volved gas analysis (EGA) describes analysis of gases or volatile components evolved from a sample undergoing thermal analysis. It is often used in direct combination with chemical analysis techniques such as gas chromatography, IR spectroscopy, or mass spectrometry, and/or with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), i.e. measuring the change in weight of the sample under controlled conditions. This book focuses on these so-called "hyphenated techniques" (EGA-TGA, TGA-GC/MS, etc.), which allow a great deal of chemical information about a sample to be revealed quickly and conveniently. The methods are highly applicable to polymer/plastics samples, but also to other materials including pharmaceuticals, biomass, and various organic and inorganic compounds. Examples of applications related to all these material types are provided in this book. This book provides practical help to anyone interested in the practical aspects of EGA-TGA, including those working in testing laboratories and their clients.
to Thermal Analysis Techniques and Applications Edited by Michael E. Brown Chemistry Department, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS NEW YORK, BOSTON, DORDRECHT, LONDON, MOSCOW eBook ISBN: 0-306-48404-8 Print ISBN: 1-4020-0472-9 ©2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow Print ©2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht All rights reserved No part of this eBook may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without written consent from the Publisher Created in the United States of America Visit Kluwer Online at: http://kluweronline. com and Kluwer's eBookstore at: http://ebooks. kluweronline. com CONTENTS Preface to the First Edition, Chapman & Hall, London, 1988 ix About the First Edition of this Book x Preface to the Second Edition xi 1. INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Definition and History 1 1. 2 Thermal Analysis Instruments 4 References 11 2. THERMAL EVENTS 2. 1 Introduction 13 2. 2 The Solid State 13 2. 3 Reactions of Solids 14 2. 4 Decomposition of Solids 15 2. 5 Reaction with the Surrounding Atmosphere 16 2. 6 Solid-Solid Interactions 16 References 17 3. THERMOGRAVIMETRY (TG) Introduction 3. 1 19 3. 2 The Balance 19 3. 3 Heating the Sample 21 3. 4 The Atmosphere 24 3. 5 The Sample 26 3. 6 Temperature Measurement 26 3. 7 Temperature Control 28 Sample Controlled Thermal Analysis (SCTA) 29 3. 8 3. 9 Calibration 36 3. 10 Presentation of TG Data 37 3.
|Author||: Keith B. Bradfield|
|Release Date||: 1991|
|Pages||: 248 pages|
|Author||: Brian Jay Anderson|
|Release Date||: 1987|
|Pages||: 292 pages|
19 plenary lectures and 203 poster papers presented at the 10th International Conference of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy in Budapest 1995 give an overview on the state-of-the art of this technology and its wide range of applications. The reader will get information on any aspects of FTS including the latest instrumental developments, e.g. in diode array detection, time resolution FTS, microscopy and spectral mapping, double modulation and two-dimensional FTS.
Thermally stimulated processes include a number of phenomena - either physical or chemical in nature - in which a certain property of a substance is measured during controlled heating from a 'low' temperature. Workers and graduate students in a wide spectrum of fields require an introduction to methods of extracting information from such measurements. This book gives an interdisciplinary approach to various methods which may be applied to analytical chemistry including radiation dosimetry and determination of archaeological and geological ages. In addition, recent advances are included, such as ionic thermocurrent of general order kinetics, polarization thermocurrents and some aspects of the superlinear dependence on the dose of thermoluminescence
Crucial to research in molecular biology, medicine, geology, food science, materials science, and many other fields, analytical instrumentation is used by many scientists and engineers who are not chemists. Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis, Seventh Edition provides users of analytical instrumentation with an understanding of these instruments, c
Thermal analysis comprises a group of techniques used to determine the physical or chemical properties of a substance as it is heated, cooled, or held at constant temperature. It is particularly important for polymer characterization, but also has major application in analysis of pharmaceuticals and foodstuffs. This comprehensive handbook presents practical and theoretical aspects of the key techniques of DSC, TGA, TMA, DMA, and related methods. It also includes separate chapters on the glass transition, polymers, polymorphism, purity determination, and method development. The large number of practical examples included should inspire readers toward new ideas for applications in their own fields of work. The chapters are independent of one another and can be read individually in any desired order. Based on years of experience in thermal analysis of users, application specialists, consultants, and course instructors, this book provides practical help to newcomers, inexperienced users, and anyone else interested in the practical aspects of thermal analysis.
The use of thermal and calorimetric methods has shown rapid growth over the past few decades, in an increasingly wide range of applications. The original text was published in 2001; since then there have been significant advances in various analytical techniques and their applications. This second edition supplies an up to date, concise and readable account of the principles, experimental apparatus and practical procedures used in thermal analysis and calorimetric methods of analysis. Written by experts in their field, brief accounts of the basic theory are reinforced with detailed technical advances and contemporary developments. Where appropriate, applications are used to highlight particular operating principles or methods of interpretation. As an important source of information for many levels of readership in a variety of areas, this book will be an aid for students and lecturers through to industrial and laboratory staff and consultants.
This is Volume 5 of a Handbook that has been well-received by the thermal analysis and calorimetry community. All chapters in all five volumes are written by international experts in the subject. The fifth volume covers recent advances in techniques and applications that complement the earlier volumes. The chapters refer wherever possible to earlier volumes, but each is complete in itself. The latest recommendations on Nomenclature are also included. Amongst the important new techniques that are covered are micro-thermal analysis, pulsed thermal analysis, fast-scanning calorimetery and the use of quartz-crystal microbalances. There are detailed reviews of heating - stage spectroscopy, the range of electrical techniques available, applications in rheology, catalysis and the study of nanoparticles. The development and application of isoconversional methods of kinetic analysis are described and there are comprehensive chapters on the many facets of thermochemistry and of measuring thermophysical properties. Applications to inorganic and coordination chemistry are reviewed, as are the latest applications in medical and dental sciences, including the importance of polymorphism. The volume concludes with a review of the use and importance of thermal analysis and calorimetry in quality control. * Updates and complements previous volumes * Internationally recognized experts as authors * Each chapter complete in itself
Thermal Analysis techniques are used in a wide range of disciplines, from pharmacy and foods to polymer science, materials and glasses; in fact any field where changes in sample behaviour are observed under controlled heating or controlled cooling conditions. The wide range of measurements possible provide fundamental information on the material properties of the system under test, so thermal analysis has found increasing use both in basic characterisation of materials and in a wide range of applications in research, development and quality control in industry and academia. Principles and Applications of Thermal Analysis is written by manufacturers and experienced users of thermal techniques. It provides the reader with sound practical instruction on how to use the techniques and gives an up to date account of the principle industrial applications. By covering basic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) including the new approach of Fast Scanning DSC, together with dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA /TMA) methods, then developing the discussion to encompass industrial applications, the book serves as an ideal introduction to the technology for new users. With a strong focus on practical issues and relating the measurements to the physical behaviour of the materials under test, the book will also serve as an important reference for experienced analysts.
|Author||: V.S. Ramachandran,Ralph M. Paroli,James J. Beaudoin,Ana H. Delgado|
|Publisher||: William Andrew|
|Release Date||: 2002-10-28|
|ISBN 10||: 0815517750|
|Pages||: 702 pages|
This comprehensive book containing essential information on the applicability of thermal analysis techniques to evaluate inorganic and organic materials in construction technology should serve as a useful reference for the scientist, engineer, construction technologist, architect, manufacturer, and user of construction materials, standard-writing bodies, and analytical chemists. The material scientists at the National Research Council of Canada have established one of the best thermal analysis laboratories in the world. Various types of thermal analysis techniques have been applied successfully to the investigation of inorganic and organic construction materials. These studies have provided important information on the characterization of raw as well as finished materials, quality control, quantitative estimation, interrelationships between physical, chemical, mechanical, and durability characteristics. Information on the application of thermal analysis to construction materials is dispersed in literature and hence the IRC scientists embarked on producing a handbook, the first of its kind, incorporating the latest knowledge available in this field of activity. Almost all important construction materials have been included.
Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry provides students with a thorough comprehension of analytical chemistry and its applications. It supports the learning of principles and practice of analytical procedures and also covers the analytical techniques commonly used in laboratories today.
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) is a powerful technique for understanding the viscoelastic properties of materials. It has become a powerful tool for chemists, polymer and material scientists, and engineers. Despite this, it often remains underutilized in the modern laboratory. Because of its high sensitivity to the presence of the glass transition, many users limit it to detecting glass transitions that can’t be seen by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This book presents a practical and straightforward approach to understanding how DMA works and what it measures. Starting with the concepts of stress and strain, the text takes the reader through stress–strain, creep, and thermomechanical analysis. DMA is discussed as both the instrument and fixtures as well as the techniques for measuring both thermoplastic and thermosetting behavior. This edition offers expanded chapters on these areas as well as frequency scanning and other application areas. To help the reader grasp the material, study questions have also been added. Endnotes have been expanded and updated. Features Reflects the latest DMA research and technical advances Includes case studies to demonstrate the use of DMA over a range of industrial problems Includes numerous references to help those with limited materials engineering background Demonstrates the power of DMA as a laboratory tool for analysis and testing
Analytical pyrolysis is one of the many tools utilized for the study of natural organic polymers. This books describes in three parts the methodology of analytical pyrolysis, the results of pyrolysis for a variety of biopolymers, and several practical applications of analytical pyrolysis on natural organic polymers and their composite materials. Analytical pyrolysis methodology covers two distinct subjects, the instrumentation used for pyrolysis and the analytical methods that are applied for the analysis of the pyrolysis products. A variety of pyrolytic techniques and of analytical instruments commonly coupled with pyrolysis devices are given. The description of the results of pyrolysis for biopolymers and some chemically modified natural organic polymers is the core of the book. The main pyrolysis products of numerous compounds as well as the proposed mechanisms for their pyrolysis are described. In this part an attempt is made to present as much as possible the chemistry of the pyrolytic process of natural organic polymers. The applications of analytical pyrolysis include topics such as polymer detection used for example in forensic science, structure elucidation of specific polymers, and identification of small molecules present in polymers (anti-oxidants, plasticizers, etc.). Also, the degradation during heating is a subject of major interest in many practical applications regarding the physical properties of polymers. The applications to composite polymeric materials are in the fields of classification of microorganisms, study of a variety of biological samples, study of fossil materials, etc. Analytical pyrolysis can also be used for obtaining information on the burning area generate pyrolysates that have complex compositions. Their analysis is important in connection with health issues, environmental problems, and taste of food and cigarettes. Features of this book: • Presents analytical pyrolysis as a uniform subject and not as a conglomerate of scientific papers. • Puts together in an organized manner a large volume of available information in this specific field. • Provides original results which address subjects with relatively scarce information in literature. • Gives original views on subjects such as the parallel between the pyrolytic process and the ion fragmentation in mass spectrometry. • Includes the role of pyrolysis in the burning process. The three parts of the book are covered in 18 chapters, each divided into sections. Some sections are further divided by particular subjects. References are given for each chapter, and an effort has been made to include as much as possible from the available representative information. A few unpublished personal results are also included.
This book reviews the various thermal methods used for the characterisation of polymer properties and composition. All these methods study the properties of polymers as they change with temperature. The methods discussed in this book are: differential photocalorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric thermal analysis, differential thermal analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, evolved gas analysis, gas chromatography, gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry, mass spectrometry, microthermal analysis, thermal volatilisation, thermogravimetric analysis and thermomechanical analysis. Each technique is discussed in detail and examples of the use of each technique are also given. Each chapter has an extensive list of references so that the reader can follow up topics of interest. This book will be a useful reference for those who already use any of these thermal methods but will also be of interest to undergraduates and those who are just starting to use these techniques.