Diffusion MRI remains the most comprehensive reference for understanding this rapidly evolving and powerful technology and is an essential handbook for designing, analyzing, and interpreting diffusion MR experiments. Diffusion imaging provides a unique window on human brain anatomy. This non-invasive technique continues to grow in popularity as a way to study brain pathways that could never before be investigated in vivo. This book covers the fundamental theory of diffusion imaging, discusses its most promising applications to basic and clinical neuroscience, and introduces cutting-edge methodological developments that will shape the field in coming years. Written by leading experts in the field, it places the exciting new results emerging from diffusion imaging in the context of classical anatomical techniques to show where diffusion studies might offer unique insights and where potential limitations lie. Fully revised and updated edition of the first comprehensive reference on a powerful technique in brain imaging Covers all aspects of a diffusion MRI study from acquisition through analysis to interpretation, and from fundamental theory to cutting-edge developments New chapters covering connectomics, advanced diffusion acquisition, artifact removal, and applications to the neonatal brain Provides practical advice on running an experiment Includes discussion of applications in psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and basic neuroscience Full color throughout
|Author||: Julien Valette,Itamar Ronen,Sune Nørhøj Jespersen|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2019-05-16|
|ISBN 10||: 2889458415|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) techniques have opened new doors for examining biological tissues in vivo. By combining sensitization to diffusion using magnetic field gradients with a variety of imaging and localization schemes, diffusion-weighted MRI and diffusion-weighted MRS allow investigating translational diffusion of endogenous molecules, such as water or metabolites, in biological tissues, most commonly the brain but also other organs such as the prostate. The typical voxel resolution of MRI or MRS is in the millimeter to centimeter range, much lower than the cellular scale. However, as molecules are typically diffusing over just a few µm during the duration of the measurement (the “diffusion time”) and encounter numerous biological membranes at these scales, the average cellular microstructure has a critical influence on the measured diffusion signal. Hence, diffusion-weighted MRI and diffusion-weighted MRS are sensitive to tissue microstructure at a scale well below the nominal imaging resolution. However, the connection between diffusion properties and tissue microstructure remains indirect, so any attempt to quantify microstructure will rely on modeling. The goal of this Research Topic was to gather experts in various acquisition and modeling strategies and show how these approaches, despite their own strengths and weaknesses, can yield unique information about cellular microstructure, and sometimes complement each other.
Microstructure with Magnetic Resonance: Problems and Solutions responds to the challenge of how to see the invisible with magnetic resonance imaging. Technically, the goal is to quantify cellular-level properties of biological tissues and microarchitecture of porous media orders of magnitude below the achievable resolution of MR. While the interest in this area has grown exponentially, current research involves physics outside the scope of standard NMR and MRI textbooks. Microstructure with Magnetic Resonance: Problems and Solutions introduces readers to methods of describing complex media in statistical terms, and covers the effects of complex microenvironments on the MR signal phase, on the transverse relaxation, and on different facets of the diffusion-weighted signal. The book presents the material as a set of problems with detailed solutions, that build on each other, stimulating a hands-on approach to learning. Each chapter begins with a short introduction to the topic, followed by problems, solutions, and a summary of key points. The problems start from the basics, and bring the reader step-by-step to the frontier of current knowledge. The overall focus is on gaining physical insight, by drawing on simple physical analogies and dimensional analysis, which help to reproduce the essence of the results obtained in classical and recent studies. The necessary mathematics is collected in dedicated appendices. With this book the reader will: . Understand the classic and current literature on microstructure mapping with NMR and MRI; . Become familiar with the modern trends in microstructure MR; . Be able to design new experiments using MR based on a solid theoretical foundation. . Explains physics necessary to understand how the microscopic structure of biological tissues and porous media manifests itself in different magnetic resonance contrasts (phase, relaxation, diffusion). . Uses a unique problem/solution structure to provide for efficient learning from the basics to the frontiers of knowledge. . Tested through numerous teaching courses for trainees.
The concepts behind diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are commonly difficult to grasp, even for magnetic resonance physicists. To make matters worse, a many more complex higher-order methods have been proposed over the last few years to overcome the now well-known deficiencies of DTI. In Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging: And Higher Order Models, these concepts are explained through extensive use of illustrations rather than equations to help readers gain a more intuitive understanding of the inner workings of these techniques. Emphasis is placed on the interpretation of DTI images and tractography results, the design of experiments, and the types of application studies that can be undertaken. Diffusion MRI is a very active field of research, and theories and techniques are constantly evolving. To make sense of this constantly shifting landscape, there is a need for a textbook that explains the concepts behind how these techniques work in a way that is easy and intuitive to understand—Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging fills this gap. Extensive use of illustrations to explain the concepts of diffusion tensor imaging and related methods Easy to understand, even without a background in physics Includes sections on image interpretation, experimental design, and applications Up-to-date information on more recent higher-order models, which are increasingly being used for clinical applications
The medical MRI community is by far the largest user of diffusion NMR techniques and this book captures the current surge of methods and provides a primary source to aid adoption in this field. There is a trend to adapting the more advanced diffusion encoding sequences developed by NMR researchers within the fields of porous media, chemical engineering, and colloid science to medical research. Recently published papers indicate great potential for improved diagnosis of the numerous pathological conditions associated with changes of tissue microstructure that are invisible to conventional diffusion MRI. This book disseminates these recent developments to the wider community of MRI researchers and clinicians. The chapters cover the theoretical basis, hardware and pulse sequences, data analysis and validation, and recent applications aimed at promoting further growth in the field. This is a fast moving field and chapters are written by key MRI scientists that have contributed to the successful translation of the advanced diffusion NMR methods to the context of medical MRI, from global locations.
|Author||: Santiago Coelho|
|Release Date||: 2019|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
|Author||: Albert Einstein|
|Publisher||: Courier Corporation|
|Release Date||: 1956-01-01|
|ISBN 10||: 9780486603049|
|Pages||: 119 pages|
Five early papers evolve theory that won Einstein a Nobel Prize: "Movement of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid Demanded by the Molecular-Kinetic Theory of Heat"; "On the Theory of the Brownian Movement"; "A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions"; "Theoretical Observations on the Brownian Motion"; and "Elementary Theory of the Brownian Motion."
Professor Derek Jones, a world authority on diffusion MRI, has assembled most of the world's leading scientists and clinicians developing and applying diffusion MRI to produce an authorship list that reads like a "Who's Who" of the field and an essential resource for those working with diffusion MRI. Destined to be a modern classic, this definitive and richly illustrated work covers all aspects of diffusion MRI from basic theory to clinical application. Oxford Clinical Neuroscience is a comprehensive, cross-searchable collection of resources offering quick and easy access to eleven of Oxford University Press's prestigious neuroscience texts. Joining Oxford Medicine Online these resources offer students, specialists and clinical researchers the best quality content in an easy-to-access format.
This comprehensive book explains the importance of imaging techniques in exploring and understanding the role of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. The findings obtained using individual imaging modalities and their biological interpretation are reviewed in detail, and updates are provided on methodology, testable hypotheses, limitations, and new directions for research. The coverage also includes important recent applications of neuroimaging to schizophrenia, for example in relation to non-pharmacological interventions, brain development, genetics, and prediction of treatment response and outcome. Written by world renowned experts in the field, the book will be invaluable to all who wish to learn about the newest and most important developments in neuroimaging research in schizophrenia, how these developments relate to the last 30 years of research, and how they can be leveraged to bring us closer to a cure for this devastating disorder. Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia will assist clinicians in navigating what is an extremely complex field and will be a source of insight and stimulation for researchers.
|Author||: Paul T. Callaghan|
|Publisher||: Oxford University Press on Demand|
|Release Date||: 1993|
|ISBN 10||: 9780198539971|
|Pages||: 492 pages|
This highly successful book, details the underlying principles behind the use of magnetic field gradients to image molecular distribution and molecular motion, providing many examples by way of illustration. Following excellent reviews of the hardback edition the book is now available in paperback.
This volume offers a valuable starting point for anyone interested in learning computational diffusion MRI and mathematical methods for brain connectivity, while also sharing new perspectives and insights on the latest research challenges for those currently working in the field. Over the last decade, interest in diffusion MRI has virtually exploded. The technique provides unique insights into the microstructure of living tissue and enables in-vivo connectivity mapping of the brain. Computational techniques are key to the continued success and development of diffusion MRI and to its widespread transfer into the clinic, while new processing methods are essential to addressing issues at each stage of the diffusion MRI pipeline: acquisition, reconstruction, modeling and model fitting, image processing, fiber tracking, connectivity mapping, visualization, group studies and inference. These papers from the 2016 MICCAI Workshop “Computational Diffusion MRI” – which was intended to provide a snapshot of the latest developments within the highly active and growing field of diffusion MR – cover a wide range of topics, from fundamental theoretical work on mathematical modeling, to the development and evaluation of robust algorithms and applications in neuroscientific studies and clinical practice. The contributions include rigorous mathematical derivations, a wealth of rich, full-color visualizations, and biologically or clinically relevant results. As such, they will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in the fields of computer science, MR physics, and applied mathematics.
|Author||: Lenka Lhotska,Lucie Sukupova,Igor Lacković,Geoffrey S. Ibbott|
|Release Date||: 2018-07-25|
|ISBN 10||: 9811090351|
|Pages||: 894 pages|
This book (vol. 1) presents the proceedings of the IUPESM World Congress on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, a triennially organized joint meeting of medical physicists, biomedical engineers and adjoining health care professionals. Besides the purely scientific and technological topics, the 2018 Congress will also focus on other aspects of professional involvement in health care, such as education and training, accreditation and certification, health technology assessment and patient safety. The IUPESM meeting is an important forum for medical physicists and biomedical engineers in medicine and healthcare learn and share knowledge, and discuss the latest research outcomes and technological advancements as well as new ideas in both medical physics and biomedical engineering field.