Throughout most of the twentieth century, electric propulsion was considered the technology of the future. Now, the future has arrived. This important new book explains the fundamentals of electric propulsion for spacecraft and describes in detail the physics and characteristics of the two major electric thrusters in use today, ion and Hall thrusters. The authors provide an introduction to plasma physics in order to allow readers to understand the models and derivations used in determining electric thruster performance. They then go on to present detailed explanations of: Thruster principles Ion thruster plasma generators and accelerator grids Hollow cathodes Hall thrusters Ion and Hall thruster plumes Flight ion and Hall thrusters Based largely on research and development performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and complemented with scores of tables, figures, homework problems, and references, Fundamentals of Electric Propulsion: Ion and Hall Thrusters is an indispensable textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who are preparing to enter the aerospace industry. It also serves as an equally valuable resource for professional engineers already at work in the field.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 1994-01-01|
|ISBN 10||: 030908363X|
|Pages||: 156 pages|
This book reviews the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) small spacecraft technology development. Included are assessments of NASA's technology priorities for relevance to small spacecraft and identification of technology gaps and overlaps. The volume also examines the small spacecraft technology programs of other government agencies and assesses technology efforts in industry.
|Author||: Steven Paul Berg|
|Release Date||: 2015|
|Pages||: 149 pages|
"This dissertation presents work on development of multi-mode specific spacecraft propulsion systems. Specifically, this work attempts to realize a single propellant capable of both chemical monopropellant and electric electrospray rocket propulsion, develop methods to characterize multi-mode propulsion system performance, and realize a system capable of both monopropellant and electrospray propulsion for a small spacecraft. Selection criteria for ionic liquid propellants capable of both monopropellant and electrospray propulsion are developed. These are based on desired physical properties and performance considering use in both propulsive modes. From these insights, a monopropellant mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate and hydroxylammonium nitrate is selected and synthesized. Multi-mode spacecraft micropropulsion systems which include a high-thrust chemical mode and high-specific impulse electric mode are assessed. Due to the combination of a common propellant for both propulsive modes, low inert mass, and high electric thrust, the monopropellant/electrospray system has the highest mission capability in terms of delta-V for missions lasting shorter than 150 days. The ionic liquid monopropellant mixture is tested for decomposition on heated platinum, rhenium, and titanium surfaces. It was found that the propellant decomposes at 165 °C on titanium, which is the decomposition temperature of HAN, and 85 °C on platinum. Arrhenius-type reaction rate parameters were calculated from the results and used to develop thruster models. The [Emim] [EtSO4]-HAN propellant mixture is tested in a capillary electrospray emitter and exhibits stable electrospray emission at a nominal extraction voltage of 3400 V. The highest specific impulse attained in these experiments was 412 seconds; however, this could be improved with a more robust feed system design. This data, along with data from the monopropellant decomposition experiment is used to design a multi-mode micropropulsion system using a common propellant and common thruster geometry. This system is capable of ~20-40% greater delta-V capability at a given mission duration compared to a system utilizing separate, state-of-the-art monopropellant and electrospray thrusters"--Abstract, page iv.
|Author||: Claudio Bruno,Antonio G. Accettura|
|Publisher||: Progress in Astronautics and A|
|Release Date||: 2008|
|Pages||: 489 pages|
"Commissioned by the European Space Agency."--P.  of cover.
Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Volume 9: Electric Propulsion Development covers the proceedings of the Second Electric Propulsion Conference of the American Rocker Society, held in Berkeley, California on March 14-16, 1962. The conference focuses on the existing problems in electric propulsion and their possible solutions. This book is organized into four sections encompassing 35 chapters. The first section deals with the thermodynamics of arcs; the problems of heat and momentum transfer; the chemical processes within arcs; the arc system materials; and the arc jet design problems. The second section considers the problems of ion systems, the various ion sources, and the neutralization of ion beams. This section also looks into the basic ionization processes, the production and charging of heavy particles, the corrosive properties of cesium, and the ion-optical designs. The third section describes various plasma systems, including helical transmission lines, pulsed pinch accelerators, coaxial systems, and j x B accelerators. The theoretical analyses of these systems are briefly examined. The fourth section includes papers on flight testing of electric propulsion models, on vertical rocket probes, and on satellites, This section also discusses some advanced concepts in electric propulsion, such as air scooping during ascent through the atmosphere, systems design and optimization, and planetary and interplanetary missions. This book is of great value to physicists, space engineers and designers, as well as researchers in the fields of astronautics and aeronautics.
Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this text develops the concepts of electrical acceleration of gases for propulsion, from primary physical principles to realistic space thruster designs. 1968 edition.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board,Steering Committee for NASA Technology Roadmaps|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2012-06-07|
|ISBN 10||: 0309253624|
|Pages||: 376 pages|
NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) has begun to rebuild the advanced space technology program in the agency with plans laid out in 14 draft technology roadmaps. It has been years since NASA has had a vigorous, broad-based program in advanced space technology development and its technology base has been largely depleted. However, success in executing future NASA space missions will depend on advanced technology developments that should already be underway. Reaching out to involve the external technical community, the National Research Council (NRC) considered the 14 draft technology roadmaps prepared by OCT and ranked the top technical challenges and highest priority technologies that NASA should emphasize in the next 5 years. This report provides specific guidance and recommendations on how the effectiveness of the technology development program managed by OCT can be enhanced in the face of scarce resources.
Space propulsion systems have a great influence on our ability to travel to other planets or how cheap a satellite can provide TV programs. This book provides an up-to-date overview of all kinds of propulsion systems ranging from classical rocket technology, nuclear propulsion to electric propulsion systems, and further to micro-, propellantless and even breakthrough propulsion, which is a new program under development at NASA. The author shows the limitations of the present concepts and how they could look like in the future. Starting from historical developments, the reader is taken on a journey showing the amazing technology that has been put on hold for decades to be rediscovered in the near future for questions like how we can even reach other stars within a human lifetime. The author is actively involved in advanced propulsion research and contributes with his own experience to many of the presented topics. The book is written for anyone who is interested in how space travel can be revolutionized.
Twenty years since the first edition was published in the German language, and just over fifty years since the launch of the Earth’s first ever artificial satellite Sputnik 1, this third edition of the Handbook of Space Technology presents in fully integrated colour a detailed insight into the fascinating world of space for the first time in the English language. Authored by over 70 leading experts from universities, research institutions and the space industry, this comprehensive handbook describes the processes and methodologies behind the development, construction, operation and utilization of space systems, presenting the profound changes that have occurred in recent years in the engineering, materials, processes and even politics associated with space technologies and utilization. The individual chapters are self-contained, enabling the reader to gain a quick and reliable overview of a selected field; an extensive reference and keyword list helps those who wish to deepen their understanding of individual topics. Featuring superb, full colour illustrations and photography throughout, this interdisciplinary reference contains practical, hands-on engineering and planning information that will be invaluable to those on a career path within space technology, or simply for those of us who’d like to know more about this fascinating industry. Main section headings include: Introduction (historical overview, space missions) Fundamentals (orbital mechanics, aerothermodynamics/ reentry, space debris) Launch Vehicles (staged technologies, propulsion systems, launch infrastructure) Space Vehicle Subsystems (structure, energy supply, thermal controls, attitude control, communication) Aspects of Human Flight (man in space, life support systems, rendezvous and docking) Mission Operations (satellite operation, control center, ground station network) Utilization of Space (Earth observation, communication navigation, space astronomy, material sciences, space medicine, robotics) Configuration and Design of a Space Vehicle (mission concept, system concept, environmental simulation, system design, Galileo satellites) Management of Space Missions (project management, quality management, cost management, space law)
1 1. 1 Introduction The (signal processing and storage) capacity ofthe human brain enables us to become powerful autonomous beings, but only if our brains operate in conjunction with (at least some of) our senses and muscles. Using these organs, we can interact with our environment, learn to adapt, and improve important aspects of our life. Similarly, the signal processing capabilities of modern electronics (computers) could be combined with electronic sensors and actuators to enable interaction with, and adaptation to, the (non-electrical) environment. This willlead to smarter and more powerful automated tools and machines. To facilitate and stimulate such a development, easy-to-use low-cost sensors are needed. The combination of electronic interface functions and a sensor in an integrated smart sensor, that provides a standard, digital, and bus-compatible output, would simplify the connection of sensors to standard electronic signal processors (microcontrollers, computers, etc. ). Currently, the calibration procedure, required for standardization of the sensor output signal level, contributes largely to the production costs of accurate sensors. To enable automation of the calibration procedure, and hence reduce the sensor fabrication costs, a digital calibrationjunction should be included in the smart sensor. INTEGRATED SMART SENSORS: Design and Calibration Introduction 1. 2 Sensors and actuators In industry many processes are electronically controlled. As depicted in Fig.
In space, satellites and spacecraft materials are vulnerable. They can become charged to tens or even thousands of volts when plasmas in the space environment interact with a spacecraft. This title explains this phenomenon while exploring the effects that energetic plasma has on the space environment and the objects within it.