forensic genetic approaches for the identification of human skeletal remains

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Forensic Genetic Approaches for Identification of Human Skeletal Remains
Author : Angie Ambers
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-03-01
ISBN 10 : 0128163690
Pages : 500 pages
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Forensic Genetic Approaches for Identification of Human Skeletal Remains: Challenges, Best Practices, and Emerging Technologies provides best practices on processing bone samples for DNA testing. The book outlines forensic genetics tools that are available for the identification of skeletal remains in contemporary casework and historical/archaeological investigations. Although the book focuses primarily on the use of DNA for direct identification or kinship analyses, it also highlights complementary disciplines often used in concert with genetic data to make positive identifications, such as forensic anthropology, forensic odontology, and forensic art/sculpting. Unidentified human remains are often associated with tragic events, such as fires, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, war conflicts, genocide, airline crashes, homicide, and human rights violations under oppressive totalitarian regimes. In these situations, extensive damage to soft tissues often precludes the use of such biological samples in the identification process. In contrast, bone material is the most resilient, viable sample type for DNA testing. DNA recovered from bone often is degraded and in low quantities due to the effects of human decomposition, environmental exposure, and the passage of time. The complexities of bone microstructure and its rigid nature make skeletal remains one of the most challenging sample types for DNA testing. Provides best practices on processing bone samples for DNA testing Presents detailed coverage of proper facilities design for skeletal remains processing, selection of optimal skeletal elements for DNA recovery, specialized equipment needed, preparation and cleaning of bone samples for DNA extraction, and more Highlights complementary disciplines often used in concert with genetic data to make positive identifications, such as forensic anthropology, forensic odontology, and forensic art/sculpting

Biological Affinity in Forensic Identification of Human Skeletal Remains
Author : Gregory E. Berg,Sabrina C Ta'ala
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-12-13
ISBN 10 : 1439815755
Pages : 334 pages
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Ancestry determination in the identification of unknown remains can be a challenge for forensic scientists and anthropologists, especially when the remains available for testing are limited. There are various techniques for the assessment of ancestry, ranging from traditional to new microbiological and computer-assisted methods. Biological Affinity in Forensic Identification of Human Skeletal Remains: Beyond Black and White presents a range of tools that can be used to identify the probable socio-cultural "race" category of unknown human remains. Gathering insight from those who have made recent improvements and scientific advances in the field, the book begins with the historical foundations of the concept of biological affinity and the need for increased research into methods for determining ancestry of skeletal remains. The contributors cover a range of topics, including: Ancestry estimation from the skull using morphoscopic and morphometric traits and variables Innovative methods from metric analyses of the postcrania, and new approaches to dental non-metric variation The biological diversity of Hispanic populations and use of discriminant function analysis and 3D-ID software to determine ancestry Methods of age progression and facial reconstructions to create two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) facial composites for missing people The preparation of skeletal remains for DNA extraction and sampling, and mtDNA methods that are available for identification of haplogroups (e.g., ancestral populations) No single method or technique is adequate in the assessment of ancestry. For accurate determinations, the use of traditional and new techniques combined yields better results. This book demonstrates the large repertoire of tools available to those tasked with these challenging determinations.

New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification
Author : Krista E. Latham,Eric J. Bartelink,Michael Finnegan
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2017-07-27
ISBN 10 : 0128125381
Pages : 374 pages
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New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification provides a comprehensive and up-to-date perspective on human identification methods in forensic anthropology. Divided into four distinct sections, the chapters will reflect recent advances in human skeletal identification, including statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile (sex, age, ancestry, stature), biochemical methods of identification (DNA analysis, stable isotope analysis, bomb curve analysis), and use of comparative radiography. The final section of this book highlights advances in human identification techniques that are being applied to international populations and disaster victims. The contributing authors represent established experts in forensic anthropology and closely related fields. New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification will be an essential resource for researchers, practitioners, and advanced students interested in state-of-the-art methods for human identification. A comprehensive and up-to-date volume on human identification methods in forensic anthropology Focuses on recent advances such as statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile, biochemical methods of identification and use of comparative radiography Includes an entire section on human identification techniques being applied to international populations and disaster victims

Recovery, Analysis, and Identification of Commingled Human Remains
Author : Bradley J. Adams,John E. Byrd
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2008-02-23
ISBN 10 : 9781597453165
Pages : 374 pages
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Commingling of human remains presents an added challenge to all phases of the forensic process. This book brings together tools from diverse sources within forensic science to offer a set of comprehensive approaches to handling commingled remains. It details the recovery of commingled remains in the field, the use of triage in the assessment of commingling, various analytical techniques for sorting and determining the number of individuals, the role of DNA in the overall process, ethical considerations, and data management. In addition, the book includes case examples that illustrate techniques found to be successful and those that proved problematic.

Forensic Anthropology
Author : Angi M. Christensen,Nicholas V. Passalacqua,Eric J. Bartelink
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-12-30
ISBN 10 : 0124172903
Pages : 464 pages
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Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice—winner of a 2015 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from The Text and Academic Authors Association—approaches forensic anthropology through an innovative style using current practices and real case studies drawn from the varied experiences, backgrounds, and practices of working forensic anthropologists. This text guides the reader through all aspects of human remains recovery and forensic anthropological analysis, presenting principles at a level that is appropriate for those new to the field, while at the same time incorporating evolutionary, biomechanical, and other theoretical foundations for the features and phenomena encountered in forensic anthropological casework. Attention is focused primarily on the most recent and scientifically valid applications commonly employed by working forensic anthropologists. Readers will therefore learn about innovative techniques in the discipline, and aspiring practitioners will be prepared by understanding the necessary background needed to work in the field today. Instructors and students will find Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice comprehensive, practical, and relevant to the modern discipline of forensic anthropology. Winner of a 2015 Most Promising New Textbook Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association Focuses on modern methods, recent advances in research and technology, and current challenges in the science of forensic anthropology Addresses issues of international relevance such as the role of forensic anthropology in mass disaster response and human rights investigations Includes chapter summaries, topicoriented case studies, keywords, and reflective questions to increase active student learning

Ortner's Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains
Author : Jane E. Buikstra
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-01-29
ISBN 10 : 0128099011
Pages : 858 pages
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Ortner's Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains, Third Edition, provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of the pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. As ancient skeletal remains can reveal a treasure trove of information to the modern orthopedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist, this book presents a timely resource. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, it provides an essential text and material on bone pathology, thus helping improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. Presents a comprehensive review of the skeletal diseases encountered in archaeological human remains Includes more than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal diseases, including both microscopic and gross features Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries Reviews important theoretical issues on how to interpret evidence of skeletal disease in archaeological human populations

New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification
Author : Krista E. Latham,Eric J. Bartelink,Michael Finnegan
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2017-07-27
ISBN 10 : 0128125381
Pages : 374 pages
GET BOOK!

New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification provides a comprehensive and up-to-date perspective on human identification methods in forensic anthropology. Divided into four distinct sections, the chapters will reflect recent advances in human skeletal identification, including statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile (sex, age, ancestry, stature), biochemical methods of identification (DNA analysis, stable isotope analysis, bomb curve analysis), and use of comparative radiography. The final section of this book highlights advances in human identification techniques that are being applied to international populations and disaster victims. The contributing authors represent established experts in forensic anthropology and closely related fields. New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification will be an essential resource for researchers, practitioners, and advanced students interested in state-of-the-art methods for human identification. A comprehensive and up-to-date volume on human identification methods in forensic anthropology Focuses on recent advances such as statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile, biochemical methods of identification and use of comparative radiography Includes an entire section on human identification techniques being applied to international populations and disaster victims

Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton
Author : Alexandra R. Klales
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-05-30
ISBN 10 : 0128157682
Pages : 424 pages
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Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton is a comprehensive work on the theory, methods, and current issues for sexing human skeletal remains. This work provides practitioners a starting point for research and practice on sex estimation to assist with the identification and analysis of human remains. It contains a collection of the latest scientific research, using metric and morphological methods, and contains case studies, where relevant, to highlight methodological application to real cases. This volume presents a truly comprehensive representation of the current state of sex estimation while also detailing the history and how we got to this point. Divided into three main sections, this reference text first provides an introduction to the book and to sex estimation overall, including a history, practitioner preferences, and a deeper understanding of biological sex. The second section addresses the main methodological areas used to estimate sex, including metric and morphological methods, statistical applications, and software. Each chapter topic provides a review of older techniques and emphasizes the latest research and methodological improvements. Chapters are written by practicing physical anthropologists and also include their latest research on the topics, as well as relevant case studies. The third section addresses current considerations and future directions for sex estimation in forensic and bioarchaeological contexts, including DNA, secular change, and medical imaging Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton is a one-of-a-kind resource for those involved in estimating the sex of human skeletal remains. Provides the first comprehensive text reference on sex estimation, with historical perspectives and current best practices Contains real case studies to underscore key estimation concepts Demonstrates the changing role of technology in sex estimation

Forensic Anthropology
Author : Sue Black,Eilidh Ferguson
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2011-02-07
ISBN 10 : 9781439845899
Pages : 427 pages
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Advances in our ability to analyse information from skeletal remains and subsequent developments in the field of forensic anthropology make it possible to identify more victims of homicides, mass-fatality disasters, and genocide. Summarizing the vast collection of international literature that has developed over the past decade, Forensic Anthropolo

Forensic Recovery of Human Remains
Author : Tosha L. Dupras,John J. Schultz,Sandra M. Wheeler,Lana J Williams
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2005-08-23
ISBN 10 : 1420037943
Pages : 256 pages
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An essential reference for both forensic experts and non-experts alike, Forensic Recovery of Human Remains: Archaeological Approaches is a comprehensive guide that focuses on the practical aspects of excavating and recovering human remains, along with any associated evidence, from crime scenes. It highlights the protocols and techniques that ar

DNA Fingerprinting: Approaches and Applications
Author : G. Dolf
Publisher : Birkhäuser
Release Date : 2013-03-08
ISBN 10 : 3034873123
Pages : 402 pages
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Although DNA fingerprinting is a very young branch of molecular genetics, being barely six years old, its recent impact on science, law and politics has been dramatic. The application of DNA finger printing to forensic and legal medicine has guaranteed a high public profile for this technology, and indeed, scarcely a week goes by with out the press reporting yet another crime successfully solved by molec ular genetics. Less spectacularly, but equally importantly, DNA typing methods are steadily diffusing into an ever wider set of applications and research fields, ranging from medicine through to conservation biology. To date, two DNA fingerprinting workshops have been held in the UK, one in 1988 organised by Terry Burke at the University of Leicester, and the second in 1989 at the University of Nottingham, co-ordinated by David Parkin. In parallel with these workshops, which have provided an important focus for researchers, Bill Amos and Josephine Pemberton in Cambridge have established an informal newsletter "Fingerprint News" which is playing a major role as a forum for DNA fingerprinters. By 1989, it was clear that the field had broadened sufficiently to warrant a full international meeting. As a result, Gaudenz Dolf took on the task of organising the first, of what I hope will be many, International Symposium of DNA Fingerprinting held at Bern during Ist-3rd October 1990. The success of the meeting can be judged from the remarkable attendance, with 270 delegates from no less than 30 countries.

Manual of Forensic Taphonomy
Author : James Pokines,Steven A. Symes
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2013-10-08
ISBN 10 : 1439878439
Pages : 496 pages
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Forensic taphonomy is the study of the postmortem changes to human remains, focusing largely on environmental effects including decomposition in soil and water and interaction with plants, insects, and other animals. While other books have focused on subsets such as forensic botany and entomology, Manual of Forensic Taphonomy is the first update of

The Use of Forensic Anthropology
Author : Robert B. Pickering,David Bachman
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2009-01-22
ISBN 10 : 9781420068788
Pages : 184 pages
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A forensic investigation requires a team of specialists from many different scientific fields of study along with legal and law enforcement specialists. In recent years, the range of cases on which forensic anthropologists have been consulted has expanded dramatically. The Use of Forensic Anthropology provides these professionals with guidelines for determining how to choose and when to use a forensic anthropologist. The book begins with a historical overview of the field of forensic anthropology, and then presents basic information about how to approach a forensic recovery site. When skeletal or severely decomposed remains are discovered, normal methods of identification such as facial recognition and fingerprinting are ineffective. This book offers insights on how to find the right professional to assist with these difficult cases. One of the key features is a chapter which presents a series of ten questions that must be answered, in order, about each case. Using this checklist will ensure the team working on the case that no stone is left unturned. Later chapters examine the relevance of race, ethnicity, and ancestry, determination of time of death, new investigation techniques, DNA, and categories of trauma. The final chapter brings the various parts of the process together to reconstruct a case. The first responder to a scene with skeletal remains and the law enforcement agencies who become involved will likely be confronted with evidence that they cannot interpret. This volume provides a bridge for these professionals, enabling them to develop a standard protocol for investigating skeletal remains, highlighting important questions that must be answered, and assisting them in finding the right forensic anthropologist to solve the puzzle of an unexplained death.

FORENSIC OSTEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
Author : Scott I. Fairgrieve
Publisher : Charles C Thomas Publisher
Release Date : 1999-01-01
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 364 pages
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This timely volume on case studies in forensic osteology with background information on how osteological analysis is applied to human/faunal remains found in legal contexts is primarily designed for students of forensic anthropology/osteology who have a background in human anatomy and/or osteology. It also will be of interest to those individuals lacking this background and who may very well want to read the book for its many case studies. Although many journals publish case reports, there are instances when a more detailed and full description of circumstances are warranted. Further, beginning students initially require a more thorough treatment of the thinking behind the application of analytical techniques; an important aspect that may not be covered in the professional literature. Based on the foregoing, the premise of this book is that each case has a unique quality and thus presents unique problems for the analyst to approach. It is important for the reader to understand the limits for forensic osteology by examining not only its successes but also its failures. This book presents this type of information. The chapters appear as follows: Forensic Osteological Analysis: An Introduction; Of Beasts and Humans: A Case of Recognition; Identification of Human Skeletal Remains: Was He a She or She a He?; Sex Determination: XX or XY from the Human Skeleton; Identification of a Missing Person Using Biomechanical and DNA Analysis: A Case Study; DISH Rats and a Rolex; Death on the Danforth; The Identification of the Remains of Don Francisco Pizarro; Clinkers on the Little Bighorn Battlefield: In Situ Investigation of Scattered Recent Cremains; The Wrong Urn: Commingling of Cremains in Mortuary Practices; Cremated Remains and Expert Testimony in a Homicide Case; An Anthropological Investigation of a Rural Homicide Scene; Forensic Osteology of Strangulation; Pathological Changes on Human Skeletal Remains: Before, During or After?; Unusual Skeletal Anomalies and Pathologies in Forensic Casework; Biker's Bones: An Avocational Syndrome; Identity Crisis: Two Case Studies -- Success and Failure in Personal Identification Determination; Mass Disasters: Comments and Discussion Regarding the Hinton Train Collision of 1986; The Role of Forensic Anthropology in Human Rights Issues; and Forensic Entomology: The Use of Insects in Death Investigations.

Forensic DNA Applications
Author : Dragan Primorac,Moses Schanfield
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-01-29
ISBN 10 : 1466580232
Pages : 647 pages
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Forensic DNA Applications: An Interdisciplinary Perspective was developed as an outgrowth of a conference held by the International Society of Applied Biological Sciences. The topic was human genome based applications in forensic science, anthropology, and individualized medicine. Assembling the contributions of contributors from numerous regions a

Forensic Anthropology and Medicine
Author : Aurore Schmitt
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-11-09
ISBN 10 : 1597450995
Pages : 480 pages
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Recent political, religious, ethnic, and racial conflicts, as well as mass disasters, have significantly helped to bring to light the almost unknown dis- pline of forensic anthropology. This science has become particularly useful to forensic pathologists because it aids in solving various puzzles, such as id- tifying victims and documenting crimes. On topics such as mass disasters and crimes against humanity, teamwork between forensic pathologists and for- sic anthropologists has significantly increased over the few last years. This relationship has also improved the study of routine cases in local medicolegal institutes. When human remains are badly decomposed, partially skelet- ized, and/or burned, it is particularly useful for the forensic pathologist to be assisted by a forensic anthropologist. It is not a one-way situation: when the forensic anthropologist deals with skeletonized bodies that have some kind of soft tissue, the advice of a forensic pathologist would be welcome. Forensic anthropology is a subspecialty/field of physical anthropology. Most of the background on skeletal biology was gathered on the basis of sk- etal remains from past populations. Physical anthropologists then developed an indisputable “know-how”; nevertheless, one must keep in mind that looking for a missing person or checking an assumed identity is quite a different matter. Pieces of information needed by forensic anthropologists require a higher level of reliability and accuracy than those granted in a general archaeological c- text. To achieve a positive identification, findings have to match with e- dence, particularly when genetic identification is not possible.

Forensic Science and Humanitarian Action
Author : Roberto C. Parra,Sara C. Zapico,Douglas H. Ubelaker
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2020-01-22
ISBN 10 : 111948202X
Pages : 896 pages
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Widens traditional concepts of forensic science to include humanitarian, social, and cultural aspects Using the preservation of the dignity of the deceased as its foundation, Forensic Science and Humanitarian Action: Interacting with the Dead and the Living is a unique examination of the applications of humanitarian forensic science. Spanning two comprehensive volumes, the text is sufficiently detailed for forensic practitioners, yet accessible enough for non-specialists, and discusses both the latest technologies and real-world interactions. Arranged into five sections, this book addresses the ‘management of the dead’ across five major areas in humanitarian forensic science. Volume One presents the first three of these areas: History, Theory, Practice, and Legal Foundation; Basic Forensic Information to Trace Missing Persons; and Stable Isotopes Forensics. Topics covered include: Protection of The Missing and the Dead Under International Law Social, Cultural and Religious Factors in Humanitarian Forensic Science Posthumous Dignity and the Importance in Returning Remains of the Deceased The New Disappeared – Migration and Forensic Science Stable Isotope Analysis in Forensic Anthropology Volume Two covers two further areas of interest: DNA Analysis and the Forensic Identification Process. It concludes with a comprehensive set of case studies focused on identifying the deceased, and finding missing persons from around the globe, including: Forensic Human Identification from an Australian Perspective Skeletal Remains and Identification Processing at the FBI Migrant Deaths along the Texas/Mexico Border Humanitarian Work in Cyprus by The Committee on Missing Persons (CMP) Volcán De Fuego Eruption – Natural Disaster Response from Guatemala Drawing upon a wide range of contributions from respected academics working in the field, Forensic Science and Humanitarian Action is a unique reference for forensic practitioners, communities of humanitarian workers, human rights defenders, and government and non-governmental officials.

Forensic Human Identification
Author : Tim Thompson,Sue Black
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2006-11-14
ISBN 10 : 1420005715
Pages : 544 pages
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Identity theft, criminal investigations of the dead or missing, mass disasters both by natural causes and by criminal intent with this as our day to day reality, the establishment and verification of human identity has never been more important or more prominent in our society. Maintaining and protecting the integrity of out identity has reached

A Companion to Forensic Anthropology
Author : Dennis Dirkmaat
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-03-19
ISBN 10 : 1118255410
Pages : 600 pages
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A Companion to Forensic Anthropology presents the most comprehensive assessment of the philosophy, goals, and practice of forensic anthropology currently available, with chapters by renowned international scholars and experts. Highlights the latest advances in forensic anthropology research, as well as the most effective practices and techniques used by professional forensic anthropologists in the field Illustrates the development of skeletal biological profiles and offers important new evidence on statistical validation of these analytical methods. Evaluates the goals and methods of forensic archaeology, including the preservation of context at surface-scattered remains, buried bodies and fatal fire scenes, and recovery and identification issues related to large-scale mass disaster scenes and mass grave excavation.

Research Methods in Human Skeletal Biology
Author : Elizabeth A. DiGangi,Megan K. Moore
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2012
ISBN 10 : 0123851890
Pages : 552 pages
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Research Methods in Human Skeletal Biology serves as the one location readers can go to not only learn how to conduct research in general, but how research is specifically conducted within human skeletal biology. It outlines the current types of research being conducted within each sub-specialty of skeletal biology, and gives the reader the tools to set up a research project in skeletal biology. It also suggests several ideas for potential projects. Each chapter has an inclusive bibliography, which can serve as a good jumpstart for project references. Provides a step-by-step guide to conducting research in human skeletal biology Covers diverse topics (sexing, aging, stature and ancestry estimation) and new technologies (histology, medical imaging, and geometric morphometrics) Excellent accompaniment to existing forensic anthropology or osteology works