Covering the full spectrum of endoscopic ultrasound, Endosonography, 4th Edition, by Drs. Robert Hawes, Paul Fockens, and Shyam Varadarajulu, is a comprehensive, one-stop resource for mastering both diagnostic and therapeutic EUS procedures. Leading global authorities guide you step by step through both introductory and advanced techniques, covering everything from interpretation and accurate diagnosis to treatment recommendations. High-quality images and an easy-to-navigate format make this updated reference a must-have for both beginning and experienced endosonographers. Features completed updated content throughout, including new sections on high-intensity focused ultrasound, through-the-needle biopsy, benign pancreatic masses, and gastro-jejunostomy. Includes perspectives from new contributors who provide global experience and knowledge. Contains new and enhanced illustrations that correlate with high-quality endoscopic images. Covers cutting-edge techniques for performing therapeutic interventions, such as drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts and EUS-guided anti-tumor therapy, as well as fine needle aspiration (FNA) procedures.
Since endoscopic ultrasonography was first used approximately 15 years ago, it has become a valuable adjunct tool, supplementing endoscopy, conventional ultrasound, and CT for a large number of specific indications. Features of this book include: physical laws and technology as necessary for an understanding of the imaging technique; indications and clinical value of the method for specific indications; examination technique in normal findings as the basis of evaluation: for example, passage through the esophagus and stomach are shown step by step using more than 30 illustrations. All original photographs are explained with correlated line drawings, aiding the unexperienced examiner to interpret images with confidence. Written by authors who were pioneers in the method, and who have established an international reputation.
Following the development of gray-scale imaging, real-time scanning, Doppler examination, and high-frequency sonography, endosonography is one of the latest major breakthroughs in the history of diagnostic ultrasound. Although early attempts at inserting ultrasound transducers in natural cavities of the body can be traced back more than two decades, only in the past few years has technology allowed the development and commercialization of effective, easy-to-use endosono scopic probes. Because the transducer can be placed in direct contact with or close to lesions, high frequencies (up to ~2 MHz) can be used, yielding cross-sectional images of unsurpassed resolution. The availability of specially designed intracorporeal probes for specific natural cavities that are routinely explored by conventional (optical) endoscopy or palpation has significantly expanded the diagnostic applications of sonography. Transrectal and transvaginal examinations are now performed routinely in many institutions, and virtually all sonographic equipment manufac turers have in their line of products at least one endorectal and one endovaginal transducer. Most endosonoscopic probes connect to existing scanners, and for radiology departments, the invest ment for transrectal or transvaginal scanning will usually be limited to the purchase of the specific probe. In this book, clinical applications of endosonography (excluding transesophageal echocardio graphy) are covered by European and North American experts. Current equipment and techniques of examination are described in detail to help newcomers get started in the field of endosonography.
The available textbooks on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) typically focus on technique and interpretation of commonly observed images and scenarios and are aimed primarily at trainees. However, independent practitioners of EUS are often challenged by unusual cases which they are expected to handle competently despite the absence of authoritative guidance. The Diagnostic Endosonography aims to fill this gap by presenting carefully selected cases that will expand the practitioner’s knowledge base and cover important clinical challenges. The case material is organized principally according to anatomic site. Approximately 170 case reports are included, each of which is accompanied by an average of three to five high-quality EUS images; in addition, CT and PET scans are shown when appropriate. For each case, the case description is followed by helpful “teaching points” as well as up-to-date literature references and suggestions for future research.
The introduction of endosonographically guided fine-needle biopsy has led to increasing use of longitudinal scans in the endosonographic diagnosis of tumors and other diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract as well as of the pancreas. In this handbook, experts concentrate primarily on practical aspects of using endosonography with longitudinal scans. Examination techniques, interpretation of the ultrasound images, and normal anatomy with important guiding structures are demonstrated by means of 3D CT images and the corresponding endosonographic images. In addition, pathological endosonographic findings and the current status of diagnosis using fine-needle biopsy are described.
From diagnostic to therapeutic procedures, Endosonography, 3rd Edition is an easy-to-access, highly visual guide covering everything you need to effectively perform EUS, interpret your findings, diagnose accurately, and choose the best treatment course. World-renowned endosonographers help beginners apply endosonography in staging cancers, evaluating chronic pancreatitis, and studying bile duct abnormalities and submucosal lesions. Practicing endosonographers can learn cutting-edge techniques for performing therapeutic interventions such as drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts and EUS-guided anti-tumor therapy. Meticulous updates, electronic access to the fully searchable text, videos detailing various methods and procedures-and more-equip you with a complete overview of all aspects of EUS. Get a clear overview of everything you need to know to establish an endoscopic practice, from what equipment to buy to providing effective cytopathology services. Understand the role of EUS with the aid of algorithms that define its place in specific disease states. Gain a detailed visual understanding and mastery of how to perform EUS systematically using illustrations, high-quality endosonography images, and videos. Glean all essential, up-to-date information about endosonography including transluminal drainage procedures, contrast-enhanced EUS, and fine-needle aspiration techniques. Benefit from the extensive knowledge and experience of world-renowned leaders in endosonography, Drs. Robert H. Hawes, Paul Fockens, and Shyam Varadarajulu. Locate information quickly and easily through a consistent chapter structure, with procedures organized by body system. Access the full text online at Expert Consult. Master how to perform EUS systematically using the station-based approach and the latest techniques on FNA and therapeutic interventions using step-by-step procedural videos and high-quality images from leading global authorities.
It is now more than 40 years since Drs. Wild and Reid published their first experience with rectal ultrasonography from the Surgery Department at the University of Minnesota. Professor Owen H. Wangen steen, in whose laboratory the studies were carried out, recognized at that time the need for early detection in the treatment of cancer. Technical improvements over the past 20 years have made endoscopy the procedure of choice for examination of the hollow organs of the genital, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. The simultaneous development of endosonography has had an equally dramatic impact on the practice of medicine and surgery. The technology has been demonstrated to be helpful in both benign and malignant conditions. One of the so-called benign conditions of the anorectum is fistula-in-ano. Fistula surgery has always relied on excellent anatomic delineation of the intramuscular tracts. There is hope that adaptation of ultrasonographic technology will aid in the surgical management of this malady. Clearly, rectal ultrasonography has considerable potential in the management of rectal carcinoma. Accuracy rates in the range of 90% for the depth of neoplastic invasion have been reported. This ability for accurate assessment will undoubtedly lead to a better definition of the population of patients that can be managed by local therapeutic means.
|Author||: Gernot Feifel,Ulrich Hildebrandt,Neil J.McC. Mortensen|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2012-12-06|
|ISBN 10||: 3642742521|
|Pages||: 217 pages|
Technical improvements over the past twenty years have made endos copy the procedure of choice for examination of the hollow organs of the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts. The development of electro surgical techniques, laser technology, injection therapy, and a wide variety of other modalities now allow the endoscopist to treat many problems that in the past required open surgery. The simultaneous development of transcutaneous abdominal sonography has had an equally dramatic impact on the practice of gastrointestinal and geni tourinary surgery. The marriage of these proven technologies, known as endoscopic sonography, provides an exciting new modality that promises to further revolutionize the diagnosis and management of many intraabdominal diseases. Endoscopic sonography opens new frontiers by overcoming the primary limitations of its parent technologies. Fiberoptic endoscopy is limited by the inability to see beyond the luminal surface, this is particularly important when considering neoplastic disease because depth of wall invasion is a key factor in determining treatment. The limiting factor in transcutaneous sonography is the distance between the transducer and the target organ. With endoscopic sonography, the transducer is placed in close proximity to the target organ. This allows the use of high frequency waves (greater than 5 MHz), which provide better tissue resolution and eliminates the image distortion caused by overlying structures.
Transcutaneous ultrasonography is an established procedure for diagnosis and therapy in gastroenterology. However, ultrasonic images can often be hampered by pulmonary and intestinal gas and by bony and adipose tissue. In 1956 Wild and Reid reported the first results of transrectal ultrasound of the prostate . In 1976 Lutz introduced an A-mode ultrasonic probe which could be introduced via the biopsy channel of an endoscope . In 1978 and 1980 Hisanaga performed echocardiography using an ultrasonic transducer attached to the tip of a flexible instrument [3, 4]. In animal studies and later on in humans Di Magno has used an echoendoscope in which a small transducer was attached at the tip of a fiberoptic endoscope [5, 6]. The purpose was to overcome the limitations of transcutaneous ultrasonography by directly approaching target lesions with a high-frequency ultrasound source via the gastroin testinallumen. SJlbsequently, the first series of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) examinations were reported during the European congress in Stockholm . The purpose of this book is: 1. To evaluate the technique and the equipment for endoscopic ultrasonography 2. To evaluate in detail the endosonographic pattern of the normal and abnormal wall structure 3. To analyze a large consecutive series of various gastrointestinal malignancies in order to determine the usefulness and accuracy of EUS in the detection, staging, and therapy of malignant diseases 4. To compare EUS with other imaging techniques References 1.
More than 25 years ago, when ultrasound diagnostic methods were first intro duced into gynecology and obstetrics, few of the pioneers of these techniques sus pected what importance sonographic diagnosis was destined to assume. It was soon recognized that the organs of the lesser pelvis could be visualized to much greater advantage by inserting probes into the natural bodily orifices than by abdominal sonography. Full exploitation of the physical properties of ultra sound had to wait, as so often in the history of sonography, for technological ad vances. Endosonography in the form available to us today combines the advantages of endoscopy and sonography. The next light-reflecting surface, once the limit of en doscopy, represents no barrier to ultrasound. A whole range of both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures can be sonographically guided. Blood flow in vessels lying deep in the lesser pelvis can now be measured by means of vaginal duplex sonography.