Food Process Engineering Principles and Data provides an overview of topics surrounding safety and quality in processing foods. The book covers a range of physical properties of foods, providing background information on the physical, chemical and engineering properties of foods to ensure food safety and perform engineering calculations. Chapters are self-contained, with comprehensive charts of food properties, making this unique a great reference for scientists who need a single, handy source of information. Written by an authority on the physical properties of foods and food engineering, this book is ideal for food scientists, technologists, manufacturers and processors. In addition, chemical engineers and biotechnologists will also benefit from the content of this comprehensive title. Thoroughly explores a collection of data on the physical properties of foods and food processing systems Presents background information on the chemical, physical and engineering properties of foods Includes comprehensive charts with data on food properties
A unique and interdisciplinary field, food processing must meet basic process engineering considerations such as material and energy balances, as well as the more specialized requirements of food acceptance, human nutrition, and food safety. Food engineering, therefore, is a field of major concern to university departments of food science, and chemical and biological engineering as well as engineers and scientists working in various food processing industries. Part of the notable CRC Press Contemporary Food Engineering series, Food Process Engineering Operations focuses on the application of chemical engineering unit operations to the handling, processing, packaging, and distribution of food products. Chapters 1 through 5 open the text with a review of the fundamentals of process engineering and food processing technology, with typical examples of food process applications. The body of the book then covers food process engineering operations in detail, including theory, process equipment, engineering operations, and application examples and problems. Based on the authors’ long teaching and research experience both in the US and Greece, this highly accessible textbook employs simple diagrams to illustrate the mechanism of each operation and the main components of the process equipment. It uses simplified calculations requiring only elementary calculus and offers realistic values of food engineering properties taken from the published literature and the authors’ experience. The appendix contains useful engineering data for process calculations, such as steam tables, engineering properties, engineering diagrams, and suppliers of process equipment. Designed as a one or two semester textbook for food science students, Food Process Engineering Operations examines the applications of process engineering fundamentals to food processing technology making it an important reference for students of chemical and biological engineering interested in food engineering, and for scientists, engineers, and technologists working in food processing industries.
This long awaited second edition of a popular textbook has a simple and direct approach to the diversity and complexity of food processing. It explains the principles of operations and illustrates them by individual processes. The new edition has been enlarged to include sections on freezing, drying, psychrometry, and a completely new section on mechanical refrigeration. All the units have been converted to SI measure. Each chapter contains unworked examples to help the student gain a grasp of the subject, and although primarily intended for the student food technologist or process engineer, this book will also be useful to technical workers in the food industry
Food Process Engineering: Safety Assurance and Complements pursues a logical sequence of coverage of industrial processing of food and raw material where safety and complementary issues are germane. Measures to guarantee food safety are addressed at start, and the most relevant intrinsic and extrinsic factors are reviewed, followed by description of unit operations that control microbial activity via the supply of heat supply or the removal of heat. Operations prior and posterior are presented, as is the case of handling, cleaning, disinfection and rinsing, and effluent treatment and packaging, complemented by a brief introduction to industrial utilities normally present in a food plant. Key Features: Overviews the technological issues encompassing properties of food products Provides comprehensive mathematical simulation of food processes Analyzes the engineering of foods at large, and safety and complementary operations in particular, with systematic derivation of all relevant formulae Discusses equipment features required by the underlying processes
Written for the upper level undergraduate, this updated book is also a solid reference for the graduate food engineering student and professional. This edition features the addition of sections on freezing, pumps, the use of chemical reaction kinetic date for thermal process optimization, and vacuum belt drying. New sections on accurate temperature measurements, microbiological inactivation curves, inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes, pasteurization, and entrainment are included, as are non-linear curve fitting and processes dependent on fluid film thickness. Other sections have been expanded.
"This book will offer a comprehensive account of the design of all major food processing systems, including both established and novel unit operations. The range of equipment available for any given process will be described, including the basic theoretical principles and modes of operation. Advantages and limitations of the equipment within various relevant parameters (such as size, processing time, cost and energy requirements) will be explained and schematic diagrams will be provided to show the stages of each process component in detail. The book also covers computer-aided design and control systems, cost considerations and cleaning and sanitation methods. Practical examples of process design scenarios will be included to help the reader in specifying and designing their own operations. All chapters will follow the following format:1. Purpose of unit operation2. What are the end products of the process?3. Process flow sheet, material and energy balances, and schematic diagram of the process and its components4. Basic theoretical principles and mode of operations.5. Different types of equipment available with their advantages and limitations. What are the parameters we need to know? For example, time, energy, size, and other factors.6. Empirical data and rules of thumb used to facilitate the various design calculations, simplified equations and shortcut methods.7. Simple equations, tables, and graphs to estimate the design parameters.8. Process control, operations and maintenance of the unit operations.9. Advanced levels of process design for complicated systems. Computer aided process/plant design.10. Cleaning and sanitation methods.11. Capital and operating cost for different size of the equipments.12. Summary and future needs.13. Worked out examples related to design"--
This is a new book on food process engineering which treats the principles of processing in a scientifically rigorous yet concise manner, and which can be used as a lead in to more specialized texts for higher study. It is equally relevant to those in the food industry who desire a greater understanding of the principles of the food processes with which they work. This text is written from a quantitative and mathematical perspective and is not simply a descriptive treatment of food processing. The aim is to give readers the confidence to use mathematical and quantitative analyses of food processes and most importantly there are a large number of worked examples and problems with solutions. The mathematics necessary to read this book is limited to elementary differential and integral calculus and the simplest kind of differential equation.
Food Processing: Principles and Applications is a comprehensive resource that explores the basic and applied aspects of food processing. It describes the physical, chemical, and microbiological basis for each method of preservation. Particular emphasis is placed on the application of three of the most universally used commercial processes: thermal processing, freezing, and dehydration. Thermal processing – perhaps the most widely used technology in the world – is examined in thorough discussions of the microbial basis of the process and on microbial destruction kinetics. Also described is the characterization of the heating behavior of foods and the equipment used for thermal processing. Low temperature preservation is also demonstrated with a focus on freezing. The fundamentals of the freezing process, and the techniques and equipment used in commercial freezing operations are also explained. The thermophysical properties and the modeling of freeze times are meticulously addressed in sequence. Aspects of dehydration are detailed from drying fundamentals to drying equipment, modeling, and storage stability. In the final section, separation processes are highlighted: evaporation, membrane processing, freeze concentration, extraction, and osmotic dehydration. This book is ideal for undergraduate students in food science who are taking courses in food processing. It is also a must have resource for food process engineers and researchers to forecast results of food processing methods.
Food engineering is a required class in food science programs, as outlined by the Institute for Food Technologists (IFT). The concepts and applications are also required for professionals in food processing and manufacturing to attain the highest standards of food safety and quality. The third edition of this successful textbook succinctly presents the engineering concepts and unit operations used in food processing, in a unique blend of principles with applications. The authors use their many years of teaching to present food engineering concepts in a logical progression that covers the standard course curriculum. Each chapter describes the application of a particular principle followed by the quantitative relationships that define the related processes, solved examples, and problems to test understanding. The subjects the authors have selected to illustrate engineering principles demonstrate the relationship of engineering to the chemistry, microbiology, nutrition and processing of foods. Topics incorporate both traditional and contemporary food processing operations.
This lab manual covers both principles and laboratory applications of food process engineering. * Complete step-by-step procedures for laboratory experiment * Thorough description of necessary equipment, including proper operating procedures * Work-out examples provided for important calculations (e.g., Poisson ratio, flex modulus, lethal rate, etc.) * Several computer simulation tests provided and information on use of computer spreadsheets is also provided * Each experiment is preceded by questions and objectives; each experiment followed by data analysis and interpretation for a complete treatment
Food Process Engineering and Technology, Third Edition combines scientific depth with practical usefulness, creating a tool for graduate students and practicing food engineers, technologists and researchers looking for the latest information on transformation and preservation processes and process control and plant hygiene topics. This fully updated edition provides recent research and developments in the area, features sections on elements of food plant design, an introductory section on the elements of classical fluid mechanics, a section on non-thermal processes, and recent technologies, such as freeze concentration, osmotic dehydration, and active packaging that are discussed in detail. Provides a strong emphasis on the relationship between engineering and product quality/safety Considers cost and environmental factors Presents a fully updated, adequate review of recent research and developments in the area Includes a new, full chapter on elements of food plant design Covers recent technologies, such as freeze concentration, osmotic dehydration, and active packaging that are discussed in detail
Ten years after the publication of the first edition of Fundamentals of Food Process Engineering, there have been significant changes in both food science education and the food industry itself. Students now in the food science curric ulum are generally better prepared mathematically than their counterparts two decades ago. The food science curriculum in most schools in the United States has split into science and business options, with students in the science option following the Institute of Food Technologists' minimum requirements. The minimum requirements include the food engineering course, thus students en rolled in food engineering are generally better than average, and can be chal lenged with more rigor in the course material. The food industry itself has changed. Traditionally, the food industry has been primarily involved in the canning and freezing of agricultural commodi ties, and a company's operations generally remain within a single commodity. Now, the industry is becoming more diversified, with many companies involved in operations involving more than one type of commodity. A number of for mulated food products are now made where the commodity connection becomes obscure. The ability to solve problems is a valued asset in a technologist, and often, solving problems involves nothing more than applying principles learned in other areas to the problem at hand. A principle that may have been commonly used with one commodity may also be applied to another commodity to produce unique products.
It has been nearly a decade since the third edition of Engineering Properties of Foods was published, and food structure/microstructure remains a subject of research interest. In fact, significant developments have taken place in the area of high pressure processing (HPP), which has been approved for pasteurization of food by the Food and Drug Administration. Kinetic data related to HPP have proven important for validation of pressure-assisted pasteurization. Due to these developments, three new chapters have been added to the Fourth Edition: Food Microstructure Analysis Glass Transition in Foods Kinetics and Process Design for High-Pressure Processing The text focuses on elucidating the engineering aspects of food properties and their variations, supplemented by representative data. Chapters have been updated and revised to include recent developments. The book presents data on physical, chemical, and biological properties, illustrating their relevance and practical importance. The topics range from surface properties, rheological properties, and thermal properties to thermodynamic, dielectric, and gas exchange properties. The chapters follow a consistent format for ease of use. Each chapter contains an introduction, food property definition, measurement procedure, modeling, representative data compilation, and applications.
Widely regarded as a standard work in its field, this book introduces the range of processing techniques that are used in food manufacturing. It explains the principles of each process, the processing equipment used, operating conditions and the effects of processing on micro-organisms that contaminate foods, the biochemical properties of foods and their sensory and nutritional qualities. The book begins with an overview of important basic concepts. It describes unit operations that take place at ambient temperature or involve minimum heating of foods. Subsequent chapters examine operations that heat foods to preserve them or alter their eating quality, and explore operations that remove heat from foods to extend their shelf life with minimal changes in nutritional quality or sensory characteristics. Finally, the book reviews post-processing operations, including packaging and distribution logistics. The third edition has been substantially rewritten, updated and extended to include the many developments in food technology that have taken place since the second edition was published in 2000. Nearly all unit operations have undergone significant developments, and these are reflected in the large amount of additional material in each chapter. In particular, advances in microprocessor control of equipment, ‘minimal’ processing technologies, genetic modification of foods, functional foods, developments in ‘active’ or ‘intelligent’ packaging, and storage and distribution logistics are described. Developments in technologies that relate to cost savings, environmental improvement or enhanced product quality are highlighted. Additionally, sections in each chapter on the impact of processing on food-borne micro-organisms are included for the first time.
Applying the proven success of modern process engineering economics to the food industry, Food Plant Economics considers the design and economic analysis of food preservation, food manufacturing, and food ingredients plants with regard to a number of representative food processes. Economic analysis of food plants requires the evaluation of quantitative data from the design and operation of food processes and processing plants. An accompanying CD-ROM includes prepared Excel spreadsheets for calculating various food plants scenarios by applying appropriate data regarding the cost of equipment and equipment sizing, material and energy balances, and plant operating costs. Beginning with a thorough background in the economics of a food plant, the first three chapters summarize recent advances in food process and research technology, the structure of the food system in the US and EU, and the principles of modern design in food processes, processing equipment, and processing plants. The second three chapters discuss process economics in relation to the food industry by applying the concepts of capital cost, operating cost, and cash flow to estimations of plant profitability. Detailed chapters cover estimations of capital investment and operating costs including statistical data, empirical models, and useful rules of thumb. The remaining three chapters apply the techniques of the previous discussions to food preservation plants such as concentration, canning, and dehydration; manufacturing plants including wine, bread, and yogurt; as well as ingredients plants that produce sugars and oils. A useful appendix contains a glossary, tables, conversions, nomenclature, food properties, and heat transfer coefficients. A practical and comprehensive treatment of process economics, Food Plant Economics provides a complete introduction to the application of this efficient technique to the food industry.
The mixing of liquids, solids and gases is one of the most commonunit operations in the food industry. Mixing increases thehomogeneity of a system by reducing non-uniformity or gradients incomposition, properties or temperature. Secondary objectives ofmixing include control of rates of heat and mass transfer,reactions and structural changes. In food processing applications,additional mixing challenges include sanitary design, complexrheology, desire for continuous processing and the effects ofmixing on final product texture and sensory profiles. Mixing ensures delivery of a product with constant properties. Forexample, consumers expect all containers of soups, breakfastcereals, fruit mixes, etc to contain the same amount of eachingredient. If mixing fails to achieve the requiredproduct yield, quality, organoleptic or functional attributes,production costs may increase significantly. This volume brings together essential information on theprinciples and applications of mixing within food processing. Whilethere are a number of creditable references covering generalmixing, such publications tend to be aimed at the chemical industryand so topics specific to food applications are often neglected.Chapters address the underlying principles of mixing, equipmentdesign, novel monitoring techniques and the numerical techniquesavailable to advance the scientific understanding of food mixing.Food mixing applications are described in detail. The book will be useful for engineers and scientists who need tospecify and select mixing equipment for specific processingapplications and will assist with the identification and solving ofthe wide range of mixing problems that occur in the food,pharmaceutical and bioprocessing industries. It will also be ofinterest to those who teach, study and research food science andfood engineering.
Nanotechnology offers great potential to revolutionize conventional food science and the food industry. The use of nanotechnology in the food industry promises improved taste, flavor, color, texture, and consistency of foodstuffs and increased absorption and bioavailability of nutraceuticals. Food Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications examines the current state of nanoscale phenomena and processes, benefits and risks of nanotechnology. This work contains 18 chapters particularly focused on the design, production, and utilization of nanoparticles, with specific applications for the food industry. Through several studies, it has been proven that nanotechnology can offer distinct advantages over conventional methods in terms of functionality, targeted delivery of food bioactive compounds, improved food quality characteristics like texture, taste, sensory attributes and improved stability in the gastrointestinal tract, and controlled release profiles. Features Offers clear and concise coverage on application of nanotechnology in nutrient delivery, food packaging, and pathogen/pesticide detection Addresses both the technological aspects of delivering nano-based food products and the societal implications that affect take-up Covers broad range of topics including nanoemulsification, electrospraying, nanocomposites, plasma processing, and nanosensors Discusses different formulation and preparation methods for loading food bioactive compounds Exploratory in nature, this book presents the latest of such data on all aspects of applications of nanotechnology in food systems. With its practical focus on the fabrication and application of nanotechnology in food, this book is a valuable resource for students, researchers, food process engineers.
The approach to teaching the concepts of food processing to the undergrad uate food science major has evolved over the past 40 years. In most under graduate food science curricula, food processing has been taught on a commodity basis. In many programs, several courses dealt with processing with emphasis on a different commodity, such as fruits and vegetables, dairy products, meat products, and eggs. In most situations, the emphasis was on the unique characteristics of the commodity and very little empha sis on the common elements associated with processing of the different commodities. Quite often the undergraduate student was allowed to select one or two courses from those offered in order to satisfy the minimum standards suggested by the Institute of Food Technologists. The current 1FT minimum standards suggest that the undergradu ate food science major be required to complete at least one food processing course. The description of this course is as follows: One course with lecture and laboratory which covers general characteristics of raw food materials, principles offood preserva tion, processing factors that influence quality, packaging, water and waste management, and sanitation. Prerequisites: general chemistry, physics, and general microbiology.
In the past ten years electronics and computer technologies have significantly pushed forward the progress of automation in the food industry. The application of these technologies to automation for food engineering will produce more nutritious, better quality, and safer items for consumers. Automation for Food Engineering: Food Quality Quantization and Process Control explores the usage of advanced methods, such as wavelet analysis and artificial neural networks, to automated food quality evaluation and process control. It introduces novel system prototypes, such as machine vision, elastography, and the electronic nose, for food quality measurement, analysis, and prediction. The book discusses advanced techniques, such as medical imaging, mathematical analysis, and statistical modeling, which have proven successful in food engineering. The authors use the characteristics of food processes to describe concepts, and they employ data from food engineering applications to explain the methods. To aid in the comprehension of technical information, they provide real-world examples and case studies from food engineering projects. The material covers the frameworks, techniques, designs, algorithms, tests and implementation of data acquisition, analysis, modeling, prediction, and control in automation for food engineering. It demonstrates the techniques for automation of food engineering, and helps you in the development of techniques for your own applications. Automation for Food Engineering: Food Quality Quantization and Process Control is the first and only book that gives a systematical study and summary about concepts, principles, methods, and practices in food quality quantization and process control.