprehensive reference for modern automotive systems engineers, students, and researchers, this book speaks from the perspective of the overall drive train system and not just its individual components. New to the second edition: A case study appendix that breaks down the Toyota Prius hybrid system Corrections and updates of the material in the first edition Three new chapters on drive train design methodology and control principles A completely rewritten chapter on Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking Employing sufficient mathematical rigor, the authors comprehensively cover vehicle performance characteristics, EV and HEV configurations, control strategies, modeling, and simulations for modern vehicles. They also cover topics including: Drive train architecture analysis and design methodologies Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)-based drive trains Electric propulsion systems Energy storage systems Regenerative braking Fuel cell applications in vehicles Hybrid-electric drive train design The first edition of this book gave practicing engineers and students a systematic reference to fully understand the essentials of this new technology. This edition introduces newer topics and offers deeper treatments than those included in the first. Revised many times over many years, it will greatly aid engineers, students, researchers, and other professionals who are working in automotive-related industries, as well as those in government and academia.

Importance of Both Battery Electric and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date :
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages

Sustainable Supply Chain Management
Author : Evelin Krmac
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2016-06-30
ISBN 10 : 9535124331
Pages : 276 pages

The book is a collection of studies dedicated to different perspectives of three dimensions or pillars of the sustainability of supply chain and supply chain management - economic, environmental, and social - and other aspects related to performance evaluation, optimization, and modelling of and for sustainable supply chain management, and thus presents another valuable contribution to sustainable development and sustainable way of life.

Impacting Rapid Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Commercialization
Author : David L. Wood
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2016
ISBN 10 : 9780768083026
Pages : 329 pages

Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) powered by proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEFC) and fueled by hydrogen, offer the promise of zero emissions with excellent driving range and fast refueling times. FCEVs face several remaining challenges in order to achieve widespread commercialisation. Many of the challenges are addressed in this book.

The Electric Car
Author : Michael Hereward Westbrook,Mike Westbrook
Publisher : IET
Release Date : 2001
ISBN 10 : 9780852960134
Pages : 198 pages

This book covers the development of electric cars -- from their early days to new hybrid models in production -- together with the very latest technological issues faced by automotive engineers working on electric cars, as well as the key business factors vital for the successful transfer of electric cars into the mass market. Considerable work has gone into electric car and battery development in the last ten years with the prospect of substantial improvements in range and performance in battery cars as well as in hybrids and those using fuel cells. This book comprehensively covers this important subject and will be of particular interest to engineers and managers working in the automotive and transport industries.

Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Road Vehicles
Author : Pasquale Corbo,Fortunato Migliardini,Ottorino Veneri
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-01-19
ISBN 10 : 9780857291363
Pages : 246 pages

Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Road Vehicles addresses the main issues related to the application of hydrogen fuel cell technology in the road transportation sector. A preliminary treatment is given on fuel resources and atmospheric pollution concerns which are closely related to the current technology (internal combustion engine) used for moving people and goods. The authors deal, in particular, with the problems that can hinder a widespread hydrogen market (production, storage and distribution), as well as giving an analysis of fuel cell technologies available for utilization of this energy carrier in the automotive field. Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Road Vehicles also examines the concerns faced during the design and realization of a PEM fuel cell system with optimal size and efficiency, evidencing the impact of the individual auxiliary components on energy losses and dynamic stack performance. The book ends with the analysis of two practical case studies on fuel cell propulsion systems. Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Road Vehicles is a useful text for researchers, professionals and advanced students in the fields of automotive and environmental engineering.

Electric Powertrain
Author : John G. Hayes,G. Abas Goodarzi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2018-02-05
ISBN 10 : 1119063647
Pages : 560 pages

The why, what and how of the electric vehicle powertrain Empowers engineering professionals and students with the knowledge and skills required to engineer electric vehicle powertrain architectures, energy storage systems, power electronics converters and electric drives. The modern electric powertrain is relatively new for the automotive industry, and engineers are challenged with designing affordable, efficient and high-performance electric powertrains as the industry undergoes a technological evolution. Co-authored by two electric vehicle (EV) engineers with decades of experience designing and putting into production all of the powertrain technologies presented, this book provides readers with the hands-on knowledge, skills and expertise they need to rise to that challenge. This four-part practical guide provides a comprehensive review of battery, hybrid and fuel cell EV systems and the associated energy sources, power electronics, machines, and drives. The first part of the book begins with a historical overview of electromobility and the related environmental impacts motivating the development of the electric powertrain. Vehicular requirements for electromechanical propulsion are then presented. Battery electric vehicles (BEV), fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), and conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are then described, contrasted and compared for vehicle propulsion. The second part of the book features in-depth analysis of the electric powertrain traction machines, with a particular focus on the induction machine and the surface- and interior-permanent magnet ac machines. The brushed dc machine is also considered due to its ease of operation and understanding, and its historical place, especially as the traction machine on NASA’s Mars rovers. The third part of the book features the theory and applications for the propulsion, charging, accessory, and auxiliary power electronics converters. Chapters are presented on isolated and non-isolated dc-dc converters, traction inverters, and battery charging. The fourth part presents the introductory and applied electromagnetism required as a foundation throughout the book. • Introduces and holistically integrates the key EV powertrain technologies. • Provides a comprehensive overview of existing and emerging automotive solutions. • Provides experience-based expertise for vehicular and powertrain system and sub-system level study, design, and optimization. • Presents many examples of powertrain technologies from leading manufacturers. • Discusses the dc traction machines of the Mars rovers, the ultimate EVs from NASA. • Investigates the environmental motivating factors and impacts of electromobility. • Presents a structured university teaching stream from introductory undergraduate to postgraduate. • Includes real-world problems and assignments of use to design engineers, researchers, and students alike. • Features a companion website with numerous references, problems, solutions, and practical assignments. • Includes introductory material throughout the book for the general scientific reader. • Contains essential reading for government regulators and policy makers. Electric Powertrain: Energy Systems, Power Electronics and Drives for Hybrid, Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles is an important professional resource for practitioners and researchers in the battery, hybrid, and fuel cell EV transportation industry. The book is a structured holistic textbook for the teaching of the fundamental theories and applications of energy sources, power electronics, and electric machines and drives to engineering undergraduate and postgraduate students. Textbook Structure and Suggested Teaching Curriculum This is primarily an engineering textbook covering the automotive powertrain, energy storage and energy conversion, power electronics, and electrical machines. A significant additional focus is placed on the engineering design, the energy for transportation, and the related environmental impacts. This textbook is an educational tool for practicing engineers and others, such as transportation policy planners and regulators. The modern automobile is used as the vehicle upon which to base the theory and applications, which makes the book a useful educational reference for our industry colleagues, from chemists to engineers. This material is also written to be of interest to the general reader, who may have little or no interest in the power electronics and machines. Introductory science, mathematics, and an inquiring mind suffice for some chapters. The general reader can read the introduction to each of the chapters and move to the next as soon as the material gets too advanced for him or her. Part I Vehicles and Energy Sources Chapter 1 Electromobility and the Environment Chapter 2 Vehicle Dynamics Chapter 3 Batteries Chapter 4 Fuel Cells Chapter 5 Conventional and Hybrid Powertrains Part II Electrical Machines Chapter 6 Introduction to Traction Machines Chapter 7 The Brushed DC Machine Chapter 8 Induction Machines Chapter 9 Surface-permanent-magnet AC Machines Chapter 10: Interior-permanent-magnet AC Machines Part III Power Electronics Chapter 11 DC-DC Converters Chapter 12 Isolated DC-DC Converters Chapter 13 Traction Drives and Three-phase Inverters Chapter 14 Battery Charging Chapter 15 Control of the Electric Drive Part IV Basics Chapter 16 Introduction to Electromagnetism, Ferromagnetism, and Electromechanical Energy Conversion The first third of the book (Chapters 1 to 6), plus parts of Chapters 14 and 16, can be taught to the general science or engineering student in the second or third year. It covers the introductory automotive material using basic concepts from mechanical, electrical, environmental, and electrochemical engineering. Chapter 14 on electrical charging and Chapter 16 on electromagnetism can also be used as a general introduction to electrical engineering. The basics of electromagnetism, ferromagnetism and electromechanical energy conversion (Chapter 16) and dc machines (Chapter 7) can be taught to second year (sophomore) engineering students who have completed introductory electrical circuits and physics. The third year (junior) students typically have covered ac circuit analysis, and so they can cover ac machines, such as the induction machine (Chapter 8) and the surface permanent-magnet ac machine (Chapter 9). As the students typically have studied control theory, they can investigate the control of the speed and torque loops of the motor drive (Chapter 15). Power electronics, featuring non-isolated buck and boost converters (Chapter 11), can also be introduced in the third year. The final-year (senior) students can then go on to cover the more advanced technologies of the interior-permanent-magnet ac machine (Chapter 10). Isolated power converters (Chapter 12), such as the full-bridge and resonant converters, inverters (Chapter 13), and power-factor-corrected battery chargers (Chapter 14), are covered in the power electronics section. This material can also be covered at the introductory postgraduate level. Various homework, simulation, and research exercises are presented throughout the textbook. The reader is encouraged to attempt these exercises as part of the learning experience. Instructors are encouraged to contact the author, John Hayes, direct to discuss course content or structure.

Greenhouse Gases
Author : Bernardo Llamas,Juan Pous
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2016-03-30
ISBN 10 : 9535122738
Pages : 316 pages

Sustainability should be a key component of every process, safeguarding resources and reserves for future generations. This book shows how a responsible use of resources is possible, offering valid technological alternatives to fight climate change. We offer current technologies and valid methods for a wide range of activities: teaching, investigation, work, business and even daily life. We encourage all our readers to join us and become part of the solution to climate change, rather than the problem. After reading this book, we are certain that you will find justified reasons to start your own personal and social awareness campaign in favour of these effective technologies against climate change.

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance
Author : Richard Folkson
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-03-19
ISBN 10 : 0857097423
Pages : 784 pages

Most vehicles run on fossil fuels, and this presents a major emissions problem as demand for fuel continues to increase. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies gives an overview of key developments in advanced fuels and vehicle technologies to improve the energy efficiency and environmental impact of the automotive sector. Part I considers the role of alternative fuels such as electricity, alcohol, and hydrogen fuel cells, as well as advanced additives and oils, in environmentally sustainable transport. Part II explores methods of revising engine and vehicle design to improve environmental performance and fuel economy. It contains chapters on improvements in design, aerodynamics, combustion, and transmission. Finally, Part III outlines developments in electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, and provides an overview of the benefits and limitations of these vehicles in terms of their environmental impact, safety, cost, and design practicalities. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies is a standard reference for professionals, engineers, and researchers in the automotive sector, as well as vehicle manufacturers, fuel system developers, and academics with an interest in this field. Provides a broad-ranging review of recent research into advanced fuels and vehicle technologies that will be instrumental in improving the energy efficiency and environmental impact of the automotive sector Reviews the development of alternative fuels, more efficient engines, and powertrain technologies, as well as hybrid and electric vehicle technologies

Fuel Cells
Author : Detlef Stolten,Remzi C. Samsun,Nancy Garland
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2016-01-11
ISBN 10 : 3527693912
Pages : 408 pages

This ready reference is unique in collating in one scientifically precise and comprehensive handbook the widespread data on what is feasible and realistic in modern fuel cell technology. Edited by one of the leading scientists in this exciting area, the short, uniformly written chapters provide economic data for cost considerations and a full overview of demonstration data, covering such topics as fuel cells for transportation, fuel provision, codes and standards. The result is highly reliable facts and figures for engineers, researchers and decision makers working in the field of fuel cells.

Der Antrieb von morgen 2017
Author : Johannes Liebl
Publisher : Springer-Verlag
Release Date : 2017-09-19
ISBN 10 : 3658192240
Pages : 282 pages

Der inhaltliche Schwerpunkt des Tagungsbands zur ATZlive-Veranstaltung "Der Antrieb von morgen" liegt beim Paradigmenwechsel durch künftig immer strengere Gesetze zu CO2-Emissionen sowie neu gestaltete, anspruchsvollere Prüfzyklen in Labors und realen Fahrsituationen. Die Elektrifizierung schreitet weiter voran. Antriebsstränge müssen noch stärker im Systemverbund Verbrennungsmotor, Getriebe und Elektrifizierung ausgelegt werden. Thematisch wird der Fokus auf die Antriebssynthese gelegt, während Komponenten und deren Fahrzeugintegration die Basis bilden.

Technologies and Applications for Fuel Cell, Plug-In Hybrid, and Electric Vehicles
Author : Antonio Colmenar Santos
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2018-12-27
ISBN 10 : 9781536143737
Pages : 214 pages

This book develops a novel and simple, yet rigorous methodology that, by means of basic techniques and tools available to any engineer, enables the study of solar concentrator performance parameter scattering on the control of the solar field outlet temperature. Several simulations are performed considering a realistic solar field comprised of a large set of solar collectors with slight differences in performance. Sets of scattered parameter distributions are randomly assigned to the collectors in the solar field. Sensitivity analysis of solar field behavior is then performed in terms of the distribution of the performance parameters of the solar collectors, followed by a comparison between different configurations of the solar field according to the number of subfields. The latter is of great interest in order to evaluate the effect of a subfield number on the ability of the solar field's operator to control the temperature of the solar field when a flow control valve is not available in each loop. As a special feature, this book proposes a new model for characterizing the energetic behavior of grid connected PV inverters. The model has been obtained from a detailed study of the main loss processes in small size PV inverters in the market. The main advantage of the used method is to obtain a model that comprises two antagonistic features, since both are simple, easy to compute and apply, and accurate. One of the main features of this model is how it handles the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and its efficiency: Concerning both parts, the model uses the same approach and is achieved by two resistive elements which simulate the losses inherent to each parameter. This makes this model easy to implement, compact and refine. The model presented here also includes other parameters, such as the start threshold, standby consumption and islanding behavior. As an example, the model has been implemented in the PSPICE electronic simulator, and this approach has been used to teach grid-connected PV systems. The use of this model for the maintenance of working PV facilities is also shown.

Electric Vehicle Technology Explained
Author : James Larminie,John Lowry
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-09-17
ISBN 10 : 111994273X
Pages : 340 pages

Hybrid, Electric, and Fuel-Cell Vehicles
Author : Jack Erjavec
Publisher : Nelson Education
Release Date : 2012-06-06
ISBN 10 : 1285415051
Pages : 400 pages

HYBRID, ELECTRIC AND FUEL-CELL VEHICLES, Second Edition, covers the cutting-edge technology and technology that are revolutionizing today’s automotive industry. Author Jack Erjavec combines in-depth industry expertise with an engaging, reader-friendly style, providing extensive detail on new and upcoming electric vehicles, including hybrids in production today and the fuel cell vehicles of tomorrow. Expansive coverage ranges from basic theory related to vehicle construction, electricity, batteries, and motors, to the political and social impact of these high-profile vehicles. In addition to up-to-date, highly accurate technical information on vehicles available today—including service procedures and safe shop practices—the text provides an informed look into the future with material on vehicles currently under development. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Advances in Hydrogen Production, Storage and Distribution
Author : Adolfo Iulianelli,Angelo Basile
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-07-16
ISBN 10 : 0857097733
Pages : 574 pages

Advances in Hydrogen Production, Storage and Distribution reviews recent developments in this key component of the emerging "hydrogen economy," an energy infrastructure based on hydrogen. Since hydrogen can be produced without using fossil fuels, a move to such an economy has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. However, such a move also requires the advanced production, storage and usage techniques discussed in this book. Part one introduces the fundamentals of hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, including an overview of the development of the necessary infrastructure, an analysis of the potential environmental benefits, and a review of some important hydrogen production technologies in conventional, bio-based, and nuclear power plants. Part two focuses on hydrogen production from renewable resources, and includes chapters outlining the production of hydrogen through water electrolysis, photocatalysis, and bioengineered algae. Finally, part three covers hydrogen production using inorganic membrane reactors, the storage of hydrogen, fuel cell technology, and the potential of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation. Advances in Hydrogen Production, Storage and Distribution provides a detailed overview of the components and challenges of a hydrogen economy. This book is an invaluable resource for research and development professionals in the energy industry, as well as academics with an interest in this important subject. Reviews developments and research in this dynamic area Discusses the challenges of creating an infrastructure to store and distribute hydrogen Reviews the production of hydrogen using electrolysis and photo-catalytic methods

The Hydrogen Economy
Author : National Academy of Engineering,National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2004-09-05
ISBN 10 : 0309091632
Pages : 256 pages

The announcement of a hydrogen fuel initiative in the President’s 2003 State of the Union speech substantially increased interest in the potential for hydrogen to play a major role in the nation’s long-term energy future. Prior to that event, DOE asked the National Research Council to examine key technical issues about the hydrogen economy to assist in the development of its hydrogen R&D program. Included in the assessment were the current state of technology; future cost estimates; CO2 emissions; distribution, storage, and end use considerations; and the DOE RD&D program. The report provides an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel in the nation’s future energy economy and describes a number of important challenges that must be overcome if it is to make a major energy contribution. Topics covered include the hydrogen end-use technologies, transportation, hydrogen production technologies, and transition issues for hydrogen in vehicles.

19. Internationales Stuttgarter Symposium
Author : Michael Bargende,Hans-Christian Reuss,Andreas Wagner,Jochen Wiedemann
Publisher : Springer-Verlag
Release Date : 2019-05-24
ISBN 10 : 3658259396
Pages : 1411 pages

In einer sich rasant verändernden Welt sieht sich die Automobilindustrie fast täglichmit neuen Herausforderungen konfrontiert: Der problematischer werdende Rufdes Dieselmotors, verunsicherte Verbraucher durch die in der Berichterstattungvermischte Thematik der Stickoxid- und Feinstaubemissionen, zunehmendeKonkurrenz bei Elektroantrieben durch neue Wettbewerber, die immer schwierigerwerdende öffentlichkeitswirksame Darstellung, dass ein großer Unterschiedzwischen Prototypen, Kleinserien und einer wirklichen Großserienproduktion besteht.Dazu kommen noch die Fragen, wann die mit viel finanziellem Einsatz entwickeltenalternativen Antriebsformen tatsächlich einen Return of Invest erbringen, wer dienotwendige Ladeinfrastruktur für eine Massenmarkttauglichkeit der Elektromobilitätbauen und finanzieren wird und wie sich das alles auf die Arbeitsplätzeauswirken wird.Für die Automobilindustrie ist es jetzt wichtiger denn je, sich den Herausforderungenaktiv zu stellen und innovative Lösungen unter Beibehaltung des hohenQualitätsanspruchs der OEMs in Serie zu bringen. Die Hauptthemen sind hierbei,die Elektromobilität mit höheren Energiedichten und niedrigeren Kosten der Batterienvoranzutreiben und eine wirklich ausreichende standardisierte und zukunftssichereLadeinfrastruktur darzustellen, aber auch den Entwicklungspfad zum schadstofffreienund CO2-neutralen Verbrennungsmotor konsequent weiter zu gehen. Auch dasautomatisierte Fahren kann hier hilfreich sein, weil das Fahrzeugverhalten dann –im wahrsten Sinne des Wortes - kalkulierbarer wird.Dabei ist es für die etablierten Automobilhersteller strukturell nicht immer einfach,mit der rasanten Veränderungsgeschwindigkeit mitzuhalten. Hier haben Start-upseinen großen Vorteil: Ihre Organisationsstruktur erlaubt es, frische, unkonventionelleIdeen zügig umzusetzen und sehr flexibel zu reagieren. Schon heute werdenStart-ups gezielt gefördert, um neue Lösungen im Bereich von Komfort, Sicherheit,Effizienz und neuen Kundenschnittstellen zu finden. Neue Lösungsansätze,gepaart mit Investitionskraft und Erfahrungen, bieten neue Chancen auf dem Weg derElektromobilität, der Zukunft des Verbrennungsmotors und ganz allgemein für dasAuto der Zukunft.

Sustainable Mobility: Renewable Energies for Powering Fuel Cell Vehicles
Author : Raphael Edinger,Sanjay Kaul
Publisher : ABC-CLIO
Release Date : 2003-03-30
ISBN 10 : 0313053561
Pages : 144 pages

With energy consumption rising and with it our dependence on crude oil from politically uncertain regions, and faced with the threat to the environment from polluting emissions, it is becoming ever more evident that fuels from renewable resources are an increasingly attractive option to fossil fuels. Edinger and Kaul, like a growing number of other experts, hold the mobility of populations—transportation, in other words—responsposible for the rise in the rate of greenhouse gas emissions, a condition that can only get worse as less developed regions of the world emerge with their own needs and demands for mobility. What to do? Edinger and Kaul outline in sharp detail the shortcomings of current vehicular technologies and dominant fossil fuels. They present a careful, authoritative examination of innovative technologies that in their opinion have the best chance of combating dangerous reliance on conventional means of power, not only for transportation but other purposes as well. And they focus on special forms of fuel cell drive systems, with their high efficiencies and reduced consumptions, and on other emerging renewable technologies and their innovative, sustainable power sources—such as fuels from biomass and renewable electricity, a particularly promising source of energy for newly growing economies. Wide ranging in coverage, forthright in style, the book is an important review of how things are today, why they could get worse, but perhaps most importantly, what we can do about it.

Advances in Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles
Author : Bruno Scrosati,Jurgen Garche,Werner Tillmetz
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2015-05-25
ISBN 10 : 1782423982
Pages : 546 pages

Advances in Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles provides an in-depth look into the research being conducted on the development of more efficient batteries capable of long distance travel. The text contains an introductory section on the market for battery and hybrid electric vehicles, then thoroughly presents the latest on lithium-ion battery technology. Readers will find sections on battery pack design and management, a discussion of the infrastructure required for the creation of a battery powered transport network, and coverage of the issues involved with end-of-life management for these types of batteries. Provides an in-depth look into new research on the development of more efficient, long distance travel batteries Contains an introductory section on the market for battery and hybrid electric vehicles Discusses battery pack design and management and the issues involved with end-of-life management for these types of batteries

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee on Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2013-04-14
ISBN 10 : 0309268524
Pages : 394 pages

For a century, almost all light-duty vehicles (LDVs) have been powered by internal combustion engines operating on petroleum fuels. Energy security concerns about petroleum imports and the effect of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on global climate are driving interest in alternatives. Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels assesses the potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by 80 percent across the U.S. LDV fleet by 2050, relative to 2005. This report examines the current capability and estimated future performance and costs for each vehicle type and non-petroleum-based fuel technology as options that could significantly contribute to these goals. By analyzing scenarios that combine various fuel and vehicle pathways, the report also identifies barriers to implementation of these technologies and suggests policies to achieve the desired reductions. Several scenarios are promising, but strong, and effective policies such as research and development, subsidies, energy taxes, or regulations will be necessary to overcome barriers, such as cost and consumer choice.