drugs addiction and the brain

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Drugs, Addiction, and the Brain
Author : George F. Koob,Michael A. Arends,Michel Le Moal
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2014-07-12
ISBN 10 : 0123869595
Pages : 350 pages
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Drugs, Addiction, and the Brain explores the molecular, cellular, and neurocircuitry systems in the brain that are responsible for drug addiction. Common neurobiological elements are emphasized that provide novel insights into how the brain mediates the acute rewarding effects of drugs of abuse and how it changes during the transition from initial drug use to compulsive drug use and addiction. The book provides a detailed overview of the pathophysiology of the disease. The information provided will be useful for neuroscientists in the field of addiction, drug abuse treatment providers, and undergraduate and postgraduate students who are interested in learning the diverse effects of drugs of abuse on the brain. Full-color circuitry diagrams of brain regions implicated in each stage of the addiction cycle Actual data figures from original sources illustrating key concepts and findings Introduction to basic neuropharmacology terms and concepts Introduction to numerous animal models used to study diverse aspects of drug use. Thorough review of extant work on the neurobiology of addiction

Drugs, Addiction, and the Brain
Author : George F. Koob,Michael A. Arends,Michel Le Moal
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2014-06-20
ISBN 10 : 9780123869371
Pages : 342 pages
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Drugs, Addiction, and the Brain explores the molecular, cellular, and neurocircuitry systems in the brain that are responsible for drug addiction. Common neurobiological elements are emphasized that provide novel insights into how the brain mediates the acute rewarding effects of drugs of abuse and how it changes during the transition from initial drug use to compulsive drug use and addiction. The book provides a detailed overview of the pathophysiology of the disease. The information provided will be useful for neuroscientists in the field of addiction, drug abuse treatment providers, and undergraduate and postgraduate students who are interested in learning the diverse effects of drugs of abuse on the brain. Full-color circuitry diagrams of brain regions implicated in each stage of the addiction cycle Actual data figures from original sources illustrating key concepts and findings Introduction to basic neuropharmacology terms and concepts Introduction to numerous animal models used to study diverse aspects of drug use. Thorough review of extant work on the neurobiology of addiction

The Addicted Brain
Author : Michael J. Kuhar
Publisher : FT Press
Release Date : 2012
ISBN 10 : 0132542501
Pages : 222 pages
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A scientific explanation of addiction by a leading neuroscientist looks at how and why people become addicts and discusses advances in prevention and treatment.

Drugs and the Future
Author : David J. Nutt,Trevor W. Robbins,Gerald V. Stimson,Martin Ince,Andrew Jackson
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2006-12-11
ISBN 10 : 9780080467740
Pages : 616 pages
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Drugs and the Future presents 13 reviews collected to present the new advances in all areas of addiction research, including knowledge gained from mapping the human genome, the improved understanding of brain pathways and functions that are stimulated by addictive drugs, experimental and clinical psychology approaches to addiction and treatment, as well as both ethical considerations and social policy. The book also includes chapters on the history of addictive substances and some personal narratives of addiction. Introduced by Sir David King, Science Advisory to the UK Government and head of the Office of Science and Technology, and Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse in the USA, the book uniquely covers the full range of disciplines which can provide insight into the future of addiction, from genetics to the humanities. Written for a scientific audience, it is also applicable to non-specialists as well. Provides an unique overview of what we know about addiction, and how scientific knowledge can and should be applied in the societal, ethical, and political context Applies the state-of-the-art research in fields such as Genomics, Neuroscience, Pharmacology, Social Policy and Ethics to addiction research Includes a preface by Sir David King, Science Advisory to the UK Government and head of the Office of Science and Technology, and in introduction by Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse in the USA

Memoirs of an Addicted Brain
Author : Marc Lewis
Publisher : Doubleday Canada
Release Date : 2011-10-04
ISBN 10 : 0385669267
Pages : 320 pages
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A gripping, ultimately triumphant memoir that's also the most comprehensive and comprehensible study of the neuroscience of addiction written for the general public. FROM THE INTRODUCTION: "We are prone to a cycle of craving what we don't have, finding it, using it up or losing it, and then craving it all the more. This cycle is at the root of all addictions, addictions to drugs, sex, love, cigarettes, soap operas, wealth, and wisdom itself. But why should this be so? Why are we desperate for what we don't have, or can't have, often at great cost to what we do have, thereby risking our peace and contentment, our safety, and even our lives?" The answer, says Dr. Marc Lewis, lies in the structure and function of the human brain. Marc Lewis is a distinguished neuroscientist. And, for many years, he was a drug addict himself, dependent on a series of dangerous substances, from LSD to heroin. His narrative moves back and forth between the often dark, compellingly recounted story of his relationship with drugs and a revelatory analysis of what was going on in his brain. He shows how drugs speak to the brain - which is designed to seek rewards and soothe pain - in its own language. He shows in detail the neural mechanics of a variety of powerful drugs and of the onset of addiction, itself a distortion of normal perception. Dr. Lewis freed himself from addiction and ended up studying it. At the age of 30 he traded in his pharmaceutical supplies for the life of a graduate student, eventually becoming a professor of developmental psychology, and then of neuroscience - his field for the last 12 years. This is the story of his journey, seen from the inside out.

Never Enough
Author : Judith Grisel
Publisher : Anchor
Release Date : 2019-02-19
ISBN 10 : 0385542852
Pages : 256 pages
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A NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER From a renowned behavioral neuroscientist and recovering addict, a rare page-turning work of science that draws on personal insights to reveal how drugs work, the dangerous hold they can take on the brain, and the surprising way to combat today's epidemic of addiction. Judith Grisel was a daily drug user and college dropout when she began to consider that her addiction might have a cure, one that she herself could perhaps discover by studying the brain. Now, after twenty-five years as a neuroscientist, she shares what she and other scientists have learned about addiction, enriched by captivating glimpses of her personal journey. In Never Enough, Grisel reveals the unfortunate bottom line of all regular drug use: there is no such thing as a free lunch. All drugs act on the brain in a way that diminishes their enjoyable effects and creates unpleasant ones with repeated use. Yet they have their appeal, and Grisel draws on anecdotes both comic and tragic from her own days of using as she limns the science behind the love of various drugs, from marijuana to alcohol, opiates to psychedelics, speed to spice. With more than one in five people over the age of fourteen addicted, drug abuse has been called the most formidable health problem worldwide, and Grisel delves with compassion into the science of this scourge. She points to what is different about the brains of addicts even before they first pick up a drink or drug, highlights the changes that take place in the brain and behavior as a result of chronic using, and shares the surprising hidden gifts of personality that addiction can expose. She describes what drove her to addiction, what helped her recover, and her belief that a “cure” for addiction will not be found in our individual brains but in the way we interact with our communities. Set apart by its color, candor, and bell-clear writing, Never Enough is a revelatory look at the roles drugs play in all of our lives and offers crucial new insight into how we can solve the epidemic of abuse.

Unbroken Brain
Author : Maia Szalavitz
Publisher : St. Martin's Press
Release Date : 2016-04-05
ISBN 10 : 1466859563
Pages : 320 pages
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A NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER More people than ever before see themselves as addicted to, or recovering from, addiction, whether it be alcohol or drugs, prescription meds, sex, gambling, porn, or the internet. But despite the unprecedented attention, our understanding of addiction is trapped in unfounded 20th century ideas, addiction as a crime or as brain disease, and in equally outdated treatment. Challenging both the idea of the addict's "broken brain" and the notion of a simple "addictive personality," The New York Times Bestseller, Unbroken Brain, offers a radical and groundbreaking new perspective, arguing that addictions are learning disorders and shows how seeing the condition this way can untangle our current debates over treatment, prevention and policy. Like autistic traits, addictive behaviors fall on a spectrum -- and they can be a normal response to an extreme situation. By illustrating what addiction is, and is not, the book illustrates how timing, history, family, peers, culture and chemicals come together to create both illness and recovery- and why there is no "addictive personality" or single treatment that works for all. Combining Maia Szalavitz's personal story with a distillation of more than 25 years of science and research,Unbroken Brain provides a paradigm-shifting approach to thinking about addiction. Her writings on radical addiction therapies have been featured in The Washington Post, Vice Magazine, The Wall Street Journal, and The New York Times, in addition to multiple other publications. She has been interviewed about her book on many radio shows including Fresh Air with Terry Gross and The Brian Lehrer show.

The Biology of Desire
Author : Marc Lewis
Publisher : Doubleday Canada
Release Date : 2015-08-04
ISBN 10 : 0385682298
Pages : 320 pages
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Through the vivid, true stories of five people who journeyed into and out of addiction, a renowned neuroscientist explains why the “disease model” of addiction is wrong and illuminates the path to recovery. The psychiatric establishment and rehab industry in the Western world have branded addiction a brain disease, based on evidence that brains change with drug use. But in The Biology of Desire, cognitive neuroscientist and former addict Marc Lewis makes a convincing case that addiction is not a disease, and shows why the disease model has become an obstacle to healing. Lewis reveals addiction as an unintended consequence of the brain doing what it’s supposed to do—seek pleasure and relief—in a world that’s not cooperating. Brains are designed to restructure themselves with normal learning and development, but this process is accelerated in addiction when highly attractive rewards are pursued repeatedly. Lewis shows why treatment based on the disease model so often fails, and how treatment can be retooled to achieve lasting recovery, given the realities of brain plasticity. Combining intimate human stories with clearly rendered scientific explanation, The Biology of Desire is enlightening and optimistic reading for anyone who has wrestled with addiction either personally or professionally.

Brain Reward & Stress Systems in Addiction
Author : Nicholas W Gilpin,Remi Martin-Fardon
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2015-03-26
ISBN 10 : 2889194574
Pages : 329 pages
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Addiction to drugs and alcohol is a dynamic and multi-faceted disease process in humans, with devastating health and financial consequences for the individual and society-at-large. In humans, drug and alcohol use disorders (i.e., abuse and dependence) are defined by clusters of behavioral symptoms that can be modeled to various degrees in animals. Hallmark behavioral symptoms associated with drug and alcohol dependence are compulsive drug use, loss of control during episodes of drug use, the emergence of a negative emotional state in the absence of the drug, and chronic relapse vulnerability during drug abstinence. The transition to drug dependence is defined by neuroadaptations in brain circuits that, in the absence of drugs, mediate a variety of critical behavioral and physiological processes including natural reward, positive and negative emotional states, nociception, and feeding. Chronic drug exposure during the transition to dependence spurs (1) within-systems changes in neural circuits that contribute to the acute rewarding effects of the drug and (2) recruitment of brain stress systems (neuroendocrine and extra-hypothalamic). There are substantial genetic contributions to the propensity to use and abuse drugs, and drug abuse is highly co-morbid with various other psychiatric conditions (e.g., anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder) that may precede or follow the development of drug use problems. Across drugs of abuse, there are overlapping and dissociable aspects of the behavioral and neural changes that define the transition to dependence. Even within a single drug, people abuse drugs for a variety of reasons. The picture is further complicated by the fact that humans often abuse more than one drug concurrently. Even in the face of these challenges, pre-clinical and clinical research is making exponential gains into understanding the neurobiology of drug addiction. With the advent of new technologies and their combination with traditional approaches, the field is able to ask and answer addiction-related research questions in increasingly sophisticated ways. Here, we hope to assemble a collection of articles that provide an up-to-the-moment snapshot of the prevailing empirical, theoretical and technical directions in the addiction research field. We encourage submissions from all investigators working to understand the neurobiology of addiction, especially as it pertains to reward and stress pathways in the brain.

Addictive Substances and Neurological Disease
Author : Ronald Ross Watson,Sherma Zibadi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2017-02-18
ISBN 10 : 0128092963
Pages : 414 pages
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Addictive Substances and Neurological Disease: Alcohol, Tobacco, Caffeine, and Drugs of Abuse in Everyday Lifestyles is a complete guide to the manifold effects of addictive substances on the brain, providing readers with the latest developing research on how these substances are implicated in neurological development and dysfunction. Cannabis, cocaine, and other illicit drugs can have substantial negative effects on the structure and functioning of the brain. However, other common habituating and addictive substances often used as part of an individual’s lifestyle, i.e., alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, painkillers can also compromise brain health and effect or accentuate neurological disease. This book provides broad coverage of the effects of addictive substances on the brain, beginning with an overview of how the substances lead to dysfunction before examining each substance in depth. It discusses the pathology of addiction, the structural damage resulting from abuse of various substances, and covers the neurobiological, neurodegenerative, behavioral, and cognitive implications of use across the lifespan, from prenatal exposure, to adolescence and old age. This book aids researchers seeking an understanding of the neurological changes that these substances induce, and is also extremely useful for those seeking potential treatments and therapies for individuals suffering from chronic abuse of these substances. Integrates current research on the actions of addictive substances in neurological disease Includes functional foods, such as caffeine beverages, that have habituating effects on the brain Provides a synopsis of key ideas associated with the consequences of addictive and habituating lifestyle substances

Pathways of Addiction
Author : Institute of Medicine,Committee on Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1996-11-01
ISBN 10 : 0309055334
Pages : 328 pages
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Drug abuse persists as one of the most costly and contentious problems on the nation's agenda. Pathways of Addiction meets the need for a clear and thoughtful national research agenda that will yield the greatest benefit from today's limited resources. The committee makes its recommendations within the public health framework and incorporates diverse fields of inquiry and a range of policy positions. It examines both the demand and supply aspects of drug abuse. Pathways of Addiction offers a fact-filled, highly readable examination of drug abuse issues in the United States, describing findings and outlining research needs in the areas of behavioral and neurobiological foundations of drug abuse. The book covers the epidemiology and etiology of drug abuse and discusses several of its most troubling health and social consequences, including HIV, violence, and harm to children. Pathways of Addiction looks at the efficacy of different prevention interventions and the many advances that have been made in treatment research in the past 20 years. The book also examines drug treatment in the criminal justice setting and the effectiveness of drug treatment under managed care. The committee advocates systematic study of the laws by which the nation attempts to control drug use and identifies the research questions most germane to public policy. Pathways of Addiction provides a strategic outline for wise investment of the nation's research resources in drug abuse. This comprehensive and accessible volume will have widespread relevance--to policymakers, researchers, research administrators, foundation decisionmakers, healthcare professionals, faculty and students, and concerned individuals.

Drugs, the Brain, and Behavior
Author : John Brick,Carlton K. Erickson
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2013-06-26
ISBN 10 : 1135122180
Pages : 232 pages
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Explore the brain and discover the clinical and pharmacological issues surrounding drug abuse and dependence. The authors, research scientists with years of experience in alcohol and drug studies, provide definitions, historic discoveries about the nervous system, and original, eye-catching illustrations to discuss the brain/behavior relationship, basic neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and the mechanistic actions of mood-altering drugs. You will learn about: • how psychoactive drugs affect cognition, behavior, and emotion • the brain/behavior relationship • the specific effects of major addictive and psychoactive drug groups • new definitions and thinking about abuse and dependence • the medical and forensic consequences of drugs use Drugs, the Brain, and Behavior uses a balance of instruction, illustrations, and tables and formulas that will give you a broad, lasting introduction to this intriguing subject. Whether you're a nurse, chemical dependency counselor, psychologist, or clinician, this book will be a quick reference guide long after the first reading.