|Author||: Hsinjin Edwin Yang,Roger French,Laura Bruckman|
|Publisher||: William Andrew|
|Release Date||: 2019-04-15|
|ISBN 10||: 0128115459|
|Pages||: 250 pages|
Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules describes the durability and reliability behavior of polymers used in Si-photovoltaic modules and systems, particularly in terms of physical aging and degradation process/mechanisms, characterization methods, accelerated exposure chamber and testing, module level testing, and service life prediction. The book compares polymeric materials to traditional materials used in solar applications, explaining the degradation pathways of the different elements of a photovoltaic module, including encapsulant, front sheet, back sheet, wires and connectors, adhesives, sealants, and more. In addition, users will find sections on the tests needed for the evaluation of polymer degradation and aging, as well as accelerated tests to aid in materials selection. As demand for photovoltaics continues to grow globally, with polymer photovoltaics offering significantly lower production costs compared to earlier approaches, this book will serve as a welcome resource on new avenues. Provides comprehensive coverage of photovoltaic polymers, from fundamental degradation mechanisms, to specific case studies of durability and materials failure Offers practical, actionable information in relation to service life prediction of photovoltaic modules and accelerated testing for materials selection Includes up-to-date information and interpretation of safety regulations and testing of photovoltaic modules and materials
Polymers for Vibration Damping Applications is a detailed guide on the use of polymers and polymer composites for vibration and shock damping. The book begins with two chapters that introduce the fundamentals of both vibration and shock damping. The next part of the book presents in-depth coverage of polymeric materials for vibration damping, including viscoelastic properties, design of polymer systems, and modes and applications. Finally, measurement techniques are discussed in detail. Throughout the book, the different perspectives of materials and engineering are considered, and both mathematical and conceptual approaches are used. This is an essential resource for all those looking to understand the application of polymers for vibration damping, including researchers, scientists and advanced students in polymer science, plastics engineering, materials science and mechanical engineering, as well as engineers and R&D personnel in the automotive, marine, defense and construction industries. Equips the reader with a complete, fundamental understanding of vibration and shock damping Explains the viscoelastic properties, design and applications of polymeric materials for vibration damping applications Includes cutting-edge research on the use of polymers for advanced civil and defense applications
Provides practical guidance on the latest quality assurance and accelerated stress test methods for improved long-term performance prediction of PV modules This book has been written from a historical perspective to guide readers through how the PV industry learned what the failure and degradation modes of PV modules were, how accelerated tests were developed to cause the same failures and degradations in the laboratory, and then how these tests were used as tools to guide the design and fabrication of reliable and long-life modules. Photovoltaic Module Reliability starts with a brief history of photovoltaics, discussing some of the different types of materials and devices used for commercial solar cells. It then goes on to offer chapters on: Module Failure Modes; Development of Accelerated Stress Tests; Qualification Testing; and Failure Analysis Tools. Next, it examines the use of quality management systems to manufacture PV modules. Subsequent chapters cover the PVQAT Effort; the Conformity Assessment and IECRE; and Predicting PV Module Service Life. The book finishes with a look at what the future holds for PV. A comprehensive treatment of current photovoltaic (PV) technology reliability and necessary improvement to become a significant part of the electric utility supply system Well documented with experimental and practical cases throughout, enhancing relevance to both scientific community and industry Timely contribution to the harmonization of methodological aspects of PV reliability evaluation with test procedures implemented to certify PV module quality Written by a leading international authority in PV module reliability Photovoltaic Module Reliability is an excellent book for anyone interested in PV module reliability, including those working directly on PV module and system reliability and preparing to purchase modules for deployment.
|Release Date||: 2019-05-25|
|ISBN 10||: 0128145021|
|Pages||: 340 pages|
Nanomaterials are becoming increasingly important photovoltaic technologies from absorbers to contacts. This book is dedicated to describing the novel materials and technologies for photovoltaics that derive from these new and novel approaches in solar technologies. We have collected a set of renowned experts in their respective fields as authors and their expertise covers a broad set of areas including novel oxides, quantum dots, CZTS and organic solar cells, as well as light management and reliability testing. The organization of the book is divided into three sections; the first part deals with emerging photovoltaic absorbers and absorber approaches, the second part is focused on novel solar cell architectures and device concepts and components; and the last part is focused on their integration into module technologies. The first chapter is an introduction to the basics of solar cells technology facilitating an understanding by the non-expert of the following chapters. The book is intended for academics and professionals, at the research and R&D level in materials and devices, who are looking for opportunities for applications in the solar materials, devices and modules areas. Hopefully it will serve as a reference for students and professionals looking into the potential and development of novel photovoltaic technologies, researchers looking into the development of innovative projects, and teachers in the field of energy and sustainability. Showcases a range of cutting-edge photovoltaic materials and devices, exploring their special properties and how they are best used Assesses the challenges of fabricating solar cell devices using nanotechnology Explores how producing cheaper modules, increasing reliability and increasing efficiency have led to new applications for photovoltaic devices
The need to address the energy problem and formulate a lasting solution to tame climate change has never been so urgent. The rise of various renewable energy sources, such as solar cell technologies, has given humanity a glimpse of hope that can delay the catastrophic effects of these problems after decades of neglect. This review volume provides in-depth discussion of the fundamental photophysical processes as well as the state-of-the-art device engineering of various emerging photovoltaic technologies, including organic (fullerene, non-fullerene, and ternary), dye-sensitized (ruthenium, iron, and quantum dot), and hybrid metal-halide perovskite solar cells. The book is essential reading for graduate and postgraduate students involved in the photophysics and materials science of solar cell technologies.
|Author||: Peter Hacke|
|Release Date||: 2010|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.
|Author||: Frederik C. Krebs|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2012-04-02|
|ISBN 10||: 1118312236|
|Pages||: 368 pages|
Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are a new generation of solar cells with the potential to offer very short energy pay back times, mechanical flexibility and significantly lower production costs compared to traditional crystalline photovoltaic systems. A weakness of OPV is their comparative instability during operation and this is a critical area of research towards the successful development and commercialization of these 3rd generation solar cells. Covering both small molecule and polymer solar cells, Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells summarizes the state of the art understanding of stability and provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms by which degradation occurs. Following an introductory chapter which compares different photovoltaic technologies, the book focuses on OPV degradation, discussing the origin and characterization of the instability and describing measures for extending the duration of operation. Topics covered include: Chemical and physical probes for studying degradation Imaging techniques Photochemical stability of OPV materials Degradation mechanisms Testing methods Barrier technology and applications Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells is an essential reference source for researchers in academia and industry, engineers and manufacturers working on OPV design, development and implementation.
Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of existing PV technologies in conjunction with an assessment of technological developments. Key features: Written by leading specialists active in concurrent developments in material sciences, solar cell research and application-driven R&D. Provides a basic knowledge base in light, photons and solar irradiance and basic functional principles of PV. Covers characterization techniques, economics and applications of PV such as silicon, thin-film and hybrid solar cells. Presents a compendium of PV technologies including: crystalline silicon technologies; chalcogenide thin film solar cells; thin-film silicon based PV technologies; organic PV and III-Vs; PV concentrator technologies; space technologies and economics, life-cycle and user aspects of PV technologies. Each chapter presents basic principles and formulas as well as major technological developments in a contemporary context with a look at future developments in this rapidly changing field of science and engineering. Ideal for industrial engineers and scientists beginning careers in PV as well as graduate students undertaking PV research and high-level undergraduate students.
The search for cleaner, cheaper, smaller and more efficient energy technologies has to a large extent been motivated by the development of new materials. The aim of this collection of articles is therefore to focus on what materials-based solutions can offer and show how the rationale design and improvement of their physical and chemical properties can lead to energy-production alternatives that have the potential to compete with existing technologies. In terms of alternative means to generate electricity that utilize renewable energy sources, the most dramatic breakthroughs for both mobile (i.e., transportation) and stationary applications are taking place in the fields of solar and fuel cells. And from an energy-storage perspective, exciting developments can be seen emerging from the fields of rechargeable batteries and hydrogen storage.
Annotation The Photovoltaics (PV) Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is part of The US Dept. of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program. These proceedings of the 12th NREL PV Program Review Meeting, comprise presentations by invited speakers from private industry, universities, federal laboratories, and representatives of other countries, on such topics as material growth and characterization; single and multijunction devices; cell processing; PV manufacturing; module reliability and field testing; system engineering and applications; and markets and user perspectives. No subject index. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
This work represents recent progress in photovoltaics technology including progress made in such areas as amorphous silicon, crystalline silican, cadmium telluride, and so on. Special focus is given to PV applications for rural electrifications.
Brydson's Plastics Materials, Eighth Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of the commercially available plastics materials that bridge the gap between theory and practice. The book enables scientists to understand the commercial implications of their work and provides engineers with essential theory. Since the previous edition, many developments have taken place in plastics materials, such as the growth in the commercial use of sustainable bioplastics, so this book brings the user fully up-to-date with the latest materials, references, units, and figures that have all been thoroughly updated. The book remains the authoritiative resource for engineers, suppliers, researchers, materials scientists, and academics in the field of polymers, including current best practice, processing, and material selection information and health and safety guidance, along with discussions of sustainability and the commercial importance of various plastics and additives, including nanofillers and graphene as property modifiers. With a 50 year history as the principal reference in the field of plastics material, and fully updated by an expert team of polymer scientists and engineers, this book is essential reading for researchers and practitioners in this field. Presents a one-stop-shop for easily accessible information on plastics materials, now updated to include the latest biopolymers, high temperature engineering plastics, thermoplastic elastomers, and more Includes thoroughly revised and reorganised material as contributed by an expert team who make the book relevant to all plastics engineers, materials scientists, and students of polymers Includes the latest guidance on health, safety, and sustainability, including materials safety data sheets, local regulations, and a discussion of recycling issues
The most comprehensive, authoritative and widely cited reference on photovoltaic solar energy Fully revised and updated, the Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Second Edition incorporates the substantial technological advances and research developments in photovoltaics since its previous release. All topics relating to the photovoltaic (PV) industry are discussed with contributions by distinguished international experts in the field. Significant new coverage includes: three completely new chapters and six chapters with new authors device structures, processing, and manufacturing options for the three major thin film PV technologies high performance approaches for multijunction, concentrator, and space applications new types of organic polymer and dye-sensitized solar cells economic analysis of various policy options to stimulate PV growth including effect of public and private investment Detailed treatment covers: scientific basis of the photovoltaic effect and solar cell operation the production of solar silicon and of silicon-based solar cells and modules how choice of semiconductor materials and their production influence costs and performance making measurements on solar cells and modules and how to relate results under standardised test conditions to real outdoor performance photovoltaic system installation and operation of components such as inverters and batteries. architectural applications of building-integrated PV Each chapter is structured to be partially accessible to beginners while providing detailed information of the physics and technology for experts. Encompassing a review of past work and the fundamentals in solar electric science, this is a leading reference and invaluable resource for all practitioners, consultants, researchers and students in the PV industry.
This new edition of the bestselling Handbook of Thermoplastics incorporates recent developments and advances in thermoplastics with regard to materials development, processing, properties, and applications. With contributions from 65 internationally recognized authorities in the field, the second edition features new and updated discussions of several topics, including: Polymer nanocomposites Laser processing of thermoplastic composites Bioplastics Natural fiber thermoplastic composites Materials selection Design and application Additives for thermoplastics Recycling of thermoplastics Regulatory and legislative issues related to health, safety, and the environment The book also discusses state-of-the-art techniques in science and technology as well as environmental assessment with regard to the impact of thermoplastics. Each chapter is written in a review format that covers: Historical development and commercialization Polymerization and process technologies Structural and phase characteristics in relation to use properties The effects of additives on properties and applications Blends, alloys, copolymers, and composites derived from thermoplastics Applications Giving thorough coverage of the most recent trends in research and practice, the Handbook of Thermoplastics, Second Edition is an indispensable resource for experienced and practicing professionals as well as upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in a wide range of disciplines and industries.
The book presents mathematical and mechanical aspects of the theory of plates and shells, applications in civil, aero-space and mechanical engineering, as well in other areas. The focus relates to the following problems:• comprehensive review of the most popular theories of plates and shells,• relations between three-dimensional theories and two-dimensional ones,• presentation of recently developed new refined plates and shells theories (for example, the micropolar theory or gradient-type theories),• modeling of coupled effects in shells and plates related to electromagnetic and temperature fields, phase transitions, diffusion, etc.,• applications in modeling of non-classical objects like, for example, nanostructures,• presentation of actual numerical tools based on the finite element approach.
As part of the growing sustainable and renewable energy movement, the design, manufacture and use of photovoltaic devices is increasing in pace and frequency. The Handbook of Photovoltaics will be a 'benchmark' publication for those involved in the design, manufacture and use of these devices. The Handbook covers the principles of solar cell function, the raw materials, photovoltaic systems, standards, calibration, testing, economics and case studies. The editors have assembled a cast of internationally-respected contributors from industry and academia. The report is essential reading for: Physicists, electronic engineers, designers of systems, installers, architects, policy-makers relating to photovoltaics. A thorough update to the 'benchmark' publication from a cast of industrial and academic international experts ensures top quality information from multiple stakeholder perspectives Covers all things PV- from principles of solar cells and their raw materials, to the installation and design of full PV systems, including standards, testing, economics and environmental impacts Case studies, practical examples and reports on the latest advances take the new edition of this amazing resource beyond a vast collection of knowledge, into the realm of real world applications