The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) is a photovoltaic converter that mimics natural photosynthesis. Like green plants and algae it uses a molecular absorber, the dye, to harvest sunlight and generate electric charges. Dye-sensitized solar cells are poised to replace existing technologies in «low density» solar-energy applications, especially in contexts where mechanical robustness and light weight is required. This book offers the first comprehensive look at this promising technology and aims to provide a graduate level text that brings together the fundamentals of DSC from three perspectives (materials, performance, and mechanistic aspects), as well as to serve as an advanced monograph that summarizes the key advances and lists the technical challenges remaining to be solved.
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Mathematical Modelling and Materials Design and Optimization presents the latest information as edited from leaders in the field. It covers advances in DSSC design, fabrication and mathematical modelling and optimization, providing a comprehensive coverage of various DSSC advances that includes different system scales, from electronic to macroscopic level, and a consolidation of the results with fundamentals. The book is extremely useful as a monograph for graduate students and researchers, but is also a comprehensive, general reference on state-of-the-art techniques in modelling, optimization and design of DSSCs. Includes chapter contributions from worldwide leaders in the field Offers first-principles of modelling solar cells with different system scales, from the electronic to macroscopic level References, in a single resource, state-of-the-art techniques in modelling, optimization and design of DSSC
|Author||: Alagarsamy Pandikumar,Kandasamy Jothivenkatachalam,Karuppanapillai B. Bhojanaa|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2019-12-12|
|ISBN 10||: 111955733X|
|Pages||: 288 pages|
Offers an Interdisciplinary approach to the engineering of functional materials for efficient solar cell technology Written by a collection of experts in the field of solar cell technology, this book focuses on the engineering of a variety of functional materials for improving photoanode efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The first two chapters describe operation principles of DSSC, charge transfer dynamics, as well as challenges and solutions for improving DSSCs. The remaining chapters focus on interfacial engineering of functional materials at the photoanode surface to create greater output efficiency. Interfacial Engineering in Functional Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells begins by introducing readers to the history, configuration, components, and working principles of DSSC It then goes on to cover both nanoarchitectures and light scattering materials as photoanode. Function of compact (blocking) layer in the photoanode and of TiCl4 post-treatment in the photoanode are examined at next. Next two chapters look at photoanode function of doped semiconductors and binary semiconductor metal oxides. Other chapters consider nanocomposites, namely, plasmonic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube based nanocomposites, graphene based nanocomposites, and graphite carbon nitride based nanocompositesas photoanodes. The book: Provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamentals through the applications of DSSC Encompasses topics on various functional materials for DSSC technology Focuses on the novel design and application of materials in DSSC, to develop more efficient renewable energy sources Is useful for material scientists, engineers, physicists, and chemists interested in functional materials for the design of efficient solar cells Interfacial Engineering in Functional Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells will be of great benefit to graduate students, researchers and engineers, who work in the multi-disciplinary areas of material science, engineering, physics, and chemistry.
The global energy consumption has been increasing at an alarming rate over the years. In 1998, it was 12.7TW, but in 2050, it is expected to be around 26.4 to 32.9TW and in 2100, it will increase up to 46.3 to 58.7TW. The yearly increase in global energy consumption is expected to result in the rise of demands towards natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. Since these natural resources take thousands of years to form, it is impossible to replace them in the same rate at which they are being consumed. Therefore, it is a well-known fact that with the shortage of resources there will be an unprecedented rise in the harvesting expenses. Hence, the reliability on the other sources of energy, which are renewable will rise. In the current scenario solar cells, which are also known as photovoltaic cell seem to be one of the promising options of renewable energy.The very first cohort of photovoltaic cells were constructed using crystalline silicon disks. The next batch was primarily built using semiconductors. These semiconductors were usually compounds of III-V type, like cadmium telluride and copper indium selenide/sulphide. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) which belong to the thin film group, emerged as a new class of low cost energy conversion devices with simple manufacturing procedures. Incorporation of dye molecules in some wide bandgap semiconductor electrodes was a key factor in developing photoelectrochemical solar cells with improved efficiency.In this book, we begin with a detailed explanation about the basics of solar cell technology and move on to overview some aspects of the historical background, present-scenario, currently popular applications and future prospects of dye sensitized solar cells. The structural aspects and working principle of this promising class of solar cells has been dealt in detail for providing a good understanding of the basics. Some novel schemes in preparation and assembly of dye sensitized solar cell have been presented from recent literature reports. The performance of nanocrystalline solar cell samples can be appreciably improved by optimizing the preparation technique, the class of the nanostructured materials, types of electrolyte, and high transparent conductive electrodes. Challenges associated with materials choice, nanostructured electrodes and device layers structure design are detailed. Recent trends in the development of nano-crystalline materials for DSSCs technology are introduced. Manufacturability and different approaches suggested for commercialization of DSSC for various applications are outlined and discussed in detail.
|Author||: Michael R. Travino|
|Publisher||: Nova Science Pub Incorporated|
|Release Date||: 2011-04-01|
|ISBN 10||: 9781612096339|
|Pages||: 309 pages|
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells & Solar Cell Performance
This book contains chapters in which the problems of modern photovoltaics are considered. The majority of the chapters provide an overview of the results of research and development of different types of solar cells. Such chapters are completed by a justification for a new solar cell structure and technology. Of course, highly effective solar energy conversion is impossible without an in-depth examination of the solar cell components as physical materials. The relations between structural, thermodynamic, and optical properties of the physical material without addressing the band theory of solids are of both theoretical and practical interest. Requirements formulated for the material are also to be used for maximally efficient conversion of solar radiation into useful work.
|Author||: Sining Yun,Anders Hagfeldt|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2019-01-04|
|ISBN 10||: 3527413677|
|Pages||: 664 pages|
A guide to one of the most important aspects for affordable and highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells Dye-sensitized solar cells have the potential to be one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies for production of renewable and clean energy. Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells offers an introduction to the various types of counter electrode catalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells and perovskite solar cells, including metal and metal compounds, carbon materials, polymers, and composites. With contributions from an international panel of experts, the book contains a discussion of the design and synthesis of the catalysts, characterization and stability of the devices, as well as calculations on properties. The contributors cover a wide range of topics including information on: carbon nanotubes electrocatalysts for I-mediated dye-sensitized solar cells; Pt-loaded composite electrocatalysts for I-mediated dye-sensitized solar cells; metal contact electrodes for perovskite solar cells; and much more. The book also includes insight into the future developments in the field. This important resource Covers the various types of counter electrode catalysts and presents design strategies, synthesis methods, theoretical calculation and stability evaluation Includes information on low-cost counter electrode catalysts and commercial applications of dye-sensitized sensitized solar cells Disscuses how electrode catalysts can be applied in a range of fields, such as solar cells, fuel cells, hydrogen production, and photocatalysis Offers contributions from leading experts in the field including Anders Hagfeldt, one of the world's leading researchers in this field Written for materials scientists, solid state chemists, electrochemists, catalytic chemists, solid state physicists, and chemical industry professionals, Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells is a comprehensive and authoritative guide to dye-sensitized solar cells.
|Author||: Marcelo Alatzatianou Rodrigues|
|Publisher||: Marcelo Alatzatianou Rodrigues|
|Release Date||: 2020-05-01|
|Pages||: 86 pages|
Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one of the emerging thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Advantages come from the low cost and easier fabrication process. The realistic overall conversion efficiency already made the commercial availability a reality. It is possible the use of natural dyes extracted from plants in DSSC fabrication to substitute synthetic dyes, which requires complex fabrication processes and the use of toxic and scarce materials, like ruthenium. Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (NDSSC) are still in an early stage, with many research groups working hard to overcome efficiency and stability issues. Natural dyes are cheap, highly available, environmentally safe and easy to extract. Nature has so much to offer to humankind, each plant is unique, with characteristics developed during million of years of evolution. Each biome has an enormous number of species readily available for study. Among them, Brazilian forests are in an outstanding position, with a gigantic quantity of species with hidden opportunities. This work aims to inspire other researchers to explore this field and find in nature new answers for a clean energy demanding world. It is shown the basic aspects of NDSSC study and practical research, from laboratory construction to cells fabrication. After a brief introduction about PV technologies, DSSC is deeper discussed based on a literature review. Physical and electrochemical aspects are presented in details. Natural dyes specificities and application in DSSC are then discussed also based on other researchers findings. With a well-established theoretical basis, this work focus then on the development of a NDSSC fabrication protocol, presenting the most important tests and results achieved. A special highlight is given to the design and fabrication of a solar simulator from scratch. Having the infrastructure, equipments and protocol defined, the fabrication of NDSSC based on Brazilian plants was possible, including plants naturally originated in the country: blackberry, quaresmeira and embaúba-vermelha, and two other non-native species due to their economically important role, of which Brazil is currently the world leader producer, they are: arabica coffee and sugarcane. The found cells efficiencies for all studied plants dyes are in the range of other important research publications, even for the simplified and low cost proposed protocol, which validates the solutions and techniques used. Coffea arabica (arabica coffee) provided the best performance, reaching 0.44% overall conversion efficiency, with no special commonly used chemical treatment, co-adsorbent or purification, such as: TiCl4, organic acids, chromatography and lyophilization. It is hoped this work contribute for the development of an even greener energy generation from sunlight.
Chlorophyll presents an authoritative and comprehensive overview of the biology, biochemistry and chemistry of chlorophylls in photosynthetic organisms. Divided into seven discreet parts, the book covers topics on basic science and applied technology of chlorophyll molecules. Chlorophyll provides an insight into future developments in each field and extensive bibliography. It will be an essential resource for researchers and academic and industry professionals in the natural pigment field.
A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC, DSC or DYSe is a relatively new class of low-cost solar cell, that belong to the group of Thin film solar cells. It is based on a semiconductor formed between a photo-sensitized anode and an electrolyte, a photoelectrochemical system. This cell was invented by Michael Grtzel and Brian O'Regan at the cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne in 1991 and are also known as Grtzel cells. This cell is extremely promising because it is made of low-cost materials and does not need elaborate apparatus to manufacture. In bulk it should be significantly less expensive than older solid- state cell designs.
The most comprehensive, authoritative and widely cited reference on photovoltaic solar energy Fully revised and updated, the Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Second Edition incorporates the substantial technological advances and research developments in photovoltaics since its previous release. All topics relating to the photovoltaic (PV) industry are discussed with contributions by distinguished international experts in the field. Significant new coverage includes: three completely new chapters and six chapters with new authors device structures, processing, and manufacturing options for the three major thin film PV technologies high performance approaches for multijunction, concentrator, and space applications new types of organic polymer and dye-sensitized solar cells economic analysis of various policy options to stimulate PV growth including effect of public and private investment Detailed treatment covers: scientific basis of the photovoltaic effect and solar cell operation the production of solar silicon and of silicon-based solar cells and modules how choice of semiconductor materials and their production influence costs and performance making measurements on solar cells and modules and how to relate results under standardised test conditions to real outdoor performance photovoltaic system installation and operation of components such as inverters and batteries. architectural applications of building-integrated PV Each chapter is structured to be partially accessible to beginners while providing detailed information of the physics and technology for experts. Encompassing a review of past work and the fundamentals in solar electric science, this is a leading reference and invaluable resource for all practitioners, consultants, researchers and students in the PV industry.
With the worldly consumption of energy continually increasing and the main source of this energy, fossil fuels, slowly being depleted, the need for alternate sources of energy is becoming more and more pertinent. One promising approach for an alternate method of producing energy is using solar cells to convert sunlight into electrical energy through photovoltaic processes. Currently, the most widely commercialized solar cell is based on a single p-n junction with silicon. Silicon solar cells are able to obtain high efficiencies but the downfall is, in order to achieve this performance, expensive fabrication techniques and high purity materials must be employed. An encouraging cheaper alternative to silicon solar cells is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) which is based on a wide band gap semiconductor sensitized with a visible light absorbing species. While DSSCs are less expensive, their efficiencies are still quite low compared to silicon. In this thesis, Grätzel cells (DSSCs based on TiO2 NPs) were fabricated and optimized to establish a reliable standard for further improvement. Optimized single layer GSCs and double layer GSCs showing efficiencies>4% and efficiencies of ~6%, respectively, were obtained. Recently, the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles into silicon solar cells has shown improved efficiency and lowered material cost. By utilizing their plasmonic properties, incident light can be scattered, concentrated, or trapped thereby increasing the effective path length of the cell and allowing the physical thickness of the cell to be reduced. This concept can also be applied to DSSCs, which are cheaper and easier to fabricate than Si based solar cells but are limited by lower efficiency. By incorporating 20 nm diameter Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) into DSSCs at the FTO/TiO2 interface as sub wavelength antennae, average photocurrent enhancements of 14% (maximum up to ~32%) and average efficiency enhancements of 13% (maximum up to ~23%) were achieved with well dispersed, low surface coverages of nanoparticles. However the Au nanoparticle solar cell (AuNPSC) performance is very sensitive to the surface coverage, the extent of nanoparticle aggregation, and the electrolyte employed, all of which can lead to detrimental effects (decreased performances) on the devices.