|Author||: Kamy Sepehrnoori,Yifei Xu,Wei Yu|
|Release Date||: 2020-08-27|
|ISBN 10||: 0128196882|
|Pages||: 304 pages|
The development of naturally fractured reservoirs, especially shale gas and tight oil reservoirs, exploded in recent years due to advanced drilling and fracturing techniques. However, complex fracture geometries such as irregular fracture networks and non-planar fractures are often generated, especially in the presence of natural fractures. Accurate modelling of production from reservoirs with such geometries is challenging. Therefore, Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling and Application in Reservoir Simulation demonstrates how production from reservoirs with complex fracture geometries can be modelled efficiently and effectively. This volume presents a conventional numerical model to handle simple and complex fractures using local grid refinement (LGR) and unstructured gridding. Moreover, it introduces an Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) to efficiently deal with complex fractures by dividing the fractures into segments using matrix cell boundaries and creating non-neighboring connections (NNCs). A basic EDFM approach using Cartesian grids and advanced EDFM approach using Corner point and unstructured grids will be covered. Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling and Application in Reservoir Simulation is an essential reference for anyone interested in performing reservoir simulation of conventional and unconventional fractured reservoirs. Highlights the current state-of-the-art in reservoir simulation of unconventional reservoirs Offers understanding of the impacts of key reservoir properties and complex fractures on well performance Provides case studies to show how to use the EDFM method for different needs
|Author||: Yifei Xu|
|Release Date||: 2015|
|Pages||: 246 pages|
Fractured reservoirs have gained continuous attention from oil and gas industry. A huge amount of hydrocarbon are trapped in naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs. Besides, the advanced technology of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing have gained a great success in economic development of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. Fractures add complexity into reservoir flow and significantly impact the ultimate recovery. Therefore, it is important yet challenging to accurately and effectively predict the recovery from fractured reservoirs. Conventional dual-continuum approaches, although effective in the simulation of naturally fractured reservoirs, may fail in some cases due to the highly idealized reservoir model. The unstructured-grid discrete fracture models, although flexible in representing complex fracture geometries, are restricted by the high complexity in gridding and high computational cost. An Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) was recently developed to honor the accuracy of discrete fracture models while keeping the efficiency offered by structured gridding. By dividing the fractures into segments using matrix cell boundaries and creating non-neighboring connections (NNCs), the flow influence of fractures can be efficiently modeled through transport indices. In this work, the EDFM was implemented in UTCHEM, a chemical flooding in-house reservoir simulator developed at The University of Texas, to study complex recovery processes in fractured reservoirs. In addition, the model was applied in commercial simulators by making use of the non-intrusive property of the EDFM and the NNC functionality offered by the simulators. The accuracy of the EDFM in the modeling of orthogonal, non-orthogonal, and inclined fractures was verified against fine-grid explicit fracture simulations. Furthermore, case studies were performed to investigate the influence of hydraulic fracture orientations on primary depletion and the impact of large-scale natural fractures on water flooding processes. The influence of matrix grid size and fracture relative permeability was also studied. Finally, with modifications in NNC transmissibility calculation, the EDFM was applied to the modeling of a multi-lateral well stimulation technology. The accuracy of the modified formulations was verified through comparison with a multi-branch well method. The simulations carried out in this work confirmed the flexibility, applicability, and extensiveness of the EDFM.
Shale Gas and Tight Oil Reservoir Simulation delivers the latest research and applications used to better manage and interpret simulating production from shale gas and tight oil reservoirs. Starting with basic fundamentals, the book then includes real field data that will not only generate reliable reserve estimation, but also predict the effective range of reservoir and fracture properties through multiple history matching solutions. Also included are new insights into the numerical modelling of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in tight oil reservoirs. This information is critical for a better understanding of the impacts of key reservoir properties and complex fractures. Models the well performance of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs with complex fracture geometries Teaches how to perform sensitivity studies, history matching, production forecasts, and economic optimization for shale-gas and tight-oil reservoirs Helps readers investigate data mining techniques, including the introduction of nonparametric smoothing models
|Author||: Sutthaporn Tripoppoom,Wei Yu,Kamy Sepehrnoori,Jijun Miao|
|Publisher||: Gulf Professional Publishing|
|Release Date||: 2021-08-15|
|ISBN 10||: 9780128222423|
|Pages||: 330 pages|
As unconventional reservoir activity grows in demand, reservoir engineers relying on history matching are challenged with this time-consuming task in order to characterize hydraulic fracture and reservoir properties, which are expensive and difficult to obtain. Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs delivers a critical tool for today's engineers proposing an Assisted History Matching (AHM) workflow. The AHM workflow has benefits of quantifying uncertainty without bias or being trapped in any local minima and this reference helps the engineer integrate an efficient and non-intrusive model for fractures that work with any commercial simulator. Additional benefits include various applications of field case studies such as the Marcellus shale play and visuals on the advantages and disadvantages of alternative models. Rounding out with additional references for deeper learning, Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs gives reservoir engineers a holistic view on how to model today's fractures and unconventional reservoirs. Provides understanding on simulations for hydraulic fractures, natural fractures, and shale reservoirs using embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM) Reviews automatic and assisted history matching algorithms including visuals on advantages and limitations of each model Captures data on uncertainties of fractures and reservoir properties for better probabilistic production forecasting and well placement
Hydraulic Fracture Modeling delivers all the pertinent technology and solutions in one product to become the go-to source for petroleum and reservoir engineers. Providing tools and approaches, this multi-contributed reference presents current and upcoming developments for modeling rock fracturing including their limitations and problem-solving applications. Fractures are common in oil and gas reservoir formations, and with the ongoing increase in development of unconventional reservoirs, more petroleum engineers today need to know the latest technology surrounding hydraulic fracturing technology such as fracture rock modeling. There is tremendous research in the area but not all located in one place. Covering two types of modeling technologies, various effective fracturing approaches and model applications for fracturing, the book equips today’s petroleum engineer with an all-inclusive product to characterize and optimize today’s more complex reservoirs. Offers understanding of the details surrounding fracturing and fracture modeling technology, including theories and quantitative methods Provides academic and practical perspective from multiple contributors at the forefront of hydraulic fracturing and rock mechanics Provides today’s petroleum engineer with model validation tools backed by real-world case studies
|Author||: Mahmood Shakiba|
|Release Date||: 2014|
|Pages||: 314 pages|
Modeling and simulation of fluid flow in subsurface fractured systems has been steadily a popular topic in petroleum industry. The huge potential hydrocarbon reserve in naturally and hydraulically fractured reservoirs has been a major stimulant for developments in this field. Although several models have found limited applications in studying fractured reservoirs, still more comprehensive models are required to be applied for practical purposes. A recently developed Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) incorporates the advantages of two of the well-known approaches, the dual continuum and the discrete fracture models, to investigate more complex fracture geometries. In EDFM, each fracture is embedded inside the matrix grid and is discretized by the cell boundaries. This approach introduces a robust methodology to represent the fracture planes explicitly in the computational domain. As part of this research, the EDFM was implemented in two of The University of Texas in-house reservoir simulators, UTCOMP and UTGEL. The modified reservoir simulators are capable of modeling and simulation of a broad range of reservoir engineering applications in naturally and hydraulically fractured reservoirs. To validate this work, comparisons were made against a fine-grid simulation and a semi-analytical solution. Also, the results were compared for more complicated fracture geometries with the results obtained from EDFM implementation in the GPAS reservoir simulator. In all the examples, good agreements were observed. To further illustrate the application and capabilities of UTCOMP- and UTGEL-EDFM, a few case studies were presented. First, a synthetic reservoir model with a network of fractures was considered to study the impact of well placement. It was shown that considering the configuration of background fracture networks can significantly improve the well placement design and also maximize the oil recovery. Then, the capillary imbibition effect was investigated for the same reservoir models to display its effect on incremental oil recovery. Furthermore, UTCOMP-EDFM was applied for hydraulic fracturing design where the performances of a simple and a complex fracture networks were evaluated in reservoirs with different rock matrix permeabilities. Accordingly, it was shown that a complex network is an ideal design for a very low permeability reservoir, while a simple network results in higher recovery when the reservoir permeability is moderate. Finally, UTGEL-EDFM was employed to optimize a conformance control process. Different injection timings and different gel concentrations were selected for water-flooding processes and their impact on oil recovery was evaluated henceforth.
This monograph on fractures, fracture networks, and fractured porous media provides a systematic treatment of their geometrical and transport properties for students and professionals in Geophysics, Materials Science, and Earth Sciences.
|Author||: Emad Walid Al Shalabi,Kamy Sepehrnoori|
|Publisher||: Gulf Professional Publishing|
|Release Date||: 2017-06-14|
|ISBN 10||: 0128136057|
|Pages||: 178 pages|
Low Salinity and Engineered Water Injection for Sandstones and Carbonate Reservoirs provides a first of its kind review of the low salinity and engineered water injection (LSWI/EWI) techniques for today’s more complex enhanced oil recovery methods. Reservoir engineers today are challenged in the design and physical mechanisms behind low salinity injection projects, and to date, the research is currently only located in numerous journal locations. This reference helps readers overcome these challenging issues with explanations on models, experiments, mechanism analysis, and field applications involved in low salinity and engineered water. Covering significant laboratory, numerical, and field studies, lessons learned are also highlighted along with key areas for future research in this fast-growing area of the oil and gas industry. After an introduction to its techniques, the initial chapters review the main experimental findings and explore the mechanisms behind the impact of LSWI/EWI on oil recovery. The book then moves on to the critical area of modeling and simulation, discusses the geochemistry of LSWI/EWI processes, and applications of LSWI/EWI techniques in the field, including the authors’ own recommendations based on their extensive experience. It is an essential reference for professional reservoir and field engineers, researchers and students working on LSWI/EWI and seeking to apply these methods for increased oil recovery. Teaches users how to understand the various mechanisms contributing to incremental oil recovery using low salinity and engineering water injection (LSWI/EWI) in sandstones and carbonates Balances guidance between designing laboratory experiments, to applying the LSWI/EWI techniques at both pilot-scale and full-field-scale for real-world operations Presents state-of-the-art approaches to simulation and modeling of LSWI/EWI
This book solves the open problems in fluid flow modeling through the fractured vuggy carbonate reservoirs. Fractured vuggy carbonate reservoirs usually have complex pore structures, which contain not only matrix and fractures but also the vugs and cavities. Since the vugs and cavities are irregular in shape and vary in diameter from millimeters to meters, modeling fluid flow through fractured vuggy porous media is still a challenge. The existing modeling theory and methods are not suitable for such reservoir. It starts from the concept of discrete fracture and fracture-vug networks model, and then develops the corresponding mathematical models and numerical methods, including discrete fracture model, discrete fracture-vug model, hybrid model and multiscale models. Based on these discrete porous media models, some equivalent medium models and methods are also discussed. All the modeling and methods shared in this book offer the key recent solutions into this area.
This book describes the application of modern information technology to reservoir modeling and well management in shale. While covering Shale Analytics, it focuses on reservoir modeling and production management of shale plays, since conventional reservoir and production modeling techniques do not perform well in this environment. Topics covered include tools for analysis, predictive modeling and optimization of production from shale in the presence of massive multi-cluster, multi-stage hydraulic fractures. Given the fact that the physics of storage and fluid flow in shale are not well-understood and well-defined, Shale Analytics avoids making simplifying assumptions and concentrates on facts (Hard Data - Field Measurements) to reach conclusions. Also discussed are important insights into understanding completion practices and re-frac candidate selection and design. The flexibility and power of the technique is demonstrated in numerous real-world situations.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on Fracture Characterization and Fluid Flow|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 1996-08-27|
|ISBN 10||: 0309049962|
|Pages||: 568 pages|
Scientific understanding of fluid flow in rock fractures--a process underlying contemporary earth science problems from the search for petroleum to the controversy over nuclear waste storage--has grown significantly in the past 20 years. This volume presents a comprehensive report on the state of the field, with an interdisciplinary viewpoint, case studies of fracture sites, illustrations, conclusions, and research recommendations. The book addresses these questions: How can fractures that are significant hydraulic conductors be identified, located, and characterized? How do flow and transport occur in fracture systems? How can changes in fracture systems be predicted and controlled? Among other topics, the committee provides a geomechanical understanding of fracture formation, reviews methods for detecting subsurface fractures, and looks at the use of hydraulic and tracer tests to investigate fluid flow. The volume examines the state of conceptual and mathematical modeling, and it provides a useful framework for understanding the complexity of fracture changes that occur during fluid pumping and other engineering practices. With a practical and multidisciplinary outlook, this volume will be welcomed by geologists, petroleum geologists, geoengineers, geophysicists, hydrologists, researchers, educators and students in these fields, and public officials involved in geological projects.