forensic genetic approaches for the identification of human skeletal remains

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Forensic Genetic Approaches for Identification of Human Skeletal Remains
Author : Angie Ambers
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-03-15
ISBN 10 : 9780128157664
Pages : 500 pages
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Forensic Genetic Approaches for Identification of Human Skeletal Remains: Challenges, Best Practices, and Emerging Technologies provides best practices on processing bone samples for DNA testing. The book outlines forensic genetics tools that are available for the identification of skeletal remains in contemporary casework and historical/archaeological investigations. Although the book focuses primarily on the use of DNA for direct identification or kinship analyses, it also highlights complementary disciplines often used in concert with genetic data to make positive identifications, such as forensic anthropology, forensic odontology, and forensic art/sculpting. Unidentified human remains are often associated with tragic events, such as fires, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, war conflicts, genocide, airline crashes, homicide, and human rights violations under oppressive totalitarian regimes. In these situations, extensive damage to soft tissues often precludes the use of such biological samples in the identification process. In contrast, bone material is the most resilient, viable sample type for DNA testing. DNA recovered from bone often is degraded and in low quantities due to the effects of human decomposition, environmental exposure, and the passage of time. The complexities of bone microstructure and its rigid nature make skeletal remains one of the most challenging sample types for DNA testing. Provides best practices on processing bone samples for DNA testing Presents detailed coverage of proper facilities design for skeletal remains processing, selection of optimal skeletal elements for DNA recovery, specialized equipment needed, preparation and cleaning of bone samples for DNA extraction, and more Highlights complementary disciplines often used in concert with genetic data to make positive identifications, such as forensic anthropology, forensic odontology, and forensic art/sculpting

New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification
Author : Krista E. Latham,Eric J. Bartelink,Michael Finnegan
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2017-07-27
ISBN 10 : 0128125381
Pages : 374 pages
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New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification provides a comprehensive and up-to-date perspective on human identification methods in forensic anthropology. Divided into four distinct sections, the chapters will reflect recent advances in human skeletal identification, including statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile (sex, age, ancestry, stature), biochemical methods of identification (DNA analysis, stable isotope analysis, bomb curve analysis), and use of comparative radiography. The final section of this book highlights advances in human identification techniques that are being applied to international populations and disaster victims. The contributing authors represent established experts in forensic anthropology and closely related fields. New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification will be an essential resource for researchers, practitioners, and advanced students interested in state-of-the-art methods for human identification. A comprehensive and up-to-date volume on human identification methods in forensic anthropology Focuses on recent advances such as statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile, biochemical methods of identification and use of comparative radiography Includes an entire section on human identification techniques being applied to international populations and disaster victims

Biological Affinity in Forensic Identification of Human Skeletal Remains
Author : Gregory E. Berg,Sabrina C Ta'ala
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-12-13
ISBN 10 : 1439815755
Pages : 334 pages
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Ancestry determination in the identification of unknown remains can be a challenge for forensic scientists and anthropologists, especially when the remains available for testing are limited. There are various techniques for the assessment of ancestry, ranging from traditional to new microbiological and computer-assisted methods. Biological Affinity in Forensic Identification of Human Skeletal Remains: Beyond Black and White presents a range of tools that can be used to identify the probable socio-cultural "race" category of unknown human remains. Gathering insight from those who have made recent improvements and scientific advances in the field, the book begins with the historical foundations of the concept of biological affinity and the need for increased research into methods for determining ancestry of skeletal remains. The contributors cover a range of topics, including: Ancestry estimation from the skull using morphoscopic and morphometric traits and variables Innovative methods from metric analyses of the postcrania, and new approaches to dental non-metric variation The biological diversity of Hispanic populations and use of discriminant function analysis and 3D-ID software to determine ancestry Methods of age progression and facial reconstructions to create two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) facial composites for missing people The preparation of skeletal remains for DNA extraction and sampling, and mtDNA methods that are available for identification of haplogroups (e.g., ancestral populations) No single method or technique is adequate in the assessment of ancestry. For accurate determinations, the use of traditional and new techniques combined yields better results. This book demonstrates the large repertoire of tools available to those tasked with these challenging determinations.

Recovery, Analysis, and Identification of Commingled Human Remains
Author : Bradley J. Adams,John E. Byrd
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2008-02-23
ISBN 10 : 9781597453165
Pages : 374 pages
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Commingling of human remains presents an added challenge to all phases of the forensic process. This book brings together tools from diverse sources within forensic science to offer a set of comprehensive approaches to handling commingled remains. It details the recovery of commingled remains in the field, the use of triage in the assessment of commingling, various analytical techniques for sorting and determining the number of individuals, the role of DNA in the overall process, ethical considerations, and data management. In addition, the book includes case examples that illustrate techniques found to be successful and those that proved problematic.

Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton
Author : Alexandra R. Klales
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-05-30
ISBN 10 : 0128157682
Pages : 424 pages
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Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton is a comprehensive work on the theory, methods, and current issues for sexing human skeletal remains. This work provides practitioners a starting point for research and practice on sex estimation to assist with the identification and analysis of human remains. It contains a collection of the latest scientific research, using metric and morphological methods, and contains case studies, where relevant, to highlight methodological application to real cases. This volume presents a truly comprehensive representation of the current state of sex estimation while also detailing the history and how we got to this point. Divided into three main sections, this reference text first provides an introduction to the book and to sex estimation overall, including a history, practitioner preferences, and a deeper understanding of biological sex. The second section addresses the main methodological areas used to estimate sex, including metric and morphological methods, statistical applications, and software. Each chapter topic provides a review of older techniques and emphasizes the latest research and methodological improvements. Chapters are written by practicing physical anthropologists and also include their latest research on the topics, as well as relevant case studies. The third section addresses current considerations and future directions for sex estimation in forensic and bioarchaeological contexts, including DNA, secular change, and medical imaging Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton is a one-of-a-kind resource for those involved in estimating the sex of human skeletal remains. Provides the first comprehensive text reference on sex estimation, with historical perspectives and current best practices Contains real case studies to underscore key estimation concepts Demonstrates the changing role of technology in sex estimation

Forensic Recovery of Human Remains
Author : Tosha L. Dupras,John J. Schultz,Sandra M. Wheeler,Lana J Williams
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2011-10-27
ISBN 10 : 1439850305
Pages : 398 pages
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This reference, now in its second edition, is a comprehensive guide that focuses on the practical aspects of excavating and recovering human remains, as well as any associated evidence, from crime scenes. It highlights the protocols and techniques that are used to successfully survey, map, recover, document, collect, and transport evidence. New additions to the reference include discussion questions and suggested readings, updated mapping and measuring techniques, including a section on GIS and backpack differential GPS systems, expanded information on botany, DNA, and soil, and non-forensic burial contexts. Almost 200 illustrations are included to help clarify concepts.

Forensic Anthropology and Medicine
Author : Aurore Schmitt
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-11-09
ISBN 10 : 1597450995
Pages : 480 pages
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Recent political, religious, ethnic, and racial conflicts, as well as mass disasters, have significantly helped to bring to light the almost unknown dis- pline of forensic anthropology. This science has become particularly useful to forensic pathologists because it aids in solving various puzzles, such as id- tifying victims and documenting crimes. On topics such as mass disasters and crimes against humanity, teamwork between forensic pathologists and for- sic anthropologists has significantly increased over the few last years. This relationship has also improved the study of routine cases in local medicolegal institutes. When human remains are badly decomposed, partially skelet- ized, and/or burned, it is particularly useful for the forensic pathologist to be assisted by a forensic anthropologist. It is not a one-way situation: when the forensic anthropologist deals with skeletonized bodies that have some kind of soft tissue, the advice of a forensic pathologist would be welcome. Forensic anthropology is a subspecialty/field of physical anthropology. Most of the background on skeletal biology was gathered on the basis of sk- etal remains from past populations. Physical anthropologists then developed an indisputable “know-how”; nevertheless, one must keep in mind that looking for a missing person or checking an assumed identity is quite a different matter. Pieces of information needed by forensic anthropologists require a higher level of reliability and accuracy than those granted in a general archaeological c- text. To achieve a positive identification, findings have to match with e- dence, particularly when genetic identification is not possible.

Ortner's Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains
Author : Jane E. Buikstra
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-01-29
ISBN 10 : 0128099011
Pages : 858 pages
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Ortner's Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains, Third Edition, provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of the pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. As ancient skeletal remains can reveal a treasure trove of information to the modern orthopedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist, this book presents a timely resource. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, it provides an essential text and material on bone pathology, thus helping improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. Presents a comprehensive review of the skeletal diseases encountered in archaeological human remains Includes more than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal diseases, including both microscopic and gross features Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries Reviews important theoretical issues on how to interpret evidence of skeletal disease in archaeological human populations

Crime Laboratory Digest
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1993
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Forensic DNA Applications
Author : Dragan Primorac,Moses Schanfield
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-01-29
ISBN 10 : 1466580232
Pages : 647 pages
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Forensic DNA Applications: An Interdisciplinary Perspective was developed as an outgrowth of a conference held by the International Society of Applied Biological Sciences. The topic was human genome based applications in forensic science, anthropology, and individualized medicine. Assembling the contributions of contributors from numerous regions a

Research Methods in Human Skeletal Biology
Author : Elizabeth A. DiGangi,Megan K. Moore
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2012
ISBN 10 : 0123851890
Pages : 552 pages
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Research Methods in Human Skeletal Biology serves as the one location readers can go to not only learn how to conduct research in general, but how research is specifically conducted within human skeletal biology. It outlines the current types of research being conducted within each sub-specialty of skeletal biology, and gives the reader the tools to set up a research project in skeletal biology. It also suggests several ideas for potential projects. Each chapter has an inclusive bibliography, which can serve as a good jumpstart for project references. Provides a step-by-step guide to conducting research in human skeletal biology Covers diverse topics (sexing, aging, stature and ancestry estimation) and new technologies (histology, medical imaging, and geometric morphometrics) Excellent accompaniment to existing forensic anthropology or osteology works

Forensic Human Identification
Author : Tim Thompson,Sue Black
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2006-11-14
ISBN 10 : 1420005715
Pages : 544 pages
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Identity theft, criminal investigations of the dead or missing, mass disasters both by natural causes and by criminal intent with this as our day to day reality, the establishment and verification of human identity has never been more important or more prominent in our society. Maintaining and protecting the integrity of out identity has reached