Disasters and Public Health: Planning and Response, Second Edition, examines the critical intersection between emergency management and public health. It provides a succinct overview of the actions that may be taken before, during, and after a major public health emergency or disaster to reduce morbidity and mortality. Five all-new chapters at the beginning of the book describe how policy and law drive program structures and strategies leading to the establishment and maintenance of preparedness capabilities. New topics covered in this edition include disaster behavioral health, which is often the most expensive and longest-term recovery challenge in a public health emergency, and community resilience, a valuable resource upon which most emergency programs and responses depend. The balance of the book provides an in-depth review of preparedness, response, and recovery challenges for 15 public health threats. These chapters also provide lessons learned from responses to each threat, giving users a well-rounded introduction to public health preparedness and response that is rooted in experience and practice. Contains seven new chapters that cover law, vulnerable populations, behavioral health, community resilience, preparedness capabilities, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and foodborne threats Provides clinical updates by new MD co-author Includes innovative preparedness approaches and lessons learned from current and historic public health and medical responses that enhance clarity and provide valuable examples to readers Presents increased international content and case studies for a global perspective on public health
This book presents the health emergency and disaster risk management (H-EDRM) research landscape, with examples from Asia. In recent years, the intersection of health and disaster risk reduction (DRR) has emerged as an important interdisciplinary field. In several landmark UN agreements adopted in 2015–2016, including the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Paris climate agreement, and the New Urban Agenda (Habitat III), health is acknowledged as an inevitable outcome and a natural goal of disaster risk reduction, and the cross-over of the two fields is essential for the successful implementation of the Sendai Framework. H-EDRM has emerged as an umbrella field that encompasses emergency and disaster medicine, DRR, humanitarian response, community health resilience, and health system resilience. However, this fragmented, nascent field has yet to be developed into a coherent discipline. Key challenges include redundant research, lack of a strategic research agenda, limited development of multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches, deficiencies in the science–policy–practice nexus, absence of standardized terminology, and insufficient coordination among stakeholders. This book provides a timely and invaluable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students, researchers, scholars, and frontline practitioners as well as policymakers from across the component domains of H-EDRM.
This book can serve as a quick reference for either public health practitioners or public safety personnel who need quick information about disaster response for natural, man-made, and weapons of mass destruction. In addition, it identifies the public health role in each aspect of disaster activity, something that no other book has done. It also organizes morbidity and mortality concerns by disaster so that these negative outcomes can be referred to quickly.
|Author||: Emily Ying Yang Chan|
|Release Date||: 2017-02-10|
|ISBN 10||: 1317357434|
|Pages||: 260 pages|
The pressure of climate change, environmental degradation, and urbanisation, as well as the widening of socio- economic disparities have rendered the global population increasingly vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters. With a primary focus on medical and public health humanitarian response to disasters, Public Health Humanitarian Responses to Natural Disasters provides a timely critical analysis of public health responses to natural disasters. Using a number of case studies and examples of innovative disaster response measures developed by international agencies and stakeholders, this book illustrates how theoretical understanding of public health issues can be practically applied in the context of humanitarian relief response. Starting with an introduction to public health principles within the context of medical and public health disaster and humanitarian response, the book goes on to explore key trends, threats and challenges in contemporary disaster medical response. This book provides a comprehensive overview of an emergent discipline and offers a unique multidisciplinary perspective across a range of relevant topics including the concepts of disaster preparedness and resilience, and key challenges in human health needs for the twenty-first century. This book will be of interest to students of public health, disaster and emergency medicine and development studies, as well as to development and medical practitioners working within NGOs, development agencies, health authorities and public administration.
|Author||: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Post-Disaster Recovery of a Community's Public Health, Medical, and Social Services|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2015-09-10|
|ISBN 10||: 0309316227|
|Pages||: 504 pages|
In the devastation that follows a major disaster, there is a need for multiple sectors to unite and devote new resources to support the rebuilding of infrastructure, the provision of health and social services, the restoration of care delivery systems, and other critical recovery needs. In some cases, billions of dollars from public, private and charitable sources are invested to help communities recover. National rhetoric often characterizes these efforts as a "return to normal." But for many American communities, pre-disaster conditions are far from optimal. Large segments of the U.S. population suffer from preventable health problems, experience inequitable access to services, and rely on overburdened health systems. A return to pre-event conditions in such cases may be short-sighted given the high costs - both economic and social - of poor health. Instead, it is important to understand that the disaster recovery process offers a series of unique and valuable opportunities to improve on the status quo. Capitalizing on these opportunities can advance the long-term health, resilience, and sustainability of communities - thereby better preparing them for future challenges. Healthy, Resilient, and Sustainable Communities After Disasters identifies and recommends recovery practices and novel programs most likely to impact overall community public health and contribute to resiliency for future incidents. This book makes the case that disaster recovery should be guided by a healthy community vision, where health considerations are integrated into all aspects of recovery planning before and after a disaster, and funding streams are leveraged in a coordinated manner and applied to health improvement priorities in order to meet human recovery needs and create healthy built and natural environments. The conceptual framework presented in Healthy, Resilient, and Sustainable Communities After Disasters lays the groundwork to achieve this goal and provides operational guidance for multiple sectors involved in community planning and disaster recovery. Healthy, Resilient, and Sustainable Communities After Disasters calls for actions at multiple levels to facilitate recovery strategies that optimize community health. With a shared healthy community vision, strategic planning that prioritizes health, and coordinated implementation, disaster recovery can result in a communities that are healthier, more livable places for current and future generations to grow and thrive - communities that are better prepared for future adversities.
The combination of growing populations moving into large cities in high risk zones increase the risk of natural disasters with a substantial public health consequence. A high population density and rapid air travel increase the spread and effects of plagues and diseases. People in countries with limited resources are more vulnerable to death and other consequences of disasters. This requires global rather than national preparedness and response strategies. Public health organisations, government and non-government organisations can take a leadership role and provide training, organisation and research knowledge to improve responses to such disasters. This book is the first holistic public health approach in relation to natural disasters. It fills the gap to have a one-stop-shopping synopsis of key ideas associated with mediation of public health natural disasters. It is unique in focusing on 'lessons learned' rather than 'what to do'. Published research relating to general responses by public health agencies to disasters is scientifically evaluated. Various types of disasters are reviewed: flooding, diseases, earthquakes, volcanoes, and drought. Long term needs, prevention and individual preparation are taken into account. The information can be used to prepare and mitigate effects of disasters. The summary points at the start of each chapter will help the reader to use as this book as reference book and for educational purpose.
From the San Diego wildfires to multi-drug-resistant strains of bacteria, communities are facing an ever-growing list of potential disasters. Some events, like pandemic flu or anthrax attacks, are public health emergencies first and foremost. Hurricane Katrina taught us, however, that lack of planning for the frail, elderly, and impoverished population can turn a natural disaster into a healthcare nightmare and lead to needless death and suffering. Emergency managers and public health professionals must integrate their prevention and response efforts to serve their communities most effectively. The structure of each chapter offers an innovative approach to organizing key information: 1. Case Study or Historical Example 2. Disaster-specific Terms Defined 3. Disaster Description 4. Health Threat (Morbidity and Mortality) 5. Prevention 6. Immediate Actions 7. Recovery or Managing the Aftermath 8. Summary Disasters and Public Health is a crucial tool in planning for and responding to the health impact of any crisis situation. Bruce Clements served over 20 years in the U.S. Air Force and Air National Guard as a Public Health Officer and a Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare Defense Instructor, a Hazardous Materials Specialist with an Urban Search and Rescue Team, and as a Safety Officer with a Disaster Medical Assistance Team. He also served as the Public Health Preparedness Director of Missouri in 2006, when the state experienced a record number of disaster declarations. Throughout his years of experience, he frequently needed to track down a variety of references to quickly understand what was needed for an effective public health response in various situations. He has researched and compiled this information on the health impact of a wide range of disasters into one quick reference. Emergency managers can also no longer afford to be surprised by the next crisis that erupts. This book guides planners in both disciplines in preventing tragedies by most effectively preparing and responding when disaster strikes. * Prevent or respond to disasters from terrorism to pandemic flu * Examine the critical intersection of emergency management and public health * Benefit from the author's years of experience in emergency response
Natural and man-made disasters--earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, industrial crises, and many others--have claimed more than 3 million lives during the past 20 years, adversely affected the lives of at least 800 million people, and caused more than 50 billion dollars in property damages. A major disaster occurs almost daily in some part of the world. Increasing population densities in flood plains, along vulnerable coastal areas, and near dangerous faults in the earth's crust, as well as the rapid industrialization of developing economies are factors likely to make the threat posed by natural disasters much bigger in the future. Illustrated with examples from recent research in the field, this book summarizes the most pertinent and useful information about the public health impact of natural and man-made disasters. It is divided into four sections dealing with general concerns, geophysical events, weather-related problems, and human-generated disasters. The author starts with a comprehensive discussion of the concepts and role of surveillance and epidemiology, highlighting general environmental health concerns, such as sanitation, water, shelter, and sewage. The other chapters, based on a variety of experiences and literature drawn from both developing and industrialized countries, cover discrete types of natural and technological hazards, addressing their history, origin, nature, observation, and control. Throughout the book the focus is on the level of epidemiologic knowledge on each aspect of natural and man-made disasters. Exposure-, disease-, and health-event surveillance are stressed because of the importance of objective data to disaster epidemiology. In addition, Noji pays particular attention to prevention and control measures, and provides practical recommendations in areas in which the public health practitioner needs more useful information. He advocates stronger epidemiologic awareness as the basis for better understanding and control of disasters. A comprehensive theoretical and practical treatment of the subject, The Public Health Consequences of Disasters is an invaluable tool for epidemiologists, disaster relief specialists, and physicians who treat disaster victims.
|Author||: Institute of Medicine,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2007-06-13|
|ISBN 10||: 9780309179898|
|Pages||: 100 pages|
Public health officials have the traditional responsibilities of protecting the food supply, safeguarding against communicable disease, and ensuring safe and healthful conditions for the population. Beyond this, public health today is challenged in a way that it has never been before. Starting with the 9/11 terrorist attacks, public health officers have had to spend significant amounts of time addressing the threat of terrorism to human health. Hurricane Katrina was an unprecedented disaster for the United States. During the first weeks, the enormity of the event and the sheer response needs for public health became apparent. The tragic loss of human life overshadowed the ongoing social and economic disruption in a region that was already economically depressed. Hurricane Katrina reemphasized to the public and to policy makers the importance of addressing long-term needs after a disaster. On October 20, 2005, the Institute of Medicine's Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine held a workshop which convened members of the scientific community to highlight the status of the recovery effort, consider the ongoing challenges in the midst of a disaster, and facilitate scientific dialogue about the impacts of Hurricane Katrina on people's health. Environmental Public Health Impacts of Disasters: Hurricane Katrina is the summary of this workshop. This report will inform the public health, first responder, and scientific communities on how the affected community can be helped in both the midterm and the near future. In addition, the report can provide guidance on how to use the information gathered about environmental health during a disaster to prepare for future events.
|Author||: Landesman Consulting Visiting Lecturer School of Public Health University of Massachusetts Amherst Amherst Massachusetts Linda Y Landesman,Linda Y. Landesman,Isaac B. Weisfuse|
|Publisher||: Jones & Bartlett Publishers|
|Release Date||: 2013-08-02|
|ISBN 10||: 1449645208|
|Pages||: 384 pages|
From extreme weather events such as Superstorm Sandy, man-made tragedies like the Madrid train bombings, the threat of bioterrorism, and emerging infections such as the H1N1 pandemic flu, disasters are creating increasingly profound threats to health of populations around the globe. Through a presentation of 16 case studies, the authors examine the broad range of public health scenarios through the lens of emergency preparedness and planning. Designed for students across a wide spectrum of health and safety disciplines, this text uniquely demonstrates the application of public health preparedness competencies established by the Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH). Key Features: -Presents 16 case studies on preparedness, from natural disasters to pandemic infection. -Demonstrates the application of the ASPH Public Health Preparedness competencies. -Makes an ideal complement to any text on disaster preparedness or public health leadership, or can be used as a standalone text. "Case Studies in Public Health Preparedness is written by some of the best emergency preparedness and response professionals in the business; it is a must read for anyone who needs to prepare for or respond to an emergency. Michael Osterholm Ph.D, MPH, Professor and Director, Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, University of Minnesota"
|Author||: Michael Olusegun Afolabi|
|Release Date||: 2018-08-27|
|ISBN 10||: 3319927655|
|Pages||: 233 pages|
This book presents the first critical examination of the overlapping ethical, sociocultural, and policy-related issues surrounding disasters, global bioethics, and public health ethics. These issues are elucidated under the conceptual rubric: Public health disasters (PHDs). The book defines PHDs as public health issues with devastating social consequences, the attendant public health impacts of natural or man-made disasters, and latent or low prevalence public health issues with the potential to rapidly acquire pandemic capacities. This notion is illustrated using Ebola and pandemic influenza outbreaks, atypical drug-resistant tuberculosis, and the health emergencies of earthquakes as focal points. Drawing on an approach that reckons with microbial, existential, and anthropological realities; the book develops a relational-based global ethical framework that can help address the local, anthropological, ecological, and transnational dynamics of the ethical issues engendered by public health disasters. The book also charts some of the critical roles that relevant local and transnational stakeholders may play in translating the proposed global ethical framework from the sphere of concept to the arena of action. This title is of immense benefit to bioethics scholars, public and global health policy experts, as well as graduate students working in the area of global health, public health ethics, and disaster bioethics.
Disaster Epidemiology: Methods and Applications applies the core methods of epidemiological research and practice to the assessment of the short- and long-term health effects of disasters. The persistent movement of people and economic development to regions vulnerable to natural disasters, as well as new vulnerabilities related to environmental, technological, and terrorism incidents, means that in spite of large global efforts to reduce the impacts and costs of disasters, average annual expenditures to fund rebuilding from catastrophic losses is rising faster than either population or the gross world product. Improving the resilience of individuals and communities to these natural and technological disasters, climate change, and other natural and manmade stressors is one of the grand challenges of the 21st century. This book provides a guide to disaster epidemiology methods, supported with applications from practice. It helps researchers, public health practitioners, and governmental policy makers to better quantify the impacts of disaster on the health of individuals and communities to enhance resilience to future disasters. Disaster Epidemiology: Methods and Applications explains how public health surveillance, rapid assessments, and other epidemiologic studies can be conducted in the post-disaster setting to prevent injury, illness, or death; provide accurate and timely information for decisions makers; and improve prevention and mitigation strategies for future disasters. These methods can also be applied to the study of other types of public health emergencies, such as infectious outbreaks, emerging and re-emerging diseases, and refugee health. This book gives both the public health practitioner and researcher the tools they need to conduct epidemiological studies in a disaster setting and can be used as a reference or as part of a course. Provides a holistic perspective to epidemiology with an integration of academic and practical approaches Showcases the use of hands-on techniques and principles to solve real-world problems Includes contributions from both established and emerging scholars in the field of disaster epidemiology