During the last 60 years the discipline of human factors (HF) has evolved alongside progress in engineering, technology, and business. Contemporary HF is clearly shifting towards addressing the human-centered design paradigm for much larger and complex societal systems, the effectiveness of which is affected by recent advances in engineering, science, and education. Human Factors of a Global Society: A System of Systems Perspective explores the future challenges and potential contributions of the human factors discipline in the Conceptual Age of human creativity and social responsibility. Written by a team of experts and pioneers, this book examines the human aspects related to contemporary societal developments in science, engineering, and higher education in the context of unprecedented progress in those areas. It also discusses new paradigms for higher education, including education delivery, and administration from a systems of systems perspective. It then examines the future challenges and potential contributions of the human factors discipline. While there are other books that focus on systems engineering or on a specific area of human factors, this book unifies these different perspectives into a holistic point of view. It gives you an understanding of human factors as it relates to the global enterprise system and its newly emerging characteristics such as quality, system complexity, evolving management system and its role in social and behavioral changes. By exploring the human aspects related to actual societal developments in science, the book opens a new horizon for the HF community.
This handbook is a valuable resource to anyone involved with improvement of people's lives by replacing, restoring, supplementing and improving motor action, and understanding the neural bases of such functions. While there are several other resources available, there is no handbook such as this one. This handbook addresses the recent and rapid changes in the field of braincomputer interfaces (BCIs). Due to these changes interest in BCI has grown enormously, including interest from computer science researchers with a background in computational intelligence, human-computer interaction, and researchers in entertainment technology.
With contributions from a collection of authors consisting of many recognizable experts in the field of virtual and adaptive environments, as well as many up and coming young researchers, this book illustrates the many ways in which psychological science contributes to and benefits from the increased development and application of these nascent sys
|Author||: Klaus Gramann,Stephen H. Fairclough,Thorsten O. Zander,Hasan Ayaz|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2017-07-04|
|ISBN 10||: 2889452034|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
This Research Topic is dedicated to Raja Parasuraman who unexpectedly passed on March 22nd 2015. Raja Parasuraman’s pioneering work led the emergence of Neuroergonomics as a new scientific field. He combined his research interests in the field of Neuroergonomics which he defined as the study of the human brain in relation to performance at work and everyday settings. Raja Parasuraman was a pioneer, a truly exceptional researcher and an extraordinary person. He made significant contributions to a number of disciplines, from human factors to cognitive neuroscience. His advice to young researchers was to be passionate in order to develop theory and knowledge that can guide the design of technologies and environments for people. His legacy, the field of Neuroergonomics, will live on in countless faculties and students whom he advised and inspired with unmatched humility throughout the whole of his distinguished career. Raja Parasuraman was an impressive human being, a very kind person, and an absolutely inspiring individual who will be remembered by everyone who had the chance to meet him. About this Research Topic Since the advent of neuroergonomics, significant progress has been made with respect to methodology and tools for the investigation of the brain and behavior at work. This is especially the case for neuroscientific methods where the availability of ambulatory hardware, wearable sensors and advanced data analyses allow for imaging of brain dynamics in humans in applied environments. Methods such as: electroencephalography (EEG), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and stimulation approaches like transcranial direct-currrent stimulation (tDCS) have made significant progress in both recording and altering brain activity while allowing full body movements outside laboratory environments. For neuroergonomics, the application of brain imaging in real-world scenarios is highly relevant. Traditionally, brain imaging experiments in human factors research tend to avoid active behavior for fear of artifacts and a contaminated data set that would provide limited insight into brain dynamics in real working environments. To overcome these problems new analyses approaches have to be developed that identify artifacts resulting from hostile recording environments and movement-related non-brain activity stemming from eye-, head, and full-body movements. The application of methodology from the field of Brain-Computer Interfacing (BCI) for neuroergonomics is one approach that has significant potential to enhance ambulatory monitoring and applied testing. Passive BCIs allow for assessing aspects of the user state online, such that systems can automatically adapt to their user. This neuroadaptive technology could lead to highly efficient working environments, to auto-adaptive experimental paradigms and to a continuous tracking of cognitive and affective aspects of the user state. Hence, deployment of portable neuroimaging technologies to real time settings could help assess cognitive and motivational states of personnel assigned to perform critical tasks. This Research Topic gathers submissions that cover new approaches in neuroergonomics. Different article type cover advanced neuroscience methods and neuroergonomics techniques as well as analysis approaches to investigate brain dynamics in working environments. The selection of papers provides insights into new neuroergonomic research approaches that demonstrate significant advances in brain imaging technologies that become more and more mobile, Moreover, a strong trend for new analyses approaches and paradigms investigating real work settings can be seen. Together, this unique collection of latest research papers provides a comprehensive overview on the latest developments in neuroergonomics.
Neuroergonomics: The Brain at Work and in Everyday Life details the methodologies that are useful for keeping an ideal human-machine system up-to-date, along with information on how to prevent potential overload and minimize errors. It discusses neural measures and the proper methods and technologies to maximize performance, thus providing a resource for neuroscientists who want to learn more about the technologies and real-time tools that can help them assess cognitive and motivational states of human operators and close the loop for advanced human-machine interaction. With the advent of new and improved tools that allow monitoring of brain activity in the field and better identification of neurophysiological markers that can index impending overload or fatigue, this book is a timely resource on the topic. Includes neurobiological models to better understand risky decision-making and cognitive countermeasures, augmented cognition, and brain stimulations to enhance performance and mitigate human error Features innovative methodologies and protocols using psychophysiological measurements and brain imaging techniques in realistic operational settings Discusses numerous topics, including cognitive performance in psychological and neurological disorders, brain computer interfaces (BCI), and human performance monitoring in ecological conditions, virtual reality, and serious gaming
Behavioral Neuroscientists study the behavior of animals and humans and the neurobiological and physiological processes that control it. Behavior is the ultimate function of the nervous system, and the study of it is very multidisciplinary. Disorders of behavior in humans touch millions of people’s lives significantly, and it is of paramount importance to understand pathological conditions such as addictions, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism among others, in order to be able to develop new treatment possibilities. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience is the first and only multi-volume reference to comprehensively cover the foundation knowledge in the field. This three volume work is edited by world renowned behavioral neuroscientists George F. Koob, The Scripps Research Institute, Michel Le Moal, Université Bordeaux, and Richard F. Thompson, University of Southern California and written by a premier selection of the leading scientists in their respective fields. Each section is edited by a specialist in the relevant area. The important research in all areas of Behavioral Neuroscience is covered in a total of 210 chapters on topics ranging from neuroethology and learning and memory, to behavioral disorders and psychiatric diseases. The only comprehensive Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience on the market Addresses all recent advances in the field Written and edited by an international group of leading researchers, truly representative of the behavioral neuroscience community Includes many entries on the advances in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of complex behavioral, psychiatric, and neurological disorders Richly illustrated in full color Extensively cross referenced to serve as the go-to reference for students and researchers alike The online version features full searching, navigation, and linking functionality An essential resource for libraries serving neuroscientists, psychologists, neuropharmacologists, and psychiatrists
A recognizable surge in the field of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) research and development has emerged in the past two decades. This book is intended to provide an introduction to and summary of essentially all major aspects of BCI research and development. Its goal is to be a comprehensive, balanced, and coordinated presentation of the field's key principles, current practice, and future prospects.
Covers only the management sector of the executive branch.
Neurobiology of Addiction is conceived as a current survey and synthesis of the most important findings in our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction over the past 50 years. The book includes a scholarly introduction, thorough descriptions of animal models of addiction, and separate chapters on the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction for psychostimulants, opioids, alcohol, nicotine and cannabinoids. Key information is provided about the history, sources, and pharmacokinetics and psychopathology of addiction of each drug class, as well as the behavioral and neurobiological mechanism of action for each drug class at the molecular, cellular and neurocircuitry level of analysis. A chapter on neuroimaging and drug addiction provides a synthesis of exciting new data from neuroimaging in human addicts — a unique perspective unavailable from animal studies. The final chapters explore theories of addiction at the neurobiological and neuroadaptational level both from a historical and integrative perspective. The book incorporates diverse finding with an emphasis on integration and synthesis rather than discrepancies or differences in the literature. · Presents a unique perspective on addiction that emphasizes molecular, cellular and neurocircuitry changes in the transition to addiction · Synthesizes diverse findings on the neurobiology of addiction to provide a heuristic framework for future work · Features extensive documentation through numerous original figures and tables that that will be useful for understanding and teaching
|Author||: Anton Nijholt,Dennis Reidsma,Hendri Hondorp|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2009-05-27|
|ISBN 10||: 3642023150|
|Pages||: 268 pages|
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment (INTETAIN 09). The papers focus on topics such as emergent games, exertion interfaces and embodied interaction. Further topics are affective user interfaces, story telling, sensors, tele-presence in entertainment, animation, edutainment, and interactive art.
|Author||: National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee for Capitalizing on Science, Technology, and Innovation: An Assessment of the Small Business Innovation Research Program|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2009-03-02|
|ISBN 10||: 9780309177641|
|Pages||: 456 pages|
The SBIR program allocates 2.5 percent of 11 federal agencies' extramural R&D budgets to fund R&D projects by small businesses, providing approximately $2 billion annually in competitive awards. At the request of Congress the National Academies conducted a comprehensive study of how the SBIR program has stimulated technological innovation and used small businesses to meet federal research and development needs. Drawing substantially on new data collection, this book examines the SBIR program at the National Institutes of Health and makes recommendations for improvements. Separate reports will assess the SBIR program at DOD, NSF, DOE, and NASA, respectively, along with a comprehensive report on the entire program.
Neuroscience of Nicotine: Mechanisms and Treatment presents the fundamental information necessary for a thorough understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of nicotine addiction and its effects on the brain. Offering thorough coverage of all aspects of nicotine research, treatment, policy and prevention, and containing contributions from internationally recognized experts, the book provides students, early-career researchers, and investigators at all levels with a fundamental introduction to all aspects of nicotine misuse. With an estimated one billion individuals worldwide classified as tobacco users—and tobacco use often being synonymous with nicotine addiction—nicotine is one of the world’s most common addictive substances, and a frequent comorbidity of misuse of other common addictive substances. Nicotine alters a variety of neurological processes, from molecular biology, to cognition, and quitting is exceedingly difficult because of the number of withdrawal symptoms that accompany the process. Integrates cutting-edge research on the pharmacological, cellular and molecular aspects of nicotine use, along with its effects on neurobiological function Discusses nicotine use as a component of dual-use and poly addictions and outlines numerous screening and treatment strategies for misuse Covers both the physical and psychological effects of nicotine use and withdrawal to provide a fully-formed view of nicotine dependency and its effects
Neuroergonomics can be defined as the study of brain and behavior at work. It combines two disciplines--neuroscience, the study of brain function, and human factors, the study of how to match technology with the capabilities and limitations of people so they can work effectively and safely. The goal of merging these two fields is to use the startling discoveries of human brain and physiological functioning both to inform the design of technologies in the workplace and home, and to provide new training methods that enhance performance, expand capabilities, and opitimize the fit between people and technology. Research in the area of neuroergonomics has blossomed in recent years with the emergence of noninvasive techniques for monitoring human brain function that cna be used to study various aspects of human behavior in relation to technology and work, including mental workload, visual attention, working memory, motor control, human-automation interaction, and adaptive automation. This volume will provide the first systematic overview of this emerging area, describing the theoretical background, basic research, major methods, as well as the new and future areas of application. This collection will benefit a number of readers: the experienced researcher investigating related questions in human factors and cognitive neuroscience, the student wishing to get a rapid but systematic overview of the field, and the designer interested in novel approaches and new ideas for application. Researchers in human factors and ergonomics, neuroscience, cognitive psychology, medicine, industrial engineering, and computer science will find this volume most helpful.
|Author||: John R. Anderson Richard King Mellon Professor of Psychology and Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University|
|Publisher||: Oxford University Press, USA|
|Release Date||: 2007-07-18|
|ISBN 10||: 0198043538|
|Pages||: 304 pages|
"The question for me is how can the human mind occur in the physical universe. We now know that the world is governed by physics. We now understand the way biology nestles comfortably within that. The issue is how will the mind do that as well."--Allen Newell, December 4, 1991, Carnegie Mellon University The argument John Anderson gives in this book was inspired by the passage above, from the last lecture by one of the pioneers of cognitive science. Newell describes what, for him, is the pivotal question of scientific inquiry, and Anderson gives an answer that is emerging from the study of brain and behavior. Humans share the same basic cognitive architecture with all primates, but they have evolved abilities to exercise abstract control over cognition and process more complex relational patterns. The human cognitive architecture consists of a set of largely independent modules associated with different brain regions. In this book, Anderson discusses in detail how these various modules can combine to produce behaviors as varied as driving a car and solving an algebraic equation, but focuses principally on two of the modules: the declarative and procedural. The declarative module involves a memory system that, moment by moment, attempts to give each person the most appropriate possible window into his or her past. The procedural module involves a central system that strives to develop a set of productions that will enable the most adaptive response from any state of the modules. Newell argued that the answer to his question must take the form of a cognitive architecture, and Anderson organizes his answer around the ACT-R architecture, but broadens it by bringing in research from all areas of cognitive science, including how recent work in brain imaging maps onto the cognitive architecture.
|Author||: Kamruzzaman, Joarder,Begg, Rezaul,Sarker, Ruhul|
|Publisher||: IGI Global|
|Release Date||: 2006-03-31|
|ISBN 10||: 1591406722|
|Pages||: 299 pages|
"This book presents a variety of practical applications of neural networks in two important domains of economic activity: finance and manufacturing"--Provided by publisher.
Biological Research on Addiction examines the neurobiological mechanisms of drug use and drug addiction, describing how the brain responds to addictive substances as well as how it is affected by drugs of abuse. The book's four main sections examine behavioral and molecular biology; neuroscience; genetics; and neuroimaging and neuropharmacology as they relate to the addictive process. This volume is especially effective in presenting current knowledge on the key neurobiological and genetic elements in an individual’s susceptibility to drug dependence, as well as the processes by which some individuals proceed from casual drug use to drug dependence. Biological Research on Addiction is one of three volumes comprising the 2,500-page series, Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders. This series provides the most complete collection of current knowledge on addictive behaviors and disorders to date. In short, it is the definitive reference work on addictions. Each article provides glossary, full references, suggested readings, and a list of web resources Edited and authored by the leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available Discusses the genetic basis of addiction Covers basic science research from a variety of animal studies
This book provides comprehensive and up-to-date insights into emerging research trends on neuroplasticity with current or future treatments for neurodevelopment and neurodegenerative diseases. The authors discuss structural and functional changes associated with cortical remapping, sensory substitution, synaptic and non-synaptic compensatory plasticity due to brain damage, brain training, chronic pain, meditation, music, exercise and related states. Key features include pathogenesis, and existing and new therapies together with a pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach in clinical treatment and management. The authors are established experts that contributed significantly to a better understanding of the etiology of neuroplasticity. This book is recommended to healthcare providers, clinical scientists, students and patients.