from chlorine to chlorine 100 years of chemical and biological weapon developments

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One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare: Research, Deployment, Consequences
Author : Bretislav Friedrich,Dieter Hoffmann,Jürgen Renn,Florian Schmaltz,Martin Wolf
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-11-26
ISBN 10 : 3319516647
Pages : 408 pages
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This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. On April 22, 1915, the German military released 150 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium. Carried by a long-awaited wind, the chlorine cloud passed within a few minutes through the British and French trenches, leaving behind at least 1,000 dead and 4,000 injured. This chemical attack, which amounted to the first use of a weapon of mass destruction, marks a turning point in world history. The preparation as well as the execution of the gas attack was orchestrated by Fritz Haber, the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin-Dahlem. During World War I, Haber transformed his research institute into a center for the development of chemical weapons (and of the means of protection against them). Bretislav Friedrich and Martin Wolf (Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, the successor institution of Haber’s institute) together with Dieter Hoffmann, Jürgen Renn, and Florian Schmaltz (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science) organized an international symposium to commemorate the centenary of the infamous chemical attack. The symposium examined crucial facets of chemical warfare from the first research on and deployment of chemical weapons in WWI to the development and use of chemical warfare during the century hence. The focus was on scientific, ethical, legal, and political issues of chemical weapons research and deployment — including the issue of dual use — as well as the ongoing effort to control the possession of chemical weapons and to ultimately achieve their elimination. The volume consists of papers presented at the symposium and supplemented by additional articles that together cover key aspects of chemical warfare from 22 April 1915 until the summer of 2015.

A Survey of Chemical and Biological Warfare
Author : John Cookson,Judith Nottingham
Publisher : NYU Press
Release Date : 1969
ISBN 10 : 0853452237
Pages : 424 pages
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An in-depth analysis of nearly all chemical and biological weapons, their effects, and the politics surrounding their deployment.

Disarmament Forum
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2005
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons
Author : World Health Organization
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1970
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 132 pages
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A History of Chemical Warfare
Author : K. Coleman
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2005-05-23
ISBN 10 : 0230501834
Pages : 198 pages
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This book provides an analysis of the development and deployment of chemical weapons from 700BC to the present day. The First World War is examined in detail since it remains the most significant experience of the chemical threat, but the Second World War, and post-war conflicts are also evaluated. Additionally, protocols attempting to control the proliferation and use of chemical weapons are assessed. Finally, the book examines the threat (real and imagined) from a chemical warfare attack today by rationally assessing to what extent terrorist groups around the world are capable of making and using such weapons.

Chemical Warfare Toxicology
Author : Franz Worek,John Jenner,Horst Thiermann
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2016-05-04
ISBN 10 : 1782622411
Pages : 322 pages
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Despite ongoing efforts to prohibit the production, storage and use of chemical warfare agents recent world events highlight the enduring threat to the population from these agents. Research efforts in various countries have resulted in novel insights into chemical warfare toxicology that has enabled the development of new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of chemical warfare poisoning. This book provides an up-to-date treatise on the ongoing research into the toxicology of chemical warfare agents, the diagnosis and verification of exposure, and the pre- and post-exposure treatment of poisoning. Focussing on the fundamentals of the toxicology of nerve agents and vesicants, this book will give the reader a comprehensive overview of the many different aspects of chemical warfare agent toxicology. The text will appeal to toxicologists, biochemists and weapons specialists working in industry and academia, and anyone with an interest in chemical warfare toxicology or exposure.

Chemical and Biological Terrorism
Author : Committee on R&D Needs for Improving Civilian Medical Response to Chemical and Biological Terrorism Incidents,Institute of Medicine
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1999-02-26
ISBN 10 : 0309523141
Pages : 266 pages
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The threat of domestic terrorism today looms larger than ever. Bombings at the World Trade Center and Oklahoma City's Federal Building, as well as nerve gas attacks in Japan, have made it tragically obvious that American civilians must be ready for terrorist attacks. What do we need to know to help emergency and medical personnel prepare for these attacks? Chemical and Biological Terrorism identifies the R&D efforts needed to implement recommendations in key areas: pre-incident intelligence, detection and identification of chemical and biological agents, protective clothing and equipment, early recognition that a population has been covertly exposed to a pathogen, mass casualty decontamination and triage, use of vaccines and pharmaceuticals, and the psychological effects of terror. Specific objectives for computer software development are also identified. The book addresses the differences between a biological and chemical attack, the distinct challenges to the military and civilian medical communities, and other broader issues. This book will be of critical interest to anyone involved in civilian preparedness for terrorist attack: planners, administrators, responders, medical professionals, public health and emergency personnel, and technology designers and engineers.

The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare
Author : Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Publisher : Stockholm : Almqvist & Wiksell ; New York : Humanities Press
Release Date : 1971
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 6 pages
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Chemical/biological Warfare
Author : Julian Perry Robinson
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1974
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 34 pages
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The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: The rise of CB weapons, by J. P. Robinson
Author : Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1971
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons
Author : Organisation mondiale de la santé,WHO,World Health Organization Staff,World Health Organization,Julian Perry Robinson
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release Date : 2004-01-21
ISBN 10 : 9241546158
Pages : 340 pages
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This is the second edition of this publication which focuses on the public health aspects of the possible deliberate use of biological or chemical agents. Issues discussed include: the key principles for public health planning, risk assessment, hazard identification and evaluation, risk management strategies, and response planning as part of existing national emergency plans, disease surveillance and early warning systems, the national and international legal framework, and international sources of assistance. Technical annexes cover a range of issues including chemical agents, toxins, biological agents, principles of protection, precautions against the sabotage of drinking water, food and other products, information resources and the affiliation of WHO Member States to the international treaties on biological and chemical weapons.

War of Nerves
Author : Jonathan Tucker
Publisher : Anchor
Release Date : 2007-12-18
ISBN 10 : 0307430103
Pages : 496 pages
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In this important and revelatory book, Jonathan Tucker, a leading expert on chemical and biological weapons, chronicles the lethal history of chemical warfare from World War I to the present. At the turn of the twentieth century, the rise of synthetic chemistry made the large-scale use of toxic chemicals on the battlefield both feasible and cheap. Tucker explores the long debate over the military utility and morality of chemical warfare, from the first chlorine gas attack at Ypres in 1915 to Hitler’s reluctance to use nerve agents (he believed, incorrectly, that the U.S. could retaliate in kind) to Saddam Hussein’s gassing of his own people, and concludes with the emergent threat of chemical terrorism. Moving beyond history to the twenty-first century, War of Nerves makes clear that we are at a crossroads that could lead either to the further spread of these weapons or to their ultimate abolition.