Epigenetics is one of the fastest growing fields of sciences, illuminating studies of human diseases by looking beyond genetic make-up and acknowledging that outside factors play a role in gene expression. The goal of this volume is to highlight those diseases or conditions for which we have advanced knowledge of epigenetic factors such as cancer, autoimmune disorders and aging as well as those that are yielding exciting breakthroughs in epigenetics such as diabetes, neurobiological disorders and cardiovascular disease. Where applicable, attempts are made to not only detail the role of epigenetics in the etiology, progression, diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases, but also novel epigenetic approaches to the treatment of these diseases. Chapters are also presented on human imprinting disorders, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases and gynecological and reproductive diseases. Since epigenetics plays a major role in the aging process, advances in the epigenetics of aging are highly relevant to many age-related human diseases. Therefore, this volume closes with chapters on aging epigenetics and breakthroughs that have been made to delay the aging process through epigenetic approaches. With its translational focus, this book will serve as valuable reference for both basic scientists and clinicians alike. Comprehensive coverage of fundamental and emergent science and clinical usage Side-by-side coverage of the basis of epigenetic diseases and their treatments Evaluation of recent epigenetic clinical breakthroughs
In multicellular organisms the establishment, maintenance, and programmed alterations of cell-type specific gene expression patterns are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, epigenetic alterations (DNA methylation, DNA associated Polycomb-Trithorax protein complexes, histone modifications) ensure the unique transcriptional activity and phenotypic diversity of diploid cells that carry identical or nearly identical DNA sequences. Because DNA methyltransferase I (DNMT1) associates with replication foci during S phase and prefers hemimethylated DNA as a substrate, DNMT1 ensures the clonal propagation of cytosine methylation patterns (maintenance methylation). Thus, DNA methylation may provide a memory function by helping progeny cells to “remember” their proper cellular identity. An alternative system of epigenetic memory, the Polycomb and Trithorax groups of protein complexes, that may operate both independently from and in concert with DNA methylation, ensures the heritable regulation of gene expression via modification of histone tails. The complex interplay of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms permits both the dynamic modulation of gene expression and the faithful transmission of gene expression patterns to each progeny cell upon division. These carefully orchestrated processes can go wrong, however, resulting in epigenetic reprogramming of the cells that may manifest in pathological changes, as it was first realized during the studies of epigenetic alterations in malignant tumors. By now it became a well established fact that not only genetic changes, but also the disruption of epigenetic regulation can result in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Scientists working in other fields soon followed the pioneering work of cancer researchers, and revealed that epigenetic dysregulation forms the basis of a wide spectrum of human diseases.
The Epigenetics of Autoimmunity covers a topic directly related to translational epigenetics. Via epigenetic mechanisms, a number of internal and external environmental risk factors, including smoking, nutrition, viral infection and the exposure to chemicals, could exert their influence on the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Such factors could impact the epigenetic mechanisms, which, in turn, build relationship with the regulation of gene expression, and eventually triggering immunologic events that result in instability of immune system. Since epigenetic aberrations are known to play a key role in a long list of human diseases, the translational significance of autoimmunity epigenetics is very high. To bridge the gap between environmental and genetic factors, over the past few years, great progress has been made in identifying detailed epigenetic mechanisms for autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, with rapid advances in technological development, high-throughput screening approaches and other novel technologies support the systematic investigations and facilitate the epigenetic identification. This book covers autoimmunity epigenetics from a disease-oriented perspective and several chapters are presented that provide advances in wide-spread disorders or diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes (T1DM), systemic sclerosis (SSc), primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs). These emerging epigenetic studies provide new insights into autoimmune diseases, raising great expectations among researchers and clinicians. This seminal book on this topic comprehensively covers the most recent advances in this exciting and rapidly developing new science. They might reveal not only new clinical biomarkers for diagnosis and disease progression, but also novel targets for potential epigenetic therapeutic treatment. Provides the accurate and cutting-edge information on autoimmunity epigenetics Wide coverage appeals to those interested in fundamental epigenetics and inheritance to those with more clinical interests Critical reviews of the mean of deriving and analysing autoimmunity epigenetics information as well as its translational potential Up-to-date coverage of emerging topics in autoimmunity epigenetics
Epigenetics of the Immune System focuses on different aspects of epigenetics and immunology, providing readers with the fundamental mechanisms relating to epigenetics and the immune system. This book provides in-depth information on immune cells as a toolbox in deciphering systematically regulated mechanisms using "omics" and computational biology approaches. In addition, the book presents the translational importance of epigenetics and the immune system in our understanding of pathophysiology in diseases and its therapeutic applications. Provides an overview of most important immune mechanisms, the current status of epigenetics, and how both of them are brought together Presents key principles of immune mechanisms in epigenetics, presenting current findings and key principles Features in-depth chapter contributions from a wide range of international researchers and specialists in immunology, translational medicine and epigenetics Merges two very large areas, covering the unique interrelatedness of epigenetics and immunology
The role of epigenetic mechanisms in autoimmune disease is only now starting to become clear. Understanding these mechanisms, their effect on cellular function and the role of environmental factors is vital to determining how to manage these often debilitating and fatal diseases. Drawing on the research of leading experts, this book provides a valuable insight into this important new area of autoimmunity research and a clear, up-to-date view on the major advances in the field. Specific coverage includes: How highly developed epigenetic mechanisms are involved in several aspects of normal immune regulation, in addition to maintaining immune tolerance to self-determinants. Specific epigenetic aspects of human autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune diabetes, thyroid autoimmunity, inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune hepatitis. How understanding epigenetic mechanisms can lead to therapeutic strategies based on manipulation of this previously unexploited facet of immune regulation. Discussion of the novel approaches that are being investigated to prevent or treat autoimmune diseases. This book is an essential resource for those actively involved in the field. It is also of interest to basic researchers interested in understanding the origin of autoimmunity and clinical specialists interested in gaining in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and their treatment.
Computational Epigenetics and Diseases, written by leading scientists in this evolving field, provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge knowledge of computational epigenetics in human diseases. In particular, the major computational tools, databases, and strategies for computational epigenetics analysis, for example, DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNA, noncoding RNA, and ceRNA, are summarized, in the context of human diseases. This book discusses bioinformatics methods for epigenetic analysis specifically applied to human conditions such as aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, liver and autoimmune disorders, and reproductive and respiratory diseases. Additionally, different organ cancers, such as breast, lung, and colon, are discussed. This book is a valuable source for graduate students and researchers in genetics and bioinformatics, and several biomedical field members interested in applying computational epigenetics in their research. Provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge knowledge of computational epigenetics in human diseases Summarizes the major computational tools, databases, and strategies for computational epigenetics analysis, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNA, noncoding RNA, and ceRNA Covers the major milestones and future directions of computational epigenetics in various kinds of human diseases such as aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes, heart disease, neurological disorders, cancers, blood disorders, liver diseases, reproductive diseases, respiratory diseases, autoimmune diseases, human imprinting disorders, and infectious diseases
Epigenetics and Dermatology explores the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of autoimmune-related skin diseases and skin cancer. Leading contributors cover common and uncommon skin conditions in which extensive epigenetic research has been done. They explain how environmental exposures (chemicals, drugs, sunlight, diet, stress, smoking, infection, etc.) in all stages of life (from a fetus in-utero to an elderly person) may result in epigenetic changes that lead to development of some skin diseases in life. They also discuss the possibilities of new and emergent epigenetic treatments which are gradually being adopted in management of various skin diseases. Chapters follow a conventional structure, covering fundamental biology of the disease condition, etiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, commonly available treatments, and epigenetic therapy where applicable. Discusses the basic biology of skin diseases and skin cancers induced or aggravated by aberrant epigenetic changes Evaluates how to approach autoimmune-related skin diseases from a therapeutic perspective using the wealth of emergent epigenetic clinical trials Offers a coherent and structured table of contents with basic epigenetic biology followed by discussion of the spectrum of rheumatologic through neoplastic skin diseases, finally ending with a discourse on epigenetic therapy
The Autoimmune Diseases is composed of 25 chapters dealing with different aspects of some specific autoimmune diseases. The book begins with the elucidation of the genetic predisposition to autoimmune diseases. Subsequent chapters explore numerous kinds of autoimmune diseases. Other chapters describe the antireceptor antibodies and the sensitivity and specificity of autoantibody testing. This book is designed to provide a deeper understanding of this increasingly important field of medical science for physicians and investigators involved in the diagnosis, treatment, or research of autoimmune ...
Handbook of Epigenetics: The New Molecular and Medical Genetics, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive analysis of epigenetics, from basic biology, to clinical application. Epigenetics is considered by many to be the new genetics in that many biological phenomena are controlled, not through gene mutations, but rather through reversible and heritable epigenetic processes. These epigenetic processes range from DNA methylation to prions. The biological processes impacted by epigenetics are vast and encompass effects in lower organisms and humans that include tissue and organ regeneration, X-chromosome inactivation, stem cell differentiation, genomic imprinting, and aging. The first edition of this important work received excellent reviews; the second edition continues its comprehensive coverage adding more current research and new topics based on customer and reader reviews, including new discoveries, approved therapeutics, and clinical trials. From molecular mechanisms and epigenetic technology, to discoveries in human disease and clinical epigenetics, the nature and applications of the science is presented for those with interests ranging from the fundamental basis of epigenetics, to therapeutic interventions for epigenetic-based disorders. Timely and comprehensive collection of fully up-to-date reviews on epigenetics that are organized into one volume and written by leading figures in the field Covers the latest advances in many different areas of epigenetics, ranging from basic aspects, to technologies, to clinical medicine Written at a verbal and technical level that can be understood by scientists and college students Updated to include new epigenetic discoveries, newly approved therapeutics, and clinical trials
Medical Epigenetics provides a comprehensive analysis of the importance of epigenetics to health management. The purpose of this book is to fill a current need for a comprehensive volume on the medical aspects of epigenetics with a focus on human systems, epigenetic diseases that affect these systems and modes of treating epigenetic-based disorders and diseases. The intent of this book is to provide a stand-alone comprehensive volume that will cover all human systems relevant to epigenetic maladies and all major aspects of medical epigenetics. The overall goal is to provide the leading book on medical epigenetics that will be useful not only to physicians, nurses, medical students and many others directly involved with health care, but also investigators in life sciences, biotech companies, graduate students and many others who are interested in more applied aspects of epigenetics. Research in the area of translational epigenetics is a cornerstone of this volume. Critical reviews dedicated to the burgeoning role of epigenetics in medical practice Coverage of emerging topics including twin epigenetics as well as epigenetics of gastrointestinal disease, muscle disorders, endocrine disorders, ocular medicine, pediatric diseases, sports medicine, noncoding RNA therapeutics, pain management and regenerative medicine Encompasses a disease-oriented perspective of medical epigenetics as well as diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic approaches to applied medicine
The concept of epigenetics has been known about since the 1940s, but it is only in the last 10 years that research has shown just how wide ranging its effects are. It is now a very widely-used term, but there is still a lot of confusion surrounding what it actually is and does. Epigenetics is a new textbook that brings together the structure and machinery of epigenetic modification, how epigenetic modification controls cellular functions, and the evidence for the relationship between epigenetics and disease. It is a valuable source of information about all aspects of the subject for undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals.
After first introducing the concept of epigenetics, this handbook and ready reference provides an overview of the main research on epigenetics. It adopts a multidisciplinary approach, involving molecular biology, molecular epidemiology and nutritional science, with a special focus of the book is on disease prevention and treatment. Of interest to all healthcare-related professionals as well as nutritionists, and the medical community focusing on disease prevention.
Epigenomics in Health and Disease discusses the next generation sequencing technologies shaping our current knowledge with regards to the role of epigenetics in normal development, aging, and disease. It includes the consequences for diagnostics, prognostics, and disease-based therapies made possible by the study of the complete set of epigenetic modifications to the genetic material of human cells. With coverage pertinent to both basic biology and translational research, the book will be of particular interest for medical and bioscience researchers and students seeking current translational knowledge in epigenesis and epigenomics. Coverage includes the latest findings on epigenome-wide research in disease-based profiling, epidemiological implications, epigenome-wide epigenetic studies, the cancer epigenome, and other pervasive disease categories. Presents critical reviews that provide the means for reviewing and analyzing the epigenome as a whole, also discussing its translational potential Combines basic epigenomic knowledge with methodological and biostatistical topics related to technology and data analysis Includes coverage of relatively new topics, including DNA methylation dynamics during development and differentiation, genome-wide histone post-translational modifications during development and differentiation, and genome-wide DNA methylation changes during aging
|Author||: Alessandro Antonelli,Salvatore Benvenga|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2018-11-02|
|ISBN 10||: 2889456250|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorders resulting from an immune dysregulation leading to a thyroid immune attack (Antonelli and Benvenga). Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are the two main clinical presentations of AITD, and their clinical hallmarks are thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. In many cases, AITD may be associated in the same patient with other organ-specific autoimmune attacks (such as in the case of type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, or type I diabetes, etc). Furthermore, AITD and thyroid function abnormalities have been frequently described in patients with systemic rheumatologic autoimmune diseases. Conversely, patients affected with the above mentioned autoimmune disorders are more frequently affected by AITD. In this Research Topic, constituted by nineteen papers, we review and discuss new evidence about the association of other autoimmune diseases in patients with AITD. Among other organ-specific autoimmune disorders, the associations of AITD with chronic autoimmune gastritis (Cellini et al.), vitiligo (Baldini E et al.), lichen (Guarneri et al.), psoriasis (Ruffilli et al.), myasthenia gravis (Lopomo and Berrih-Aknin) and glomerulopathies (Santoro et al.) have been treated. Also the associations of AITD, in systemic autoimmune diseases have been treated (as Sjögren’s syndrome, Baldini C et al.; systemic sclerosis, Fallahi et al.; systemic lupus erythematosus, Ferrari et al.; Antiphospholipid syndrome, Versini; sarcoidosis, Fazzi et al.; the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants, Watad et al.; rheumatoid arthritis, Bliddal et al.; Hepatitis C Virus and mixed cryoglobulinemia, Ferri et al.; and, psoriathic arthritis, Ruffilli et al.). Furthermore peculiar aspects associated with post partum thyroiditis have been reviewed too (Di Bari et al., Le Donne et al.). The exact pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the above reported associations are not completely known. It has been hypothesized that the influence of genetic (Coppedè), and environmental factors (Antonelli and Benvenga), could lead to the onset of autoimmune phenomena in different organs in the same subject, characterized by predominance of a Th1 immune pattern at the beginning, and in the active phase of these disorders. In conclusion, an association of other autoimmune diseases in patients with thyroid autoimmunity has been shown, and this Research Topic provides an extensive update of the literature, and suggests interesting points for new investigations.
Since the First Edition of The Autoimmune Diseases was published in 1985, interest as well as knowledge about autoimmune diseases has greatly increased. This edition incorporates new material and combines the basic aspects of autoimmunity with discussion of specific autoimmune diseases in humans. It discusses the biological basis of disease at genetic, molecular, cellular, and epidemiologic levels. In addition to a comprehensive discussion of various autoimmune diseases and organ systems, the editors also cover the role of autoimmunity in cancer, AIDS, and aging. Key Features * Provides comprehensive discussions of all autoimmune diseases and organ systems * Offers "bench to bedside" coverage of autoimmunity for both clinicians and research scientists * Discusses the biological basis of disease at genetic, molecular, cellular, and epidemiologic levels * Examines the environmental determinants of autoimmune disease * Examines the association between autoimmunity and aging, cancer, and AIDS
The most comprehensive and integrated book on pigmentation The Pigmentary System, Second Edition, gathers into one convenient, all-inclusive volume a wealth of information about the science of pigmentation and all the common and rare clinical disorders that affect skin color. The two parts, physiology (science) and pathophysiology (clinical disorders), are complementary and annotated so that those reading one part can easily refer to relevant sections in the other. For the clinician interested in common or rare pigment disorders or the principles of teaching about such disorders, this book provides an immediate and complete resource on the biologic bases for these disorders. For the scientist studying the biology of melanocyte function, the book provides a list of disorders that are related to basic biological functions of melanocytes. New features of this Second Edition include: Completely new section on the basic science of pigmentation – explaining the integration of melanocyte functions with other epidermal cells and with various organ systems like the immune system New chapters on pigmentary disorders related to intestinal diseases, the malignant melanocyte, benign proliferations of melanocytes (nevi) and phototherapy with narrow band UV All clinical chapters include the latest genetic findings and advances in therapy More than 400 color images of virtually all clinical disorders The book is ideal for all dermatologists and especially those interested in disorders of pigmentation. It is of particular use for pediatric dermatologists and medical geneticists caring for patients with congenital and genetic pigmentary disorders. This authoritative volume will fill the gap for dermatology training programs that do not have local experts on pigmentation. Basic and cosmetic scientists studying pigmentation and melanocytes will find the science and clinical correlations very useful in showing human significance and relevance to the results of their studies.
|Author||: R.C. Kennedy,S. Ferrone,Yehuda Shoenfeld|
|Release Date||: 1997-11-19|
|ISBN 10||: 9780080534435|
|Pages||: 540 pages|
This is the most comprehensive review of the idiotypic network available. All the current knowledge of idiotypes of the various antibodies is incorporated in this volume. The pathogenic role of idiotypes in autoimmunity and cancer is reviewed in depth. The therapeutic part focusses on harnessing anti-idiotypes for treating autoimmunological disorders, and on the employment of idiotypes for vaccines in cancer and infectious diseases, as well as explaining the manipulation of the idiotypic network in autoimmunity and cancer idiotypes and vaccines.
There are now compelling human epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing adult-onset complex diseases and neurological disorders are influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations in response to prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA. The main components of the epigenetic code are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. The epigenetic programs are established as stem cell differentiate during embryogenesis, and they are normally faithfully reproduced during mitosis. Moreover, they can also be maintained during meiosis, resulting in epigenetic transgenerational disease inheritance, and also potentially introducing phenotypic variation that is selected for in the evolution of new species. The objective of this book is to provide evidence that environmental exposures during early development can alter the risk of developing medical conditions, such as asthma, autism, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia later in life by modifying the epigenome.
Nutritional Epigenomics offers a comprehensive overview of nutritional epigenomics as a mode of study, along with nutrition’s role in the epigenomic regulation of disease, health and developmental processes. Here, an expert team of international contributors introduces readers to nutritional epigenomic regulators of gene expression, our diet’s role in epigenomic regulation of disease and disease inheritance, caloric restriction and exercise as they relate to recent epigenomic findings, and the influence of nutritional epigenomics over circadian rhythms, aging and longevity, and fetal health and development, among other processes. Disease specific chapters address metabolic disease (obesity and diabetes), cancer, and neurodegeneration, among other disorders. Diet-gut microbiome interactions in the epigenomic regulation of disease are also discussed, as is the role of micronutrients and milk miRNAs in epigenetic regulation. Finally, chapter authors examine ongoing discussions of race and ethnicity in the social-epigenomic regulation of health and disease. Empowers the reader to employ nutritional epigenomics approaches in their own research Discusses the latest topics in nutritional epigenomics in the regulation of aging, circadian rhythm, inheritance and fetal development, as well as metabolism and disease Offers a full grounding in epigenetic reprogramming and nutritional intervention in the treatment and prevention of disease, as informed by population-based studies
Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System addresses current understanding of the roles of epigenetic processes at the molecular/cellular level, their impact on neural development and behavior, and the potential roles of these mechanisms in neurological and psychiatric disorders. This award-winning volume spans molecular epigenetics, development, cellular physiology and biochemistry, synaptic and neural plasticity, and behavioral models, and is unique in covering epigenetically based disorders of the central nervous system. Behavioral epigenetics is the study of how environmental factors alter behavior, addressing the fundamental mechanisms that shape development and individual vulnerability/resilience to adverse behavioral outcomes. By understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in epigenetic modulation, researchers may be able to develop targeted therapies for those individuals in whom it malfunctions. Edited by the most highly regarded leaders in the field, this book offers a comprehensive review of behavioral epigenetics and a balanced treatment of the strengths and weaknesses in experimentation in this area. Covering background material as well as topics of current interest, it serves both as a cutting-edge resource and a foundational reference. The book will benefit neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in the links between gene regulation and behavior, as will clinicians dealing with disorders such as addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 - Highly Commended, Neurology, British Medical Association BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 - First Prize, Neurology, British Medical Association 2013 PROSE Award winner for Best in Reference Works and Best Single Volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers Presents a unified view of epigenetic mechanisms from behavior to genes and everything in between Discusses clinically relevant disorders in the context of epigenetics research, making the volume appealing to clinicians as well as basic scientists Provides numerous practical examples for the new investigator to facilitate implementation of research in neuroepigenetics