Entropy of Complex Processes and Systems formalizes our understanding of many complex processes, including the development of the methodology of analytical computation of complex processes as applied in many industries, such as ore processing, or more generally, in areas of natural sciences. The adequacy of the results of these calculations is confirmed by numerous experimental data obtained both on pilots and industrial facilities. The book also provides a thorough analysis of the underlying physical foundations of entropy performed from new standpoints that are of interest to theoreticians studying contemporary expositions. Provides methodologies for controlling and optimizing complex processes in branches of industry that involve transformation of materials or substances Describes entropy as the universal characteristic of a stochastic process independent of the system Introduces a new definition of entropy specifically related to dynamical phenomena
|Author||: Christos Volos,Sajad Jafari,Jacques Kengne,Jesus M. Munoz-Pacheco,Karthikeyan Rajagopal|
|Release Date||: 2019-05-03|
|ISBN 10||: 3038978981|
|Pages||: 290 pages|
In recent years, entropy has been used as a measure of the degree of chaos in dynamical systems. Thus, it is important to study entropy in nonlinear systems. Moreover, there has been increasing interest in the last few years regarding the novel classification of nonlinear dynamical systems including two kinds of attractors: self-excited attractors and hidden attractors. The localization of self-excited attractors by applying a standard computational procedure is straightforward. In systems with hidden attractors, however, a specific computational procedure must be developed, since equilibrium points do not help in the localization of hidden attractors. Some examples of this kind of system are chaotic dynamical systems with no equilibrium points; with only stable equilibria, curves of equilibria, and surfaces of equilibria; and with non-hyperbolic equilibria. There is evidence that hidden attractors play a vital role in various fields ranging from phase-locked loops, oscillators, describing convective fluid motion, drilling systems, information theory, cryptography, and multilevel DC/DC converters. This Special Issue is a collection of the latest scientific trends on the advanced topics of dynamics, entropy, fractional order calculus, and applications in complex systems with self-excited attractors and hidden attractors.
The contributions to this volume are based on selected lectures from the first international workshop on decoherence, information, complexity and entropy (DICE). The aim of this volume is to reflect the growing importance ot common concepts behind seemingly different fields such as quantum mechanics, general relativity and statistical physics in a form accessible to nonspecialist researchers. Many presentations include original results which published here for the first time.
|Author||: Brian Marcus,Karl Petersen,Tsachy Weissman|
|Publisher||: Cambridge University Press|
|Release Date||: 2011-05-26|
|ISBN 10||: 1139495747|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Hidden Markov processes (HMPs) are important objects of study in many areas of pure and applied mathematics, including information theory, probability theory, dynamical systems and statistical physics, with applications in electrical engineering, computer science and molecular biology. This collection of research and survey papers presents important new results and open problems, serving as a unifying gateway for researchers in these areas. Based on talks given at the Banff International Research Station Workshop, 2007, this volume addresses a central problem of the subject: computation of the Shannon entropy rate of an HMP. This is a key quantity in statistical physics and information theory, characterising the fundamental limit on compression and closely related to channel capacity, the limit on reliable communication. Also discussed, from a symbolic dynamics and thermodynamical viewpoint, is the problem of characterizing the mappings between dynamical systems which map Markov measures to Markov (or Gibbs) measures, and which allow for Markov lifts of Markov chains.
|Author||: Ichiro Aoki|
|Release Date||: 2012|
|ISBN 10||: 0123914930|
|Pages||: 107 pages|
The concept of entropy in thermodynamics is a complex one, though it is fundamental in understanding physics, the workings of the mind, and biology. Entropy is the measure of the quality of energy, and it can also refer to the turn from order to disorder or randomness in isolated systems. In open systems, such as biology, entropy is formulated in terms of production and energy flow. This book establishes a novel view of complex biological systems and the earth using this concept of entropy, encompassing the interdisciplinary area of biology, ecology and physics. This book considers the development over time of a range of biologically complex systems such as plants, animals, humans, and ecosystems, describing them in terms of the second law of thermodynamics, entropy. With its broad coverage of biological systems, this book will be useful for students of environmental science as well as students in biology and physics. Includes discussion of multiple complex systems including the earth and biological systems within it. Suitable for those with little physics background who wish to learn how the laws of physics apply to ecological systems. Clearly organized by system, making information easy to access.
|Author||: Axel Kleidon,Ralph D. Lorenz|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2004-11-18|
|ISBN 10||: 9783540224952|
|Pages||: 264 pages|
The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings. Written by leading researchers from a wide range of backgrounds, the book presents a first coherent account of an emerging field at the interface of thermodynamics, geophysics and life sciences.
|Author||: Joseph T. Lizier|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2012-11-06|
|ISBN 10||: 3642329527|
|Pages||: 236 pages|
The nature of distributed computation in complex systems has often been described in terms of memory, communication and processing. This thesis presents a complete information-theoretic framework to quantify these operations on information (i.e. information storage, transfer and modification), and in particular their dynamics in space and time. The framework is applied to cellular automata, and delivers important insights into the fundamental nature of distributed computation and the dynamics of complex systems (e.g. that gliders are dominant information transfer agents). Applications to several important network models, including random Boolean networks, suggest that the capability for information storage and coherent transfer are maximised near the critical regime in certain order-chaos phase transitions. Further applications to study and design information structure in the contexts of computational neuroscience and guided self-organisation underline the practical utility of the techniques presented here.
Living systems exhibit a fundamental contradiction: they are highly stable and reliable, yet they have the capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions. This paradoxical behavior arises from the complexity of life--a high degree of order and cooperation that emerges from relatively simple interactions among cellular components. The Complexity Paradox proposes inventive, interdisciplinary approaches to maintaining health and managing and preventing disease by considering the totality of human biology, from the cellular level on up to entire populations of individuals. From the perspective of complexity, which acknowledges that there are limits to what we can know, Kenneth L. Mossman opens the door to understanding essential life processes in new and extraordinary ways. By tying together evolution, functional dynamics, and investigations into how the body processes energy and uses genetic information, Mossman's analysis expresses a unified theory of biology that fills a critical niche for future research in biology, medicine, and public health.
Building up from microscopic basics to observed complex functions, this insightful monograph explains and describes how the unique molecular properties of water give rise to its structural and dynamical behaviour which in turn translates into its role in biological and chemical processes. The discussion of the biological functions of water details not only the stabilising effect of water in proteins and DNA, but also the direct role that water molecules themselves play in biochemical processes, such as enzyme kinetics, protein synthesis and drug-DNA interaction. The overview of the behaviour of water in chemical systems discusses hydrophilic, hydrophobic and amphiphilic effects, as well as the interactions of water with micelles, reverse micelles, microemulsions and carbon nanotubes. Supported by extensive experimental and computer simulation data, highlighting many of the recent advances in the study of water in complex systems, this is an ideal resource for anyone studying water at the molecular level.
Modern Engineering Thermodynamics is designed for use in a standard two-semester engineering thermodynamics course sequence. The first half of the text contains material suitable for a basic Thermodynamics course taken by engineers from all majors. The second half of the text is suitable for an Applied Thermodynamics course in mechanical engineering programs. The text has numerous features that are unique among engineering textbooks, including historical vignettes, critical thinking boxes, and case studies. All are designed to bring real engineering applications into a subject that can be somewhat abstract and mathematical. Over 200 worked examples and more than 1,300 end of chapter problems provide opportunities to practice solving problems related to concepts in the text. Provides the reader with clear presentations of the fundamental principles of basic and applied engineering thermodynamics. Helps students develop engineering problem solving skills through the use of structured problem-solving techniques. Introduces the Second Law of Thermodynamics through a basic entropy concept, providing students a more intuitive understanding of this key course topic. Covers Property Values before the First Law of Thermodynamics to ensure students have a firm understanding of property data before using them. Over 200 worked examples and more than 1,300 end of chapter problems offer students extensive opportunity to practice solving problems. Historical Vignettes, Critical Thinking boxes and Case Studies throughout the book help relate abstract concepts to actual engineering applications. For greater instructor flexibility at exam time, thermodynamic tables are provided in a separate accompanying booklet. Available online testing and assessment component helps students assess their knowledge of the topics. Email [email protected] for details.
The review articles in this book treat the overall nonlinear and complex behavior of nature from the viewpoint of such diverse research fields as fluid mechanics, condensed matter physics, biophysics, biochemistry, biology, and applied mathematics. Attention is focussed on a broad and comprehensive overview of recent developments and perspectives. Particular attention is given to the so-far unsolved problem of how to capture the mutual interplay between the microscopic and macroscopic dynamics that extend over various length and time scales. The book addresses researchers as well as graduate students.
|Author||: Akhlaq A. Farooqui,Tahira Farooqui|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2015-02-06|
|ISBN 10||: 1118840569|
|Pages||: 384 pages|
Diet and exercise have long been recognized as important components of a healthy lifestyle, as they have a great impact on improving cardiovascular and cerebrovascular functions, lowering the risk of metabolic disorders, and contributing to healthy aging. As a greater proportion of the world’s population is living longer, there has been increased interest in understanding the role of nutrition and exercise in long-term neurological health and cognitive function. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases discusses the role and impact that nutrition and activity have on cognitive function and neurological health. The book is divided into two sections. The first section focuses on diet and its impact on neurobiological processes. Chapters focus on the impacts of specific diets, such as the Mediterranean, ketogenic and vegan diets, as well as the role of specific nutrients, fats, fatty acids, and calorie restriction on neurological health and cognitive function. The second section of the book focuses on exercise, and its role in maintaining cognitive function, reducing neuroinflammatory responses, regulating adult neurogenesis, and healthy brain aging. Other chapters look at the impact of exercise in the management of specific neurological disorders such Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson’s Disease. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases is a timely reference on the neurobiological interplay between diet and exercise on long-term brain health and cognitive function.
|Author||: Karmeshu,Jawaharlal Karmeshu|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2003-03-11|
|ISBN 10||: 9783540002420|
|Pages||: 297 pages|
This book is dedicated to Prof. J. Kapur and his contributions to the field of entropy measures and maximum entropy applications. Eminent scholars in various fields of applied information theory have been invited to contribute to this Festschrift, collected on the occasion of his 75th birthday. The articles cover topics in the areas of physical, biological, engineering and social sciences such as information technology, soft computing, nonlinear systems or molecular biology with a thematic coherence. The volume will be useful to researchers working in these different fields enabling them to see the underlying unity and power of entropy optimization frameworks.
Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and lead to instabilities, fluctuations, and evolutionary systems. This book explores the unifying role of thermodynamics in natural phenomena. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, Second Edition analyzes the transport processes of energy, mass, and momentum transfer processes, as well as chemical reactions. It considers various processes occurring simultaneously, and provides students with more realistic analysis and modeling by accounting possible interactions between them. This second edition updates and expands on the first edition by focusing on the balance equations of mass, momentum, energy, and entropy together with the Gibbs equation for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. Every chapter contains examples and practical problems to be solved. This book will be effective in senior and graduate education in chemical, mechanical, systems, biomedical, tissue, biological, and biological systems engineering, as well as physical, biophysical, biological, chemical, and biochemical sciences. Will help readers in understanding and modelling some of the coupled and complex systems, such as coupled transport and chemical reaction cycles in biological systems Presents a unified approach for interacting processes - combines analysis of transport and rate processes Introduces the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its use in simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions of physical, chemical, and biological systems A useful text for students taking advanced thermodynamics courses
|Author||: Adrian Bejan,Eden Mamut|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 1999-07-31|
|ISBN 10||: 9780792357261|
|Pages||: 465 pages|
A comprehensive assessment of the methodologies of thermodynamic optimization, exergy analysis and thermoeconomics, and their application to the design of efficient and environmentally sound energy systems. The chapters are organized in a sequence that begins with pure thermodynamics and progresses towards the blending of thermodynamics with other disciplines, such as heat transfer and cost accounting. Three methods of analysis stand out: entropy generation minimization, exergy (or availability) analysis, and thermoeconomics. The book reviews current directions in a field that is both extremely important and intellectually alive. Additionally, new directions for research on thermodynamics and optimization are revealed.
Despite the vast research on energy optimization and process integration, there has to date been no synthesis linking these together. This book fills the gap, presenting optimization and integration in energy and process engineering. The content is based on the current literature and includes novel approaches developed by the authors. Various thermal and chemical systems (heat and mass exchangers, thermal and water networks, energy converters, recovery units, solar collectors, and separators) are considered. Thermodynamics, kinetics and economics are used to formulate and solve problems with constraints on process rates, equipment size, environmental parameters, and costs. Comprehensive coverage of dynamic optimization of energy conversion systems and separation units is provided along with suitable computational algorithms for deterministic and stochastic optimization approaches based on: nonlinear programming, dynamic programming, variational calculus, Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theory, Pontryagin's maximum principles, and special methods of process integration. Integration of heat energy and process water within a total site is shown to be a significant factor reducing production costs, in particular costs of utilities for the chemical industry. This integration involves systematic design and optimization of heat exchangers and water networks (HEN and WN). After presenting basic, insight-based Pinch Technology, systematic, optimization-based sequential and simultaneous approaches to design HEN and WN are described. Special consideration is given to the HEN design problem targeting stage, in view of its importance at various levels of system design. Selected, advanced methods for HEN synthesis and retrofit are presented. For WN design a novel approach based on stochastic optimization is described that accounts for both grassroot and revamp design scenarios. Presents a unique synthesis of energy optimization and process integration that applies scientific information from thermodynamics, kinetics, and systems theory Discusses engineering applications including power generation, resource upgrading, radiation conversion and chemical transformation, in static and dynamic systems Clarifies how to identify thermal and chemical constraints and incorporate them into optimization models and solutions
Social Entropy Theory illuminates the fundamental problems of societal analysis with a nonequilibrium approach, a new frame of reference built upon contemporary macrological principles, including general systems theory and information theory. Social entropy theory, using Shannon's H and the entropy concept, avoids the common (and often artificial) separation of theory and method in sociology. The hallmark of the volume is integration, as seen in the author's interdisciplinary discussions of equilibrium, entropy, and homeostasis. Unique features of the book are the introduction of the three-level model of social measurement, the theory of allocation, the concepts of global-mutable-immutable, discussion of order and power, and a large set of testable hypotheses.
|Author||: Wojciech Zamojski,Jacek Mazurkiewicz,Jarosław Sugier,Tomasz Walkowiak,Janusz Kacprzyk|
|Release Date||: 2014-05-16|
|ISBN 10||: 3319070134|
|Pages||: 534 pages|
DepCoS – RELCOMEX is an annual series of conferences organized by Wrocław University of Technology to promote a comprehensive approach to evaluation of system performability which is now commonly called dependability. In contrast to classic analyses which were concentrated on reliability of technical resources and structures built from them, dependability is based on multi-disciplinary approach to theory, technology and maintenance of a system considered to be a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators, supervisors, etc.) resources. Diversity of processes being realized (data processing, system management, system monitoring, etc.), their concurrency and their reliance on in-system intelligence often severely impedes construction of strict mathematical models and calls for application of intelligent and soft computing methods. This book presents the proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, which took place in Brunów Palace, Poland, from 30th June to 4th July, 2014. The articles selected for this volume illustrate the variety of topics that must be included in system dependability analysis: tools, methodologies and standards for modelling, design and simulation of the systems, security and confidentiality in information processing, specific issues of heterogeneous, today often wireless, computer networks or management of transportation networks.