Rural Electrification poses solutions to the insuperable modern challenge of providing 24/7 electricity for populations, housing and territory located outside towns and cities. The book reviews the historical development of rural energy systems, their status quo, and the role of renewable and fossil fueled solutions in delivering electricity. It addresses core issues of energy source typologies, resource deployment, fundamental challenges and limitations, the burgeoning threat of climate change, and the role of the renewable energy transition. Chapters account for almost all forms of fuel solutions, with a focus on electrification economics, planning, and policy using the most cost-effective fuels and systems available. Novel approaches to address the challenges of rural electrification, including distributed generation systems, new management and ownership models, off-grid systems, and future energy technologies are thoroughly explored. The work concludes with a comparative assessment of different energy supply technologies and scenarios, contrasting the pros and cons of fossil fuels versus renewable energy resources to achieve the goal of comprehensive rural electrification. Provides a suite of new approaches to deliver and expand electrification across challenging rural environments Describes optimal economics, planning and policy for electrification where there is no access to electricity Reviews how practitioners can achieve cost reductions for rural energy supply using existing technologies Addresses routes to power rural electrification within a transitioning energy economy while simultaneously accounting for climate change considerations
Awarded the Dexter Prize by the Society for the History of Technology, this book offers a comparative history of the evolution of modern electric power systems. It described large-scale technological change and demonstrates that technology cannot be understood unless placed in a cultural context.
|Author||: United States. Rural Electrification Administration|
|Release Date||: 1957|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Douglas Barnes and his team of development experts provide an essential guide that can help improve the quality of life to the estimated 1.6 billion rural people in the world who are without electricity. The difficulties in bringing electricity to rural areas are formidable: Low population densities result in high capital and operating costs. Consumers are often poor, and their electricity consumption is low. Politicians interfere with the planning and operations of programs, insisting on favored constituents. Yet, as Barnes and his contributors demonstrate, many countries have overcome these obstacles. The Challenge of Rural Electrification provides lessons from successful programs in Bangladesh, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Mexico, the Philippines, Thailand, and Tunisia, as well as Ireland and the United States. These insights are presented in a format that should be accessible to a broad range of policymakers, development professionals, and community advocates. Barnes and his contributors do not provide a single formula for bringing electricity to rural areas. They do not recommend a specific set of institutional arrangements for the participation of public sector companies, cooperatives, and private firms. They argue instead that successful programs follow a flexible, but still well-defined set of principles: a financially viable plan that clearly accounts for any subsidies; a cooperative relationship between electricity providers and local communities; and an operational separation from day-to-day government and politics.
For those in developed nations, suddenly being without electricity is a disaster: power cuts have us fretting over the food stored in the freezer, and even a few hours without lights, televisions, or air conditioning is an ordeal. However, for an estimated 1.6 billion people worldwide, the absence of electricity is their daily experience. An untold number of others live with electricity that is erratic and of poor quality. How can electric power be brought into their lives when the centralized utility models that have evolved in developed nations are not an economically viable option? Poor, rural communities in developing nations cannot simply be ‘plugged in’ to a grid. Small-scale Distributed Generation (DG), ranging from individual solar home systems to village level grids run off diesel generators, could provide the answer, and this book compares around 20 DG enterprises and projects in Brazil, Cambodia and China, each of which is considered to be a "business model" for distributed rural electrification. While large, centralized power projects often rely on big subsidies, this study shows that privately run and localized solutions can be both self-sustaining and replicable. Its three sections provide a general introduction to the issue of electrification and rural development, set out the details of the case studies and compare the models involved, and discuss the important thematic issues of equity, access to capital and cost-recovery. Hisham Zerriffi shows that in each case, it is not simply a matter of matching a particular technology to a particular need. Numerous institutional factors come into play including the regulatory regime, access to financial services, and government/utility support or opposition to the DG alternative. Despite this, in many countries, the question is not whether DG has a role to play. Rather it is a question of how it will play a role.
|Release Date||: 2020|
|ISBN 10||: 9789178735624|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
|Author||: Wunna Swe|
|Release Date||: 2019|
|ISBN 10||: 9783659743320|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
In our preoccupation with thc dramatic developments in the numerous fields of modern physics with their beautiful instrumentation and exciting revelations, we tend to forget our profound ignorance of some of the longest known pheno mena of physics. Among these were, until the middle nineteen hundred and thir ties, ferromagnetism, friction, lightning stroke, the common electric spark, and static electrification. The first two have now been pretty weIl clarified and the und erst an ding of both of these phenomena have contributed greatly to our under standing of the structure of matter and surface physics. The lightning stroke and common spark are weH on their way to clarification. Strangely despite the ever expanding importance of static electrification in industry affecting as it does, a wide diversity of processes either as a useful tool or adversely and extending even to the realms of meteorology, this field has awakened little curiosity and stimulated little investigation in recent years except in so far as the immediate industrial problems it invoked required an immediate and often make-shift remedy. Trained in his early years as a chemist, and brought into contact with some aspects of colloidal chemistry involving electrokinetic potentials, cataphoresis, and spray electrification, thc author had his curiosity aroused by a number of these strange phenomena. Entering physics as a life career coincident with the development of the earl)' studies in atomic structure, in part through his teacher, R. A.