|Author||: Eiichi Fukuyama|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2009-04-24|
|ISBN 10||: 9780080922461|
|Pages||: 336 pages|
The dynamics of the earthquake rupture process are closely related to fault zone properties which the authors have intensively investigated by various observations in the field as well as by laboratory experiments. These include geological investigation of the active and fossil faults, physical and chemical features obtained by the laboratory experiments, as well as the seismological estimation from seismic waveforms. Earthquake dynamic rupture can now be modeled using numerical simulations on the basis of field and laboratory observations, which should be very useful for understanding earthquake rupture dynamics. Features: * First overview of new and improved techniques in the study of earthquake faulting * Broad coverage * Full color Benefits: * A must-have for all geophysicists who work on earthquake dynamics * Single resource for all aspects of earthquake dynamics (from lab measurements to seismological observations to numerical modelling) * Bridges the disciplines of seismology, structural geology and rock mechanics * Helps readers to understand and interpret graphs and maps Also has potential use as a supplementary resource for upper division and graduate geophysics courses.
Why do earthquakes happen? What properties control the dynamic rupture and what are the processes at play? Chapters in the present volume capture the current state of the art by displaying an overview of the existing knowledge on the physics of dynamic faulting and promote multidisciplinary contributions on the observational and experimental fault fabric and mechanics, the evolution of fault zone physical and chemical properties, dynamic rupture processes and physically, and observationally, consistent numerical modeling of fault zone during seismic rupture. This volume examines questions such as: What are the dynamics processes recorded in fault gouge?What can we learn on rupture dynamic from laboratory experiments? How on-fault and off-fault properties affect seismic ruptures? How do they evolve trough time?Insights from physically, and observationally, consistent numerical modeling Fault Zone Dynamic Processes: Evolution of Fault Properties During Seismic Rupture is a valuable contribution for Earth s scientists, researchers and students interested in the earthquakes processes and properties of on-fault and off-fault zones. Its multidisciplinary content is relevant to a broad audience: structural geologist, experimentalists, rocks mechanicians, seismologist, geophysicists and modelers. (source: Nielsen Book Data ; 9781119156888 20170829) -- Publisher's summary.
|Author||: Luis A. Dalguer,Yoshimitsu Fukushima,Kojiro Irikura,Changjiang Wu|
|Release Date||: 2017-12-20|
|ISBN 10||: 3319727095|
|Pages||: 338 pages|
This volume collects several extended articles from the first workshop on Best Practices in Physics-based Fault Rupture Models for Seismic Hazard Assessment of Nuclear Installations (BestPSHANI). Held in 2015, the workshop was organized by the IAEA to disseminate the use of physics-based fault-rupture models for ground motion prediction in seismic hazard assessments (SHA). The book also presents a number of new contributions on topics ranging from the seismological aspects of earthquake cycle simulations for source scaling evaluation, seismic source characterization, source inversion and physics-based ground motion modeling to engineering applications of simulated ground motion for the analysis of seismic response of structures. Further, it includes papers describing current practices for assessing seismic hazard in terms of nuclear safety in low seismicity areas, and proposals for physics-based hazard assessment for critical structures near large earthquakes. The papers validate and verify the models by comparing synthetic results with observed data and empirical models. The book is a valuable resource for scientists, engineers, students and practitioners involved in all aspects of SHA.
Understanding Faults: Detecting, Dating, and Modeling offers a single resource for analyzing faults for a variety of applications, from hazard detection and earthquake processes, to geophysical exploration. The book presents the latest research, including fault dating using new mineral growth, fault reactivation, and fault modeling, and also helps bridge the gap between geologists and geophysicists working across fault-related disciplines. Using diagrams, formulae, and worldwide case studies to illustrate concepts, the book provides geoscientists and industry experts in oil and gas with a valuable reference for detecting, modeling, analyzing and dating faults. Presents cutting-edge information relating to fault analysis, including mechanical, geometrical and numerical models, theory and methodologies Includes calculations of fault sealing capabilities Describes how faults are detected, what fault models predict, and techniques for dating fault movement Utilizes worldwide case studies throughout the book to concretely illustrate key concepts
Considerable progress has been made recently in quantifying geometrical and physical properties of fault surfaces and adjacent fractured and granulated damage zones in active faulting environments. There has also been significant progress in developing rheologies and computational frameworks that can model the dynamics of fault zone processes. This volume provides state-of-the-art theoretical and observational results on the mechanics, structure and evolution of fault zones. Subjects discussed include damage rheologies, development of instabilities, fracture and friction, dynamic rupture experiments, and analyses of earthquake and fault zone data.
The mechanics of earthquake faulting is a multi-disciplinary scientific approach combining laboratory inferences and mathematical models with the analysis of recorded data from earthquakes, and is essential to the understanding of these potentially destructive events. The modern field of study can be said to have begun with the seminal papers by B. V. Kostrov in 1964 and 1966. This book presents lectures delivered at the summer school ‘The Mechanics of Earthquake Faulting’, held under the umbrella of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics in Varenna, Italy, from 2 to 7 July 2018. The school was attended by speakers and participants from many countries. One of the most important goals of the school was to present the state-of-the-art of the physics of earthquakes, and the 10 lectures included here cover the most challenging aspects of the mechanics of faulting. The topics covered during the school give a very clear picture of the current state of the art of the physics of earthquake ruptures and also highlight the open issues and questions that are still under debate, and the book will be of interest to all those working in the field.
The destructive force of earthquakes has stimulated human inquiry since ancient times, yet the scientific study of earthquakes is a surprisingly recent endeavor. Instrumental recordings of earthquakes were not made until the second half of the 19th century, and the primary mechanism for generating seismic waves was not identified until the beginning of the 20th century. From this recent start, a range of laboratory, field, and theoretical investigations have developed into a vigorous new discipline: the science of earthquakes. As a basic science, it provides a comprehensive understanding of earthquake behavior and related phenomena in the Earth and other terrestrial planets. As an applied science, it provides a knowledge base of great practical value for a global society whose infrastructure is built on the Earth's active crust. This book describes the growth and origins of earthquake science and identifies research and data collection efforts that will strengthen the scientific and social contributions of this exciting new discipline.
Our understanding of earthquakes and faulting processes has developed significantly since publication of the successful first edition of this book in 1990. This revised edition, first published in 2002, was therefore thoroughly up-dated whilst maintaining and developing the two major themes of the first edition. The first of these themes is the connection between fault and earthquake mechanics, including fault scaling laws, the nature of fault populations, and how these result from the processes of fault growth and interaction. The second major theme is the central role of the rate-state friction laws in earthquake mechanics, which provide a unifying framework within which a wide range of faulting phenomena can be interpreted. With the inclusion of two chapters explaining brittle fracture and rock friction from first principles, this book is written at a level which will appeal to graduate students and research scientists in the fields of seismology, physics, geology, geodesy and rock mechanics.
Extreme Environmental Events is an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the basic tenets of complexity and systems theory, as well as the tools and measures for analyzing complex systems, to the prediction, monitoring, and evaluation of major natural phenomena affecting life on earth. These phenomena are often highly destructive, and include earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, climate change,, and weather. Early warning, damage, and the immediate response of human populations to these phenomena are also covered from the point of view of complexity and nonlinear systems. In 61 authoritative, state-of-the art articles, world experts in each field apply such tools and concepts as fractals, cellular automata, solitons game theory, network theory, and statistical physics to an understanding of these complex geophysical phenomena.